Portable consumer device configured to generate dynamic authentication data
Embodiments of the invention provide a portable consumer device configured to store dynamic authentication data in memory. The portable consumer device also includes an interface for transmitting data to and receiving power from an external device. The dynamic authentication data is read from the memory by a read-write device located on the portable consumer device. The authentication data is updated and the updated data may be written into memory using the read-write device. In some embodiments, an authentication value read from the memory may be used to generate another authentication value based on an algorithm. The portable consumer device is further configured to transmit authentication data to an external device. The process of reading, updating, generating, transmitting, and rewriting the authentication data may occur each time external power is provided to the portable consumer device via the interface. The power for operating the components of the portable consumer device may be drawn exclusively from the power received from the external device (i.e., the external power). In some embodiments, a portion of the external power may be temporarily stored on an energy storage means of the portable consumer device.
Method of managing alerts issued by intrusion detection sensors of an information security system
A method of managing alerts issued by intrusion detection sensors (11a, 11b, 11c) of an information security system (1) including an alert management system (13), each alert being defined by an alert identifier and an alert content. Each of the alerts issued by the intrusion detection sensors (11a, 11b, 11c) is associated with a description including a conjunction of valued attributes belonging to attribute domains. The valued attributes belonging to each attribute domain are organized into a taxonomic structure defining generalization relationships between said valued attributes, the plurality of attribute domains thus forming a plurality of taxonomic structures. The description of each of said alerts is completed with sets of values induced by the taxonomic structures on the basis of the valued attributes of said alerts to form complete alerts. The complete alerts are stored in a logic file system (21) to enable them to be consulted.
Automated evidence gathering
Evidence gathering and analysis from networked machines can be automated and made policy-based. In one embodiment, the present invention includes, a networked machine receiving an instruction from a server to execute a pre-recorded action sequence designed to capture evidence data. The machine can annotate the captured evidence data with meta-data, and send the annotated evidence data to the server. The server can then perform analysis on the collected evidence data and present the evidence data and the analysis to an administrator.
System and method for securely controlling access to device functions
Systems and methods that may securely control access to device functions are disclosed. A request is received to enable a feature of the device. In one embodiment, the device may be a set top box, for example. The device determines whether the feature is disabled, whether the feature can be enabled with authorization and whether a requester is authorized to enable the feature of the device. If the feature is disabled, if the feature can be enabled with authorization and if the requester is authorized to enable the feature of the device, then the feature of the device is enabled.
Visualization of firewall rules in an auto provisioning environment
Various aspects of the invention provide a method, apparatus, and software for selecting interconnectivity rules for a computer network environment and visualization on a display of a data processing system interconnectivity rules in an auto provisioning environment, including: selecting a network environment specification having characteristics describing the environment, the characteristics including: number of network security tiers, firewalls, and other network constraints; displaying a graphical representation of the selected network environment, including security tiers, and proposed firewalls, to a user on the display; selecting network objects for the selected network environment, the network objects being selected from a group of objects including: operating systems and other software applications having predefined or configurable characteristics including interconnectivity rules, and firewall rules; populating the displayed network environment with the selected objects; determining network interconnectivity requirements in the selected network environment for the selected objects from their characteristics; and displaying graphical visualizations of the selected objects and graphical visualizations of the network interconnectivity requirements of the objects in appropriate regions of the displayed network environment.
Enabling terminal services through a firewall
Systems and methods are described that provide terminal services through a firewall. In one implementation, data is wrapped with an RPC-based protocol, wherein the data to be wrapped is configured according to a stream-based protocol consistent with establishing a server/client relationship. The RPC-based protocol is then layered over HTTPS. The wrapped data is then passed through the firewall.
Detecting and preventing replay in authentication systems
A system for detecting and preventing replay attacks includes a plurality of interconnected authentication servers, and one or more tokens for generating a one-time passcode and providing the one-time passcode to one of the authentication servers for authentication. The system includes an adjudicator function associated with each authentication server. The adjudicator evaluates a high water mark value associated with a token seeking authentication, allows authentication to proceed for the token if the high water mark evaluation indicates that the one-time passcode was not used in a previous authentication, and prevents authentication if the high water mark evaluation indicates that the one-time passcode was used in a previous authentication. The token is associated with a home authentication server that maintains a current high water mark of the token. The home authentication server validates the current high water mark on behalf of the adjudicator function evaluating the token for authentication.
Security device, terminal device, gate device, and device
There are provided a secure device, a gate device, and a device providing a secure device such as an IC card capable of limiting an area where the card application function and the device function are realized. The secure device (20) includes: an authentication application (24) for performing authentication of a gate device (40); a terminal application/setting instruction (26) and a terminal application (27) installed in a mobile telephone (10) as a terminal; and a CPU (23) as control means for installing the terminal application specified by the gate device (40) in the mobile telephone (10) when authentication application (24) has successfully authenticated the gate device (40). The secure device (20) is held over the gate device (40) and only in the area where normally passed, the terminal application/setting instruction (26) and the terminal application (27) are installed in the mobile telephone (10). Since the gate application (43) of the gate device (40) specifies an application which functions in a particular area, a user need not perform registration operation. Moreover, there is no need of mounting a GPS receiver or the like onto the terminal.
Auditing compliance with a hippocratic database
An auditing framework for determining whether a database disclosure of information adhered to its data disclosure policies. Users formulate audit expressions to specify the (sensitive) data subject to disclosure review. An audit component accepts audit expressions and returns all queries (deemed “suspicious”) that accessed the specified data during their execution.
Communication device, communication system and communication method
Communication devices, communication systems and communication methods are disclosed, which are capable of easily changing the settings of a client and lightening the workload of a user. Even if the settings of a client device do not correspond to the settings of an access point, by changing the settings of the access point, setting information is sent to the client device to automatically change the settings of the client device to settings corresponding to the settings of the access point after change.
System, method, and computer readable medium for processing a message in a transport
A method, system, and computer readable medium for processing a message in a moving transport comprises receiving a message by a message gateway via a message receiver, receiving the message by a security module from the message gateway, validating the message by the security module, where the validating includes at least one of: determining an identity of a sender of the message, and determining that the message sender is allowed to send messages to the transport, receiving the message by a verification module from the security module, and verifying, by the verification module, that the message will be sent to a target module.
Apparatus for adopting authorizations
A method and apparatus for implementing a new Permission for methods that perform callback operations are provided. The method and apparatus provide an AdoptPermission Permission type that allows a method to pass a Java 2 authorization test without having the specific required Permissions expressly granted to the method and without the method having the AllPermission Permission granted to it. With the apparatus and method, an AdoptPermission Permission type is defined that operates to allow a ProtectionDomain to “adopt” a required Permission. However, this adoption of a required Permission can only be performed if the ProtectionDomain of at least one method in the thread stack has been granted a Permission that implies the required Permission. Thus, the AdoptPermission Permission type provides an intermediate mechanism that is not as over-inclusive as the AllPermission Permission type and is not as under-inclusive as requiring that all methods in the thread stack include the required Permission expressly granted to them.
Application server object-level security for distributed computing domains
Objects on application servers are distributed to one or more application servers; a user is allowed to declare in a list which objects residing on each application server are to be protected; the list is read by an interceptor; responsive to exportation of a Common Object Request Broker Architecture (“CORBA”) compliant Interoperable Object Reference (“IOR”) for a listed object, the interceptor associates one or more application server security flags with interfaces to the listed objects by tagging components of the IOR with one or more security flags; and one or more security operations are performed by an application server according to the security flags tagged to the IOR when a client accesses an application server-stored object, the security operations including an operation besides establishing secure communications between the client process and the server-stored object.
Control system with global control stream for controlling a plurality of decoders
Control system with global control stream for controlling a plurality of decoders. The control system simultaneously controls a plurality of decoders at a remote location by using a global control data stream. A global control stream is a collection of data used for global applications. There are currently three global data streams—disaster recovery, live event control, and storage control. The streams may exist on a shared or independent PID. A control server forms a transport stream and the global control stream is injected into the transport stream by the control server.
Method and apparatus of power management for moving image-streaming content
Provided is a receiving apparatus for receiving streaming contents which is capable of receiving contents at a higher speed. The receiving apparatus receives and accumulates the streaming contents periodically during a power off state or while other contents are being audiovisually enjoyed.
Information management system and method, center processing apparatus and method, program and recording medium used therewith, and information processing apparatus and method, and program and recording medium used therewith
An information processing apparatus, including a user-information analyzing unit which analyzes user information and calculates a variation in parameter. A procedure selecting unit classifies, based on the calculated amount, the user into a predetermined group, and acquires, from a procedure database, a procedure corresponding to the group of the user. A basic part producing unit records, in a product's ROM, various set values. Based on the result of analysis by the user-information analyzing unit, a unique part producing unit records an initial parameter value in the product's ROM. A system controller controls a storage unit to store a characteristic amount extracted by an image-characteristic-amount extracting unit and setting conditions on the image processing which are supplied from a remote control signal receiving circuit so that both are associated to each other. The present invention may apply to television receivers.
System and method for evaluating the operational status of a STB in a cable network
An STB analysis system comprises an STB checker client and an STB analysis server. The STB checker client comprises an STB query interface to communicate with the STB analysis server to acquire information indicative of the operational status of an STB and to display the information graphically. A user requests data relating to a particular STB by entering the MAC address of an STB into a query field. The STB checker client interacts with an STB analysis server to acquire information relating to the subscriber associated with the STB MAC address, the services authorized for the STB, and data indicative of the status and performance of the STB. In addition, the STB analysis server interacts with the STB operating system to retrieve diagnostic data from the STB logs. The STB checker client further is adapted to permit remotely resetting the STB regardless of its current status.
Inter-application control to improve the performance of playback of stored interactive-TV applications
A method and apparatus for improving the performance of the running of a stored interactive application on a de-coding apparatus is disclosed. The recorded program which is associated with the stored interactive application is run, wherein the program and interactive application are stored in a storage device. The running of the stored interactive application is controlled using a second application.
Robust mode staggercasting fast channel change
A method and apparatus for staggercasting a plurality of content representative signals includes encoding a first and a corresponding second signal representing each of the plurality of content representative signals. A composite signal is generated comprising the plurality of first and second encoded signals. In the composite signal, each respective second encoded signal is delayed with respect to the corresponding first encoded signal. The first and second encoded signal representing a selected one of the content representative signals is extracted to reproduce the selected content representative signal. The extracted first encoded signal is decoded if an error is detected in the extracted second encoded signal, otherwise the extracted second encoded signal is decoded. When a different content representative signal is newly selected, the first extracted encoded signal is decoded until the delayed second extracted encoded signal is available.
Method and system for interactive multimedia
A high capacity interactive multimedia system is provided that can deliver large number of concurrent video on demand and high speed data streams in an integrated fashion to a plurality of subscribers located at one or more subscriber sites. A video server module in the system generates a plurality of video on demand streams, which are transported via a high capacity transport system to a plurality of clients located at a subscriber site. A web server in the system stores data, such as web pages, which are also transported via the high capacity transport system to the clients. By accessing the web pages, a plurality of subscribers interact with the system via the clients. The interactive multimedia system controls and monitors in a centralized fashion the hardware and software components of the system, thus assuring the quality of the video and data services provided to the subscribers.
Digital broadcast receiving apparatus and method of displaying video data in electronic program guide with data length depending on TV program duration
A digital broadcast receiving apparatus has a receiver to receive electronic program guide (EPG) data containing video data and character data associated with TV programs and a display controller to process the EPG data to display an EPG with at least the character data on a screen, displaying of the video data being depending on duration of each TV program. The display controller controls displaying such that only the character data is displayed for TV programs having duration shorter than a predetermined time whereas both of the character data and the video data are displayed for TV programs having duration equal to or longer than the predetermined time by adjusting a size of the video data in a direction of height or width in the EPG as an integer multiple of a size of the character data.
Signal processing apparatus and methods
A unified system of programming communication. The system encompasses the prior art (television, radio, broadcast hardcopy, computer communications, etc.) and new user specific mass media. Within the unified system, parallel processing computer systems, each having an input (e.g., 77) controlling a plurality of computers (e.g., 205), generate and output user information at receiver stations. Under broadcast control, local computers (73, 205), combine user information selectively into prior art communications to exhibit personalized mass media programming at video monitors (202), speakers (263), printers (221), etc. At intermediate transmission stations (e.g., cable television stations), signals in network broadcasts and from local inputs (74, 77, 97, 98) cause control processors (71) and computers (73) to selectively automate connection and operation of receivers (53), recorder/players (76), computers (73), generators (82), strippers (81), etc. At receiver stations, signals in received transmissions and from local inputs (225, 218, 22) cause control processors (200) and computers (205) to automate connection and operation of converters (201), tuners (215), decryptors (224), recorder/players (217), computers (205), furnaces (206), etc. Processors (71, 200) meter and monitor availability and usage of programming.
An optical pickup that can incline an objective lens in the same direction as that of a bend of an optical disc is provided.The optical pickup includes a lens holder that holds an objective lens, focusing coils attached to the lens holder, a yoke to which magnets are attached, and inner yokes disposed opposite to the magnets via the focusing coils, and the optical pickup is structured so that a cross-sectional area of the inner yoke disposed toward the outer periphery of the optical disc is greater than a cross-sectional area of the inner yoke disposed on the inner periphery of the optical disc.
Compact disc picker
A picker for compact discs is provided on a picker head and includes a finger which pivots relative to the picker head and will move from a retracted position within a guide that enters the opening in a compact disc to an outward extended position. When the finger is pivoted outwardly, a lug on the finger will engage the edge surface of the opening in the compact disc and urge the disc so the opposite side edge of the opening is urged against portions of the guide to securely grip and hold the disc and permit picking one disc at a time. A sensor is utilized for sensing the position of the disc relative to the guide and to provide a signal to an actuator that operates to cause the finger to move to its outwardly extended position.
Apparatus, system, and method for supporting service components written in non-native runtime code in a service component architecture
An apparatus, system, and method are disclosed for supporting service components written in non-native runtime code in a Service Component Architecture (“SCA”). A read module is included to read an implementation type definition having metadata identifying executable code that executes a new implementation type. A receive module is included to detect a dynamic service call to a service component having the new implementation type. The dynamic service call is defined in an SCA message from a calling SCA component. A passing module is included to pass the dynamic service call to a predefined SCA implementation handler associated with the new implementation type. The SCA implementation handler includes native runtime code and implementation logic for executing the dynamic service call by executing non-native runtime code that returns a result to the SCA implementation handler. A packaging module packages the result in an SCA return message to the calling SCA component.
Dynamic portal registration of generic data source
A generic portal template includes properties that are common to all system templates. Using the generic portal template, a connector framework is exploited in order to expose every type of external information system generically and to make available to a portal its exposed metadata, methods, and other properties dynamically. The generic portal template is extendible to accommodate new properties of an external information system. The generic portal template is reusable when new external information systems are recognized. The generic portal template is especially advantageous when it is desired to access third party external information systems, such as databases or applications in a portal.
Uniform access to entities in registered data store services
A data store catalogue service model is disclosed for exposing disparate data store services to clients without requiring explicit knowledge on how to interact with each disparate service. The data store catalogue service model may maintain interaction details for each data store service that clients may access for interacting with those services. The model may also maintain metadata that may describe the different types of services available for access by clients, the data types used by those services, how to access the data provided by the services, and how to communicate semantically with the services for accessing the service's data. Additionally, the data store may include metadata that enables clients to interact with one or more registered data stores in a number of ways, such as for discovering registered data store services, entities, classes, and/or any associations between related entities within the same or among disparate services.
Method and apparatus for running different types of applications on a wireless mobile device
A method and wireless mobile device runs different types of applications and groups a set of common application interfaces (APIs) that are associated with an application type to produce an application container (902). The wireless mobile device and method translates calls between at least one of the linked or grouped common APIs of the application container and a shared API that is shared for example among applications of different types (904). If desired the method and device also groups a set of common application interfaces associated with another application type to produce another application container. The applications of different types use APIs from the multiple application containers. In one embodiment, the translating of calls is accomplished by employing a class loading structure using, for example, a class loader that looks at certain path locations to obtain resources.
Service adaptation of the enterprise services framework
Systems, methods, and computer program products are provided for adapting service entities using a declarative approach in a service framework. In accordance with one implementation, a method is provided for adapting service entities. The method includes the steps of retrieving at least one software entity from a first repository in response to a first input and receiving a declaration from a user for adapting the software entity. The method further includes the steps of adapting the software entity to an adapted software entity based on the declaration and storing the adapted software entity in a second repository.
Apparatus and method for performing a fail-safe over-the-air software update in a mobile station
A wireless communication device capable of downloading a software update file from a wireless network. The wireless communication device comprises a non-volatile memory that is re-programmed by sectors. The non-volatile memory stores: i) a target file to be updated, ii) the downloaded software update file, and iii) a journal comprising a plurality of entries, each of the entries containing status information associated with a re-programmed sector of the non-volatile memory. The wireless communication device also comprises a random access memory and a main processor that replaces target code in the target file with replacement code from the downloaded software update file. The main processor creates a first block of replacement code in the random access memory and re-programs a first target sector of the non-volatile memory by storing the first block of replacement code into the first target sector. The main processor updates first status information in a first entry in the journal associated with the first target sector.
Parallel generating of bundles of data objects
Computer-implemented methods, computer systems and computer program products are provided for parallel processing a plurality of data objects with a plurality of processors. As disclosed herein, the data objects to be assembled for further processing may be in bundles, the bundles obeying first predefined criteria, which is dynamically controlled by using a bundle specific master table. The methods and systems may generate pipelines of data objects by pre-selecting and grouping the data objects according to second predefined criteria by a first group of the plurality of processors, and create the bundles from each pipeline of the pre-selected data objects by a second group of the plurality of processors.
System and method for transforming generic software code into operator specific code
Disclosed are systems and methods to automatically transform generic software code into operator specific code. For instance, in one embodiment, there may be an engine for transforming generic software code into operator-specific software code, the engine comprising: a module for reading generic software code, wherein the generic software code includes at least one generic control indication; a processing module including: a module for extracting the at least one generic control indication from the generic software code; a module for determining at least one aspect from the generic control indication, wherein the at least one aspect corresponds to operator specific requirements, a module for determining an integration instruction, a module for inserting the generic control indication with the at least one aspect according to the integration instruction; and a module for generating operator-specific software code which includes the at least one aspect.
Compilation error isolation, optimization and resolution
A method, system and computer program product for performing error correction are disclosed. The method includes performing on source code a selected compilation operation from among a set of compilation operations and, responsive to encountering an error in the selected compilation operation, running an error handler to isolate the error utilizing data logged for the compilation operation. Responsive to determining that the error handler has not sufficiently isolated the error, a source code modifier is run to modify a portion of the source code selected by reference to the data logged for the compilation operation.
Information processing device, information processing system, and program
The present invention provides an information processing device, an information processing system, and a program capable of improving security while maintaining convenience to the user. An information processing device 10 includes a magnetic disk 19 which stores application control information including identification information on a file in which an executable application program is stored, such as a file name and a path, and specific information on the file such as a CRC code, and a decision section 111 which decides, when a start request for an application program has been issued, whether or not to permit start of the application program designated by the start request based on the application control information.
Automated error analysis
During execution of a program, an error is detected which results in the program reverting to a predefined state prior to the detected error. In some variations, the predefined state is a rollback point. Thereafter, one or more analysis tools are automatically activated that can characterize performance of the program and the execution of the program is recommenced until the error is detected. The analysis tools can then provide information useful for analyzing the cause of the error such as a trace log.
System and method for software testing
Systems and methods for evaluating the testing of a computer program wherein a test automator generates code to test the computer program with respect to predetermined testing criteria. A test results analyst reviews test results generated by applying the code to test the computer program. The environments of a test automator and a test analyst are separated, thereby relieving a test results analyst from being required to have knowledge of the code that was used to test the computer program.
Methods and systems for relating data structures and object-oriented elements for distributed computing
Methods and systems consistent with the present invention provide an improved software development tool which allows a developer to receive an identification of a data structure with an attribute field in a database, determine whether the data structure is associated with source code, if the data structure is associated with the source code, determine whether an attribute field of the data structure is associated with an attribute in the source code, and if the attribute field is not associated with the attribute in the source code, generate the attribute in the source code from the attribute field.
Method for eliminating negative slack in a netlist via transformation and slack categorization
A method for eliminating negative slack in a netlist representing a chip design uses a contrived timing environment to overlay information onto the design environment during logic and physical synthesis phase. The overlaid timing information determines which netlist transformation provides a maximum leverage for the negative slack elimination and a way for creating a dynamic transformation recipe tuned for each design. The method further provides upper bounds on the negative slack elimination to prevent the netlist transforms from being applied to situations exceeding the capabilities for improving the design.
Method and system for creating a useful skew for an electronic circuit
A method of determining a useful skew for a circuit design includes computing a slack value for each sequential cell in the circuit design, identifying modifiable sequential cells in the circuit design, and computing a target delay for each modifiable sequential cell. One or more sequential cells are discarded based on the slack values. A target slack value for each remaining sequential cell is determined. The remaining cells are sorted based on the target slack values to determine a minimum target slack value, and a delay for each cell is determined based on the minimum target slack value.
Critical area computation of composite fault mechanisms using Voronoi diagrams
Disclosed is a method that determines critical areas associated with different types of fault mechanisms in an integrated circuit design. The invention does this by constructing individual Voronoi diagrams for critical areas of individual fault mechanisms and a composite Voronoi diagram based on the individual Voronoi diagrams. The invention computes the critical area for composite fault mechanisms of the integrated circuit design based on the composite Voronoi diagram.
Methods of enabling the validation of an integrated circuit adapted to receive one of a plurality of configuration bitstreams
Methods of enabling the validation of an integrated circuit adapted to receive one of a plurality of configuration bitstreams for a circuit design is disclosed. The method comprises analyzing a plurality of implementations for the circuit design; determining minimum timing constraints based upon all of the implementations for the circuit design; generating a representative implementation, based upon the plurality of implementations, which meets the determined minimum timing constraints for all of the implementations of the circuit design; and outputting the representative implementation.
Characterizing linearity of amplifiers
The present invention provides a method and an apparatus for assessing a capability, for example, linearity of an amplifier, such as that of a power amplifier including a radio frequency amplifier. In one embodiment, the method comprises defining a first figure of merit for a power amplifier based on a loss of linearity relative to a predefined linearity requirement for the power amplifier and/or defining a second figure of merit based on the first figure of merit and dependent upon a minimum frequency within a predefined frequency band for the power amplifier, characterizing the linearity thereof. In this manner, using a test setup, for digital mobile communication networks deploying one or more higher order modulation schemes with complex wireless transmission that results in non-constant envelope signals, linearity of power amplifiers in transceivers, such as a mobile station or a base station, may be sufficiently described. Moreover, the two defined figures of merit may be used to compare different amplifiers for these higher modulation schemes, making possible a comparison of different amplifiers independent of their implementation technology or design structure.
Method of optimizing power usage of an integrated circuit design by tuning selective voltage binning cut point
A method of optimizing power usage in an integrated circuit design analyzes multiple operating speed cut points that are expected to be produced by the integrated circuit design. The operating speed cut points are used to divide identically designed integrated circuit devices after manufacture into relatively slow integrated circuit devices and relatively fast integrated circuit devices. The method selects an initial operating speed cut point to minimize a maximum power consumption level of the relatively slow integrated circuit devices and the relatively fast identically designed integrated circuit devices. The method then manufactures the integrated circuit devices using the integrated circuit design and tests operating speeds and power consumption levels of the identically designed integrated circuit devices. Then, the method adjusts the initial operating speed cut point to a final operating speed cut point based on the testing, to minimize the maximum power consumption level of the relatively slow integrated circuit devices and the relatively fast integrated circuit devices.
Method and apparatus for supporting IC design, and computer product
A logical-group creating unit creates a logical group from a cell included in a selected range of a logical drawing that is specified in a logical page. A logical-group extracting unit extracts a same/similar logical group by determining whether logical drawings of created logical groups are same or similar to each other. A pattern creating unit creates an implementation pattern of a logical group included in extracted same/similar logical group.
User interface system
A user interface system having an improved usability is provided. The user interface system comprises: an operation section (21) an operation section for receiving an instruction inputted by a user; a finger position detecting section (32) for detecting a group of first coordinate values, each indicating a current position of a fingertip, of a user, which is placed on an operation surface of the operation section; a component storing section (4) for storing component data representing a GUI (Graphical User Interface) component; an assignment section (34) for uniquely assigning the component data stored in the component storing section to each of the first coordinate values detected by the finger position detecting section (32); an image generating section (35) for generating a GUI image representing a user interface in which the GUI component represented by the component data stored in the component storing section (4) is uniquely associated with each of the first coordinate values detected by the finger position detecting section (32), in accordance with an assignment performed by the assignment section; and a display controlling section (36) for displaying the GUI image generated by the image generating section (35) on a display screen.
Electronic device display adjustment interface
A calculator comprises a display screen configured to display a graphical representation of at least a portion of a dataset and a module configured to display an interface on the display screen to enable a user to perform at least one adjustment function for the displayed graphical representation.
A method of provisioning a device through a command interface is described. A command interface capable of displaying a plurality of outputs is generated. A request is sent to a device and feedback from the device is received. The feedback is used to generate an output. Graphical display for the output is generated for display integral with the command interface.
Image displaying method, image displaying program, and display
An image displaying method of displaying an image selected from images stored in an image storing apparatus onto a display has the step of displaying the image selected from the images stored in the image storing apparatus into a partial area on the display based on a relative positional relation between the image storing apparatus and the display.
Method for modifying a GUI for an application
A method, system and computer readable medium for providing an editing mode for a graphical user interface (GUI) is described. A toggle widget is provided to a user of a GUI during execution of the application presenting the GUI. When the user presses the toggle widget, the GUI is placed in an editing mode, whereby the normal functions of all of the widgets of the GUI, except for the toggle widget, are suspended. While in editing mode, the user is allowed to modify the locations of all of the widgets of the GUI, except for the toggle widget. The user subsequently modifies the locations of widgets of the GUI. Then, the user presses the toggle widget again and the GUI is exited from editing mode. Once exited from editing mode, the normal functions of all of the widgets of the GUI are restored and the new locations of the widgets are fixed.
Backup reporting framework graphical user interface
A backup reporting framework Graphical User Interface (GUI) comprises a combination of components that make it possible to display a Reporting GUI to the customer on the customer's desktop. The framework includes three main components, a server component, a wag-server middleware component, and a monitor server middleware component. The Server Component handles all the operations necessary to start the GUI or Command Line Interface (CLI) interaction with the Middleware Components. The WAG Server Middleware component provides a mechanism for the client application to interact with the server. The WAG Server component gives the client side applications access to data resident on the server and allow for command and control from the client side. The monitor server middleware component also provides a mechanism for the client application to interact with the server. It gives the client side application access to data resident on the server and allows for command and control from the client side. The middleware allows the GUI to get data about the current state of EDM, and display the information graphically.
Fault-tolerant romanized input method for non-roman characters
Fault-tolerant systems and methods to process and correct input errors are disclosed. Original inputs can be received, each original input being defined as mapping to multiple characters in a language, each original input having one or more associated proximity measurements. Original inputs that have proximity measurements with one or more non-zero probabilities for respective intended inputs are identified as potentially incorrect original inputs. Each of the potentially incorrect original inputs is expanded to the respective intended inputs, and each of the original inputs and each of the respective intended inputs are converted to characters in the language, each of the conversions being a combination of the converted original inputs and/or the respective intended inputs. Likelihoods of conversions of the original inputs and the respective intended inputs to the characters based in part on the proximity measurements are determined, and most likely conversions are identified for presentation.
Method and system for copying, moving, replacing and deleting content in group-editable electronic documents
A system and methods for copying, deleting, replacing, and moving content in group-editable web pages is disclosed. The system includes a server and devices, such as computers, which can communicate via a network. Users at the computers can access group-editable web pages from the server and request that content operations be performed involving content in a first page and optionally one or more second pages. The server obtains content operation details needed to perform the content operation by finding content operation implementation information in the first page itself and/or in another page.
Sliding window method and apparatus for soft input/soft output processing
In one or more embodiments, a method of processing a soft value sequence according to an iterative soft-input-soft-output (SISO) algorithm comprises carrying out sliding-window processing of the soft value sequence in a first iteration using first window placements and in a second iteration using second window placements, and varying the window placements between the first and second iterations. In at least one embodiment, a communication receiver circuit is configured to carry out iterative SISO processing, wherein it processes a soft value sequence using sliding windows, and wherein it varies window placements between one or more iterations. The communication receiver circuit comprises, for example, all or part of a turbo decoding circuit or other type of iterative block decoding circuit, an equalization and decoding circuit, a soft demodulation and decoding circuit, a multi-user detection and decoding circuit, or a multiple-input-multiple-output detection and decoding circuit.
Semiconductor storage device equipped with ECC function
A semiconductor memory device includes a memory cell array, an ECC (error correction code) circuit and a decision circuit. The ECC circuit calculates an error correction code for write data to be written in the memory cell array. The decision circuit invalidates the ECC circuit when a data width of the write data is less than a predetermined data width.
Decoding with a concatenated error correcting code
A concatenated channel decoding method wherein the bits of a set of N1 bits decoded using a first iterative block decoding algorithm and intended to be decoded using a second block decoding algorithm, are sent in parallel in at least one subset of P bits to a buffer for temporary storage. The decoding method comprises receiving in parallel at least one subset of Q bits belonging to the set of N1 bits sent to the buffer, detecting errors with the help of the second decoding algorithm, based on the bits decoded using the first decoding algorithm, and correcting the bits stored in the buffer as a function of possible errors detected. Detecting errors and/or the correcting the stored bits comprise a parallel processing of the bits of each subset of Q bits received.
Apparatus and method for stopping iterative decoding in a mobile communication system
An apparatus and method are provided for stopping iterative decoding in a channel decoder of a mobile communication system. Constituent decoding of received signals is performed and decoded signals are output. Hard decision processes for the decoded signals are performed and hard-decided signals are output. The hard-decided signals are cyclic redundancy check (CRC) encoded, and a determination is made as to whether the parities are identical and iterative decoding is stopped according to a determination result.
Hardware generator for uniform and Gaussian deviates employing analog and digital correction circuits
A hardware random number generator (RNG) has a source of entropy for providing a bit stream (DIS) comprising successive bits of a first state and a second state. The RNG includes a first digital corrector circuit configured to provide from two successive bits in the bit stream an output bit of an output bit stream according to a first scheme to ensure that bits in the output bit stream are independent from one another. A serially connected second digital corrector circuit ensures that the bits in the output bit stream are also unbiased, so that the output bit stream is truly random. A Gaussian generator connected to an output of either the first corrector or the second corrector generates from the output bit stream words having standard Gaussian deviates.
Decoder for a turbo code
A Turbo Code decoder for implementation in an integrated circuit is described. An add-compare select (“ACS”) unit is configured to provide a difference between first and second outputs and to select one of the first and second outputs responsive to a difference thereof. An initialization stage is coupled to receive and configured to store for example the first output selected as an initialization value. A second select stage is coupled to receive for example the first output selected from the first select stage and coupled to obtain the initialization value stored from the initialization stage. The second select stage is configured to output either the first output selected from the ACS unit or the initialization value from the initialization stage.
Apparatus and method for transmitting and receiving packet data using HARQ in a mobile communication system
A system and method is provided for transmitting packet data in a base station of a wireless communication system using a Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ) scheme. The method includes determining a HARQ scheme for use, from among a plurality of HARQ schemes including a Synchronous HARQ (SHARQ) scheme and an Asynchronous HARQ (AHARQ) scheme for transmission packet data, and transmitting the packet data along with control information including information indicating the determined HARQ scheme.
Data packet transmission
Using the attribute “priority” to achieve a stronger Forward Error Correction (FEC) for Radio Link Control (RLC) Control Protocol Data Units (PDUs) transmitted via the High Speed Downlinik Shared Channel (HS-DSCH) also entails prioritized handling so that an RLC Control PDU is likely to overhaul an RLC Data PDU. As a consequence the RLC protocol operation can severely be disturbed, since it relies on in-sequence delivery of control and data PDUs. According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, two types of containers are provided in which data packets may be transmitted, wherein the first type of container is provided with a stronger error coding than the second type of container and wherein data packets which comprise control instructions are only transmitted in the first container type with the stronger error correction. Due to this, an improved forward error correction for control PDUs of the AM RLC protocol of Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) may be provided.
Method of generating test clock signal and test clock signal generator for testing semiconductor devices
A system and method of generating a test clock signal for scan testing of a main circuit in a semiconductor device includes receiving an external clock signal and a control signal and generating a gated clock signal by gating an internal clock signal based on the control signal. The internal clock signal has a frequency higher than a frequency of the external clock signal. One of the external clock signal and the gated clock signal is selectively output based on the control signal.
Providing trusted access to a JTAG scan interface in a microprocessor
A method for securing a scan chain architecture by performing an authentication operation through a trusted software layer to authorize use of a protected scan chain.
Parallel test system
A method and a system for defining groups of tests that may be concurrently performed or overlapped are provided. Channel-independent test groups are determined such that each group includes tests that the input/output channels may be utilized simultaneously without conflicts. The channel-independent test groups are divided into block-under-test (BUT) conflict test groups and total-independence test groups. The total-independence test groups may be performed concurrently. Performance of the BUT-conflict test groups may be overlapped such that the input/output channels are used concurrently, but the execution of the tests by the blocks of the device-under-test (DUT) is performed sequentially.
Circuit timing monitor having a selectable-path ring oscillator
An in-circuit timing monitor having a selectable-path ring oscillator circuit provides delay and performance measurements in an actual circuit environment. A test mode signal is applied to a digital circuit to de-select a given functional input signal applied to a functional logic block within the digital circuit and replace it with feedback coupled from an output of the functional logic block, when test mode operation is selected. The signal path from the de-selected input to the output is selected so that the signal path will oscillate, and a characteristic frequency or phase of the output signal is measured to determine the delay. Other inputs to the functional logic block are set to a predetermined set of logic values. The selection may be made at a register preceding the digital inputs or made in the first level of logic of the functional logic block.
Ternary search process
An apparatus for use in obtaining a value from a device includes a first comparator to receive a reference high signal and a device signal, where the first comparator provides a first output signal to indicate whether the device signal is above or below the reference high signal, and a second comparator to receive a reference low signal and the device signal, where the second comparator provides a second output signal to indicate whether the device signal is above or below the reference low signal. Also included in the apparatus is circuitry (i) to adjust at least one of the reference high signal and the reference low signal based on the first output signal and the second output signal, and (ii) to output the value if a difference between the reference high signal and the reference low signal meets a predetermined criterion, the value being based on the difference.
Method and apparatus for improving memory operation and yield
A memory circuit includes a memory interface. A first memory receives a first read address from the memory interface. A second memory stores addresses of defective memory locations found in the first memory, receives the first read address from the memory interface, compares the first read address to the addresses stored in the second memory, and, if a matching address is found, reads first data from the second memory. The first memory reads second data from a memory location in the first memory corresponding to the first read address. A multiplexer receives the second data and the first data from the first memory and the second memory, respectively, when the matching address is found, and selectively outputs one of the second data and the first data to the memory interface.
Semiconductor device, unique ID of semiconductor device and method for verifying unique ID
The present invention relates to a semiconductor device, a unique ID of the semiconductor device and a method for verifying the unique ID. Thus, original data (bit string) having 127-bit length [126:0] is inputted at step S1. Then, it is determined whether the number of bits of “1” in the bit string [126:0] inputted at the step S1 is more than the half of the bits of the bit string (that is, not less than 64) or not at step S2. When the number is not less than 64, the process proceeds to step S3. At the step S3, the bit string [126:0] is inverted and an invert bit  is set to “1”. Then, the process proceeds to step S5. At the step S5, the fuse corresponding to the bit string [126:0] and the bit  are cut by LT.
Method and device for monitoring the functionality of an automation system of a plant
There is described a method for monitoring the functionality of an automation system of a plant comprising at least one main processor, parts of the plant being monitored and controlled using a user software, which is constructed of a number of program modules and which is run on the main processor. A co-processor is assigned to the main processor, and a message is transmitted from the main processor to the co-processor. When received, this message is used by the co-processor to start a monitoring time. When a subsequent message is received, this monitoring time is reset before said monitoring time has elapsed, otherwise a fault is identified once the monitoring time has elapsed.
System and method to qualify data capture
One disclosed embodiment may comprise a system that includes a qualification system that qualifies data on an associated bus for capture and provides a qualification signal as a function of at least one signal that describes a characteristic of the data on the associated bus. A data capture system stores qualified data from the associated bus based on the qualification signal and a trigger signal, the trigger signal defining a capture session.
Method and apparatus for monitoring failure of memory device, and computer product
A memory data reader of a magnetic tape library device reads from a memory of a magnetic tape cartridge containing a magnetic tape, information pertaining to data read from or written to the magnetic tape by a magnetic tape drive device. A maintenance/replace determining unit determines whether the magnetic tape drive device needs maintenance or replacement from the read information.
Error detector in a cache memory using configurable way redundancy
A data processing system includes a processor having a multi-way cache which has a first and a second way. The second way is configurable to either be redundant to the first way or to operate as an associative way independent of the first way. The system may further include a memory, where the processor, in response to a read address missing in the cache, provides the read address to the memory. The second way may be dynamically configured to be redundant to the first way during operation of the processor in response to an error detection signal. In one aspect, when the second way is configured to be redundant, in response to the read address hitting in the cache, data addressed by an index portion of the read address is provided from both the first and second way and compared to each other to determine if a comparison error exists.
Storage control apparatus and method
In a system for dispersively storing data and parity in a plurality of storage devices, information in a first storage device is restored by using information stored in the storage devices other than the first storage device when the first storage device fails. And information in a non-restored area in the first storage device and information in a second storage device are restored by using information stored in the storage devices other than the first and the second storage devices when the second storage device fails while the information in the first storage device is being restored.
System and method for failover of guest operating systems in a virtual machine environment
A system and method provides for failover of guest operating systems in a virtual machine environment. During initialization of a computer executing a virtual machine operating system, a first guest operating system allocates a first memory region within a first domain and notifies a second guest operating system operating in a second domain of the allocated first memory region. Similarly, the second guest operating system allocates a second region of memory within the second domain and notifies the first operating system of the allocated second memory region. In the event of a software failure affecting one of the guest operating systems, the surviving guest operating system assumes the identity of the failed operating system and utilizes data stored within the shared memory region to replay to storage devices to render them consistent.
Recovering from a storage processor failure using write cache preservation
A computerized system includes two storage processors having respective local write caches configured to mirror each other. When a first storage processor becomes unavailable and mirroring of the local write caches is prevented, the computerized system continues to attend to write operations from an external host in a write-back manner by caching write data from the write operations in the local write cache of the second storage processor. In response to a failure of the second storage processor, the computerized system preserves the write data within the local write cache of the second storage processor. Then, upon recovery of the second storage processor from the failure, the computerized system continues to attend to further write operations from the external host in the write-back manner by caching additional write data in the local write cache of the second storage processor while the first storage processor remains unavailable.
System and method for providing a high-speed message passing interface for barrier operations in a multi-tiered full-graph interconnect architecture
A method, computer program product, and system are provided performing a Message Passing Interface (MPI) job. A first processor chip receives a set of arrival signals from a set of processor chips executing tasks of the MPI job in the data processing system. The arrival signals identify when a processor chip executes a synchronization operation for synchronizing the tasks for the MPI job. Responsive to receiving the set of arrival signals from the set of processor chips, the first processor chip identifies a fastest processor chip of the set of processor chips whose arrival signal arrived first. An operation of the fastest processor chip is modified based on the identification of the fastest processor chip. The set of processor chips comprises processor chips that are in one of a same processor book or a different processor book of the data processing system.
Storage system assembly with distributed enclosure management
An I/O interface module of a storage system controller includes a management controller and power regulation and monitoring/control circuitry responsible for management of the I/O expansion module and pluggable I/O interface modules, which each include electrical power regulating circuitry to power circuit components. Temperature regulation components (e.g. fan and temperature sensor) provide a cooling airflow and monitor operating temperature. A controller works with the power regulation and monitor/control circuitry and temperature regulation components to perform first and second management activities concurrently. The first management activity involves managing the environmental operating conditions of the I/O expansion module itself, including (i) monitoring and regulating operating temperature and (ii) monitoring and controlling electrical power regulating circuitry of the power regulation and monitor/control circuitry. The second management activity involves managing environmental operating conditions of the I/O interface module, including (i) monitoring insertion and removal of the I/O interface module and reporting such insertion and removal to a separate controller within the storage system controller, (ii) controlling reset status of the I/O expansion module, and (iii) monitoring and controlling the electrical power regulating circuitry of the I/O interface module.
Power management block for use in a non-volatile memory system
Methods and apparatus for enabling a power up process of a non-volatile memory to occur efficiently are disclosed. According to one aspect of the present invention, a method for utilizing a memory system that has a non-volatile memory with at least one reserved memory area includes providing power to the memory system, initializing the non-volatile memory, and writing a first signature into the reserved memory area. The first signature is arranged to indicate that the memory system was successfully initialized. In one embodiment, the method also includes executing a power down process on the memory system, and writing a second signature into the reserved memory area which indicates that the power down process has been executed.
Standby mode for power management
An apparatus and method for controlling standby mode in an electronic device. In standby mode, power and clock signals are reduced or stopped to conserve power. The apparatus includes an initiator module coupled to a power and clock control module (PCCM). When the initiator module meets conditions for standby mode, the initiator module sends a standby signal to the PCCM and does not interact with other initiator, target, or interconnect modules. When the PCCM communicates a wait signal, the initiator module enters standby mode. When the initiator module detects a wakeup event, the standby signal is deactivated. In this state, the initiator module may process information but may not interact with other modules. When the PCCM deactivates the wait signal and returns power and clock signal to steady state levels, initiator module may resume normal operation.
Countermeasure method in a microcircuit, microcircuit therefore and smart card comprising said microcircuit
A countermeasure method for a microcontroller that executes sequences of instructions. The instructions are executed according to a pipeline method. At least one waiting time is randomly introduced between two consecutive instructions and/or within at least one instruction. The method is implemented by the electronics of the microcontroller rather than by software addition.
Method for guaranteeing freshness of results for queries against a non-secure data store
A method for guaranteeing freshness of results for queries against a non-secure data store extends a read operation to include steps of: receiving a read instruction for application data to be read; determining a location within the data store for the application data to be read; validating a message authentication code contained at the location; parsing data contained at the location into the application data and control information, the control information including: a timestamp, a link to a check entry, and a message authentication code; authenticating the control information for each check item associated with the primary item along a path from the primary item to a root each time a primary item is read from the data store by following links; and transmitting the application data to a calling application.
Content-data processing apparatus, content-data processing method, content data management system and content data management method
In a music-content management system, a client handles three types of data, i.e., a file for encrypting content and storing the content, a key that encrypted the content, and a use condition description for each service in which the content is used. The file stores one type of content encryption system and one type of encrypted content. The file also stores information regarding use condition descriptions for respective services.
System for registering sensing device with relay device
A system for registering a sensing device with a relay device is provided. The relay device allowing the sensing device to communicate with a computer system of the system. The computer system performs the registrating using a registration form having information relating to an interactive element coincident with tags mapped over the form. Each tag has coded data indicative of the interactive element and an identity associated with the form. The computer system receives indicating data indicative of the identity and the interactive element from a sensing device via the relay device which is generated by the sensing device sensing the coded data, determines the interactive element from the indicating data and causes registration of the sensing device with the relay device using the interactive element.
Virtual distributed security system
A distributed security system is provided. The distributed security system uses a security policy that is written in a policy language that is transport and security protocol independent as well as independent of cryptographic technologies. This security policy can be expressed using the language to create different security components allowing for greater scalability and flexibility. By abstracting underlying protocols and technologies, multiple environments and platforms can be supported.
Computer system for selecting a useable computer board to power on and accessing corresponding storage based on terminal request that includes user information
A invented computer system has a plurality of computer boards; a plurality of terminals, each of which is coupled to each of the computer boards respectively via a network; a storage device having a plurality of storage areas, which is coupled to each of the computer boards; and a management computer; and wherein the management computer manages a correspondence between a user information and the storage area, and when a use request of the computer board is transmitted from a terminal, the management computer selects a usable computer board to turn on a power, reads information necessary to start the computer board from the storage corresponding to the transmitted user information, allows the computer board to start based on the read information, and notifies the terminal of information on the started computer board and identification information on the network allocated to the started computer board.
Methods and apparatus for adapting pipeline stage latency based on instruction type
Processor pipeline controlling techniques are described which take advantage of the variation in critical path lengths of different instructions to achieve increased performance. By examining a processor's instruction set and execution unit implementation's critical timing paths, instructions are classified into speed classes. Based on these speed classes, one pipeline is presented where hold signals are used to dynamically control the pipeline based on the instruction class in execution. An alternative pipeline supporting multiple classes of instructions is presented where the pipeline clocking is dynamically changed as a result of decoded instruction class signals. A single pass synthesis methodology for multi-class execution stage logic is also described. For dynamic class variable pipeline processors, the mix of instructions can have a great effect on processor performance and power utilization since both can vary by the program mix of instruction classes. Application code can be given new degrees of optimization freedom where instruction class and the mix of instructions can be chosen based on performance and power requirements.
Processing unit incorporating vectorizable execution unit
A vectorizable execution unit is capable of being operated in a plurality of modes, with the processing lanes in the vectorizable execution unit grouped into different combinations of logical execution units in different modes. By doing so, processing lanes can be selectively grouped together to operate as different types of vector execution units and/or scalar execution units, and if desired, dynamically switched during runtime to process various types of instruction streams in a manner that is best suited for each type of instruction stream. As a consequence, a single vectorizable execution unit may be configurable, e.g., via software control, to operate either as a vector execution or a plurality of scalar execution units.
Information processor with memory defect repair
In an information processor including memory devices such as DRAMs and others, by reducing the power consumption of memory devices and efficiently repairing defect bits, a highly reliable information processor is realized. In an information processor including an external memory such as a DRAM, a second memory whose power consumption at the access time is smaller than that of the external memory is disposed, and cache data of the external memory and repair data are stored in this second memory. To an input address given from a central processing unit via a primary cache controller, a memory controller determines a hit or a miss with reference to a tag memory for cache and a tag memory for repair, and when one or both of tag memory for cache and a tag memory for repair are hit, it accesses the second memory.
Automatic data block misalignment detection and correction in a computer system utilizing a hard disk subsystem
An embodiment of a data misalignment correction method for a mass storage controller system that couples drives having large internal block sizes to a computer operating system having input/output data block requests, including automatically determining an amount of misalignment between a request of the input/output data block to the storage controller and the controller's current data alignment configuration and using the amount of misalignment to realign the mass storage controller system configuration to match the operating system's input/output requests for optimizing input/output performance with the attached drives.
Method for dynamically refining locks in resizable concurrent hashing
Methods and apparatus provide a lock resizer for resizing of a lock array of a lock-based concurrent hash table. The lock resizer provides a data structure with memory locations which is apportioned into buckets that contain a plurality of the memory locations. It is understood that the data structure can dynamically add new memory locations. The lock resizer further provides a location lock for each distinct memory location and a bucket lock for each distinct bucket. A resizing flag can reference a thread to indicate whether or not the thread is resizing the amount of locks. Upon detection of the existence of a policy condition, the lock resizer resizes the amount of location locks and/or bucket locks in order to create new location locks and new bucket locks, thereby ensuring that as new memory locations are added, all buckets can contain up to a fixed number of memory locations.
Handling multi-rank pools and varying degrees of control in volume allocation on storage controllers
Techniques are disclosed for optimizing volume allocation on storage controllers that may have varying degrees of control over directing storage on ranks of pools attached storage components. A performance-based volume allocation algorithm can optimize allocation for such various controllers in a smooth, uniform manner allowing changes from one degree of control to another without incurring costly code changes and re-architecting costs. Where control is not available a surrogate set of possible ranks where the allocation could be made is developed and employed to calculate an adjusted utilization cost. In turn, the adjusted utilization cost is used to calculate a space limit value limited by a target performance threshold.
Methods and system of pooling storage devices
A system and method are provided for pooling storage devices in a virtual library for performing a storage operation. A storage management device determines a storage characteristic of a plurality of storage devices with respect to performing a storage operation. Based on a storage characteristic relating to performing the storage operation, the storage management device associates at least two storage devices in a virtual library. The storage management device may continuously monitor the virtual library and detect a change in storage characteristics of the storage devices. When changes in storage characteristics are detected, the storage management device may change associations of the storage device in the virtual library.
Disk snapshot acquisition method
A disk snapshot acquisition method, which is applied in a server comprising a memory allocated with a kernel space and a hard disk, comprises the steps of allocating all chunks having data stored as a disk volume in said hard disk; allocating a first portion and a second portion in said hard disk; establishing a snapshot pointer in said kernel space, said snapshot pointer pointing to a starting address of said first portion in said hard disk; and when original data in one of said chunks of said disk volume is to be modified, duplicating said original data to a chunk in said second portion as backup data, then modifying said original data into modified data, and storing a piece of mapping information comprising an address of said modified data and an address of said backup data corresponding to said modified data to a copy-on-write table in said first portion.
Combined parallel/serial status register read
Methods and devices are disclosed, such as those involving a solid state memory device that includes a status register configured to be read with a combined parallel and serial read scheme. One such solid state memory includes a status register configured to store a plurality of bits indicative of status information of the memory. One such method of providing status information in the memory device includes providing the status information of a memory device in a parallel form. The method also includes providing the status information in a serial form after providing the status information in a parallel form in response to receiving at least one read command.
System for integrity protection for standard 2n-bit multiple sized memory devices
An apparatus including a first circuit and a second circuit. The first circuit may be configured to generate one or more command signals, a read data path control signal and one or more write data path control signals in response to an integrity protection control signal and one or more arbitration signals. The second circuit may be configured to write data to a memory and read data from the memory in response to the one or more command signals, the read data path control signal and the one or more write data path control signals. In a first mode, the data may be written and read without integrity protection. In a second mode the data may be written and read with integrity protection, and the integrity protection is written and read separately from the data.
Managing lock rankings
Methods of monitoring a computer system. The methods may comprise the steps of calculating a first checksum of a data location and receiving a request from an operation running on the computer system for a lock corresponding to the data location. The methods may also comprise the steps of calculating a second checksum of the data location, and generating an indication if the first checksum and the second checksum are not equivalent. Also, methods of detecting a lock ranking violation in a computer system. The methods may comprise the steps of receiving a request from an operation for a first lock associated with a first data storage location and reviewing a list of locks issued to the operation. The methods may also comprise the step of determining whether the operation possesses a lock ranked higher than the first lock.
Efficient sharing of memory between applications running under different operating systems on a shared hardware system
A system, method and computer program product for efficient sharing of memory between first and second applications running under first and second operating systems on a shared hardware system. The hardware system runs a hypervisor that supports concurrent execution of the first and second operating systems, and further includes a region of shared memory managed on behalf of the first and second applications. Techniques are used to avoid preemption when the first application is accessing the shared memory region. In this way, the second application will not be unduly delayed when attempting to access the shared memory region due to delays stemming from the first application's access of the shared memory region. This is especially advantageous when the second application and operating system are adapted for real-time processing. Additional benefits can be obtained by taking steps to minimize memory access faults.
Low overhead access to shared on-chip hardware accelerator with memory-based interfaces
In one embodiment, a method is contemplated. Access to a hardware accelerator is requested by a user-privileged thread. Access to the hardware accelerator is granted to the user-privileged thread by a higher-privileged thread responsive to the requesting. One or more commands are communicated to the hardware accelerator by the user-privileged thread without intervention by higher-privileged threads and responsive to the grant of access. The one or more commands cause the hardware accelerator to perform one or more tasks. Computer readable media comprises instructions which, when executed, implement portions of the method are also contemplated in various embodiments, as is a hardware accelerator and a processor coupled to the hardware accelerator.
Wait-free parallel data cache
A system and method for managing a data cache in a central processing unit (CPU) of a database system. A method executed by a system includes the processing steps of adding an ID of a page p into a page holder queue of the data cache, executing a memory barrier store-load operation on the CPU, and looking-up page p in the data cache based on the ID of the page p in the page holder queue. The method further includes the steps of, if page p is found, accessing the page p from the data cache, and adding the ID of the page p into a least-recently-used queue.
Content-aware caching techniques
A caching technique involves receiving a cache request to move data into a cache (or a particular cache level of a cache hierarchy), and generating a comparison between content of the data and content of other data already stored within the cache. The caching technique further involves providing a caching response based on the comparison between the content of the data and the content of the other data already stored within the cache. The caching response includes refraining from moving the data into the cache when the comparison indicates that the content of the data is already stored within the cache. The caching response includes moving the data into the cache when the comparison indicates that the content of the data is not already stored within the cache. Such a technique is capable of eliminating data redundancies within a cache (or within a particular cache level of a cache hierarchy).
Data storage system power management
A technique provides access to data in a data storage system. The technique involves providing a disk mirroring assembly including a primary mirror and a secondary mirror. The primary mirror has a set of high speed disk drives. Each high speed disk drive is configured to provide data access while rotating platters at a predefined high performance speed. The secondary mirror has a set of moderate speed disk drives. Each moderate speed disk drive is configured to provide data access while rotating platters at a predefined moderate speed which is less than the predefined high performance speed. The technique further involves operating the disk mirroring assembly in a particular power management state, and performing data access operations on the disk mirroring assembly while the disk mirroring assembly operates in the particular power management state.
Method and apparatus for providing stream linking in audio/video disk media
A method and apparatus for providing stream linking in audio/video disk media is disclosed. The present invention sets-up an audio/video stream on a disk drive, uses read and write commands for accessing contiguous data and, given an established stream, establishes a linked stream by sending a linked stream request with the number of a primary stream to the drive. The new stream inherits the beginning and ending addresses of the primary stream. Passed pointer detection is enabled for linked stream pointers passing primary stream pointers.
Distributed real-time operating system
A distributed control system and methods of operating such a control system are disclosed. In one embodiment, the distributed control system is operated in a manner in which interrupts are at least temporarily inhibited from being processed to avoid excessive delays in the processing of non-interrupt tasks. In another embodiment, the distributed control system is operated in a manner in which tasks are queued based upon relative timing constraints that they have been assigned. In a further embodiment, application programs that are executed on the distributed control system are operated in accordance with high-level and/or low-level requirements allocated to resources of the distributed control system.
Method for resource sharing in a multiple pipeline environment
Disclosed is a method and apparatus for arbitration between multiple pipelines over shared resources for an SMP computer system. The computer includes logic to defer arbitration until later in the pipeline to help reduce latency to each pipeline. Also, introduced is the concept of retry tags for better priority to avoid lock-out. The system also includes round-robin tokens to manage rejected requests to allow better fairness on conflicts. While the processing logic employed specifically applies to cross-interrogation, the logic can be extended to other common resources. The illustrated SMP computer system also has self-correcting logic to maintain good round-robin tokens.
Master and slave device for communicating on a communication link with limited resource
A master device for communicating with a number of slave devices through a communication link having a limited resource. The master device comprises a transceiver adapted for communicating with the slave devices on the communication link and a controller adapted for detecting the number of slave devices. The controller is adapted for determining an individual resource associated with a slave device to be consumed from the communication link, wherein a sum of the individual resources of all slave devices is lower than the limited resource and wherein the transceiver is adapted for assigning the individual resources to the associated slave devices.
Common access ring system
A common access ring (CAR) architecture that supports multiple masters and slaves is provided. One or more masters may make a request on the ring at the same time, such that multiple transactions are simultaneously pending. Moreover, multiple masters may simultaneously make a request to the same slave. However, each master cannot make more than one request at a time, and must wait until a current request is completed before making another request. The ring architecture ensures that no more than one request arrives at a slave at any given time. If a request arrives while a slave is processing a previous request, the arriving request is not serviced, and the master that originated the arriving request is asked to retry the request at a later time. Atomic shadow-write operations are supported by including all shadow registers in a dedicated sub-ring of the CAR architecture.
Method and system for interlocking data integrity for network adapters
Certain aspects of a method and system for interlocking data integrity for network adapters are disclosed. Aspects of one method may include executing a plurality of interlocking checks within a network adapter. Each interlocking check may comprise receiving a plurality of input check values associated with a plurality of input data packets corresponding to a first protocol. A plurality of check values may be generated which are associated with the plurality of input data packets and a plurality of output data packets corresponding to a second protocol. The data integrity of the plurality of input data packets and the plurality of output data packets may be validated based on one or more comparisons between one or more of the generated plurality of check values and one or more of the received plurality of input check values.
System and method for filtering information in a data storage system
A storage system filter provides protocol aware filter operations that avoid I/O blocking or calling thread holding. A filter framework includes a filter controller that handles request and response calls to filters that are registered with the filter framework. Filters may be loaded and unloaded in a consistent state, and the filter framework provides services for the filters for common functions. Filters may operate in a user mode or a kernel mode and may be invoked in a synchronous, an asynchronous, or an asynchronous release mode. Filter registration may include registration for I/O resources, and may include tagging of I/O requests and responses to contribute to preventing conflicts.
Keypad de-bouncing apparatus and method
An apparatus and method for de-bouncing keypad inputs is disclosed including interrupting a processor upon detecting a key press, reading input signals from the key pad to determine an initial port value and starting a timer. A keypad interrupt is disabled and processing resumes until expiration of the timer. The timer interrupts the processor and the input signals are read a second time and combined with the initial port value to determine a key identifier. The timer is started again and processing resumes. Upon expiration of the timer the processor checks for key release. If release is not detected, the timer is again started. If release occurs, the timer is disabled and the keypad interrupt is enabled.
Method and apparatus for a hot-swappable input/output device with programmable over-voltage clamp protection
A method and apparatus is provided for a configurable input/output (I/O) interface within an integrated circuit to support a plurality of I/O standards. The configurable I/O interface exhibits a default operation that facilitates hot-swappability, which eliminates current paths within the I/O interface that may be created during plug-and-play operation of the I/O interface. The current paths are eliminated within the I/O interface even while the I/O interface is not receiving operational power, or while the I/O interface is in a power-on reset condition. A programmable option of the configurable I/O interface, on the other hand, alleviates over-voltage conditions while the I/O interface is tri-stated by activating shunt circuitry to conduct a clamp current during the over-voltage condition. The over-voltage condition is further alleviated by passively establishing current paths through existing circuitry within the I/O interface for the duration of the over-voltage condition.
Dual-mode switch for multi-media card/secure digital (MMC/SD) controller reading power-on boot code from integrated flash memory for user storage
A Multi-Media Card/Secure Digital (MMC/SD) single-chip flash device contains a MMC/SD flash microcontroller and flash mass storage blocks containing flash memory arrays that are block-addressable rather than randomly-addressable. MMC/SD transactions from a host MMC/SD bus are read by a bus transceiver on the MMC/SD flash microcontroller. Various routines that execute on a CPU in the MMC/SD flash microcontroller are activated in response to commands in the MMC/SD transactions. A flash-memory controller in the MMC/SD flash microcontroller transfers data from the bus transceiver to the flash mass storage blocks for storage. Rather than boot from an internal ROM coupled to the CPU, a boot loader is transferred by DMA from the first page of the flash mass storage block to an internal RAM. The flash memory is automatically read from the first page at power-on. The CPU then executes the boot loader from the internal RAM to load the control program.
Pre-storing multiple programs with user control of playback
According to the invention, a method for receiving a program by a user location is disclosed. The program is sent from a content provider. In one step, at least a first segment of each of a first number of programs sent from the content provider before any user request for any of the first number of programs is recorded. The user request for one of the first number of programs is detected. At least a second segment of each of a second number of programs sent from the content provider is also recorded if the user request is not detected before a stagger period expires. The one of the first number of programs is recorded if the user request is detected before the stagger period expires.
Resilient application layer overlay framework for converged communication over Internet protocol networks
Methods and apparatus for providing converged communication services in a communication system are disclosed. A first endpoint of the system communicates with at least a second endpoint of the system via session initiation protocol (SIP). At least a portion of the SIP communication is controlled utilizing an application layer overlay framework which permits substantially simultaneous operation of the first endpoint in two application layer protocols, the two application layer protocols including SIP and web services protocol. The web services protocol may illustratively comprise an application layer web services transport protocol such as SOAP/HTTP. The application overlay framework comprises a web services interface, with the web services interface being configured to permit access to information associated with the SIP communication by one or more communication service applications of the system.
Managing concurrent data updates in a composite services delivery system
Embodiments of the present invention provide a method, system and computer program product for deploying and delivering composite services in an NGN network. A collision detection and resolution method for updating a model in a composite services enablement environment can include establishing for a single session having a corresponding model, multiple channels of communication for different corresponding channels of access to a service. The method further can include synchronizing updates to the model by individual ones of the channels of access to the services for each of the channels of access to the services. The method yet further can include detecting collisions in synchronizing the updates to the model. Finally, the method can include rejecting the updates to the model when collisions are detected.
User interface for configuring web services for remote portlets
A web services system enables web servers to serve pages that utilize remote portlets. A consumer system serves pages that utilize remote portlets stored on one or more producer systems. An improved user interface enables a user to select a portlet from a page on a producer system and drag the portlet to a page on a consumer system. This action causes configuration information for the portlet to be transferred to the consumer system, which can then utilize the portlet as a remote portlet. When a user accesses a page utilizing a remote portlet, the consumer system contacts the producer system, obtains content for the page and presents the page to the user.
Device discovery and connection establishment for ad hoc networks
A wireless device transmits beacon packets at periodically occurring time intervals across a wireless channel. When the wireless communications device has not formed a piconet with one or more remote devices, the device scans the wireless channel for a predetermined amount of time immediately following each of the periodically occurring time intervals. During this time a remote device may respond to the beacon packet.
System and method of processing data flow in multichannel, multi-service environment by dynamically allocating a socket
A method and system for processing a data flow in a multi-channel, multiservice environment is described. In one embodiment, a socket is dynamically allocated, the socket including a dynamically allocated service. Further, the server processes the data flow based upon the type of data being processed.
Categorizing, classifying, and identifying network flows using network and host components
Network flows are identified by analyzing network traffic and network host information. The network host information may be collected by network host monitors associated with network hosts. Network traffic and network host information are evaluated against network flow profiles to identify network flows. If a network flows are identified with high certainty and are associated with previously identified network applications, then network flow policies can be applied to the network flows to block, throttle, accelerate, enhance, or transform the network flows. If a network flow is identified with lesser certainty or is not associated with a previously identified network application, then a new network flow profile can be created from further analysis of network traffic information, network host information, and possibly additional network host information collected to enhance the analysis. New network flow profiles can be communicated with a service provider for analysis and potential distribution to other networks.
Classification and cluster analysis spam detection and reduction
Multiple features of email traffic are analyzed and extracted. Feature vectors comprising the multiple features are created and cluster analysis is utilized to track spam generation even from dynamically changing or aliased IP addresses.
Policy-based packet classification
A method, apparatus, and computer implemented instructions for processing a request in a data processing system. The request is received. In response to a first hash value being present within the request, the first hash value is compared to a second hash value that was computed locally, wherein the second hash value represents a current policy configuration for assigning a quality of service. In response to a match between the first hash value and the second hash value, other information in the request is used to establish a quality of service for packets associated with the request.
Systems and method of using HTTP head command for prefetching
The present solution provides a variety of techniques for accelerating and optimizing network traffic, such as HTTP based network traffic. The solution described herein provides techniques in the areas of proxy caching, protocol acceleration, domain name resolution acceleration as well as compression improvements. In some cases, the present solution provides various prefetching and/or prefreshening techniques to improve intermediary or proxy caching, such as HTTP proxy caching. In other cases, the present solution provides techniques for accelerating a protocol by improving the efficiency of obtaining and servicing data from an originating server to server to clients. In another cases, the present solution accelerates domain name resolution more quickly. As every HTTP access starts with a URL that includes a hostname that must be resolved via domain name resolution into an IP address, the present solution helps accelerate HTTP access. In some cases, the present solution improves compression techniques by prefetching non-cacheable and cacheable content to use for compressing network traffic, such as HTTP. The acceleration and optimization techniques described herein may be deployed on the client as a client agent or as part of a browser, as well as on any type and form of intermediary device, such as an appliance, proxying device or any type of interception caching and/or proxying device.
System and method for network setup of wireless device at point of sale
A network device such as a wireless network device is configured using information obtained at the point of sale (POS) for a specific home network to which the device will belong. This may be accomplished by obtaining from the buyer at the POS account information, which is sent to a configuration server that automatically sets up the device for network use without the buyer's further direct involvement.
Network and method for the configuration thereof
A method and corresponding apparatus is provided for determining the location of a configuration server being connected to a totally symmetric network infrastructure that does not exhibit any symmetry breakers on network level. The configuration server reaches a decision to determine its network-wide unique configuration in order to be able to serve controllers. This decision depends on the plug position of the configuration server under consideration and the assumption of plugging rules governing a “good” network infrastructure. The controllers periodically send network packets that will be marked if they traverse specific connection elements in the network. The origin and the path of a network packet can be determined. The decision making is based on a majority function based on the packets received by the configuration server. If a decision cannot be made, then errors in the cabling structure can be detected.
Method, system, and program product for analyzing a scalability of an application server
Under the present invention, a test configuration is provided. The test configuration sets forth a particular enterprise computer architecture of nodes, servers and resources, as well as a quantity of components/beans for an application. Thereafter, the application is generated using a template to replicate the provided quantity of components/beans, and is deployed, installed and started on the application server(s). After the application is started, a client program generated based on the test configuration is run against the application. Throughout the process, (e.g., as the application is being deployed, installed and started, and while the client program is being run), certain performance metrics are monitored to determine the scalability of the application server(s).
Method and system for notification of electronic message reply requirements
The present invention discloses a new function within electronic mail applications whereby documents or messages, which are annotated or designated with a notification such as “reply requested”, are monitored by a new proactive reminder system, in order to minimize the occurrence of the late responses. In the present invention, a new selection is added to the menus to “enable reminder function”. In the process of the present invention, the sender enables the reminder function. The sender then selects the date and time to send a first reminder, (if response has not been received). The sender then selects frequency of reminder after reminder is sent, (every 8 hours for example). The sender can choose to be notified or excluded from reminders. A sender may also choose to be notified, at the reminder interval, that responses have not yet been received; however, in the case where the audience of the note was very large, the user may wish for reminders to be sent to recipients, but not to be copied on them.
Multi-user animation coupled to bulletin board
A multi-user animation process receives input from multiple remote clients to manipulate avatars through a modeled 3-D environment. Each user is represented by an avatar. The 3-D environment and avatar position/location data is provided to client workstations, which display a simulated environment visible to all participants. A text or speech-based bulletin board application is coupled to the animation process. The bulletin board application receives text or speech input from the multiple remote users and publishes the input in a public forum. The bulletin board application maintains multiple forums organized by topic. Access or participation to particular forums is coordinated with the animation process, such that each user may be permitted access to a forum only when the user's avatar is located within a designated room or region of the modeled 3-D environment.
Determining a time point corresponding to change in data values based on fitting with respect to plural aggregate value sets
Aggregation of data values in a data set is computed to produce aggregate values. The aggregate values are partitioned into plural aggregate value sets. Fitting with respect to the plural aggregate value sets is performed. Based on the fitting, at least one time point corresponding to occurrence of a change in the data values is determined.
Method of creating symbolic link capable of being compatible with file system, and method and apparatus for accessing file or directory by using symbolic link
Provided are a method and apparatus for supporting a symbolic link at an application level while keeping the structure of an existing file system that does not support a symbolic link. The method includes receiving a symbolic link creation command including an absolute path and a symbolic link path from a user, creating a symbolic link file for the symbolic link path when the absolute path exists but the symbolic link path does not exit, and changing a value of a specified field of a directory entry of the created symbolic link file to a specified value representing the symbolic link.
File system having deferred verification of data integrity
A computer system employs file system software to maintain a transaction file that includes a plurality of transaction records that each include a header section and a data section. The file system software executes a startup process in which a reconstructed file system is generated in a random access memory. During startup, the file system software selectively verifies only the header section of a transaction record or both the header section and data section of a transaction record based on certain criterion. The transaction records may be stored in Flash memory.
System and method for supporting change notify watches for virtualized storage systems
A technique supports Change Notify watches in virtualized storage systems. In particular, techniques of the present invention advantageously emulate Change Notify features (e.g., as documented by the CIFS protocol) on virtualized storage systems by leveraging virtualization mapping information (e.g., an inode-to-path or “I2P” mapping) to walk a file system tree backwards from the data blocks to their ancestors to determine whether there are applicable watches on ancestor directories, and to obtain a pathname (e.g., relative) of the watched (changed) data. In particular, changes to data received from different protocols (e.g., CIFS, NFS, HTTP, etc.) can trigger watches to clients on the virtualized storage system. Also, performance may be enhanced using various caching techniques, and watch state may be retained while moving watched data across volumes of the virtualized storage system.
Distributed file system and method of operating a distributed file system
A distributed file system including a plurality of compute nodes and a plurality of input/output (I/O) nodes connected by an interconnection network wherein the system is adapted to use a common data representation for both physical and logical partitions of a file stored in the system and wherein the partitions are linearly addressable. Also provided is a method of operating a distributed file system including a plurality of input/output (I/O) nodes and a plurality of compute nodes, the method including partitioning a file into a plurality of subfiles distributed across a plurality of I/O nodes; logically partitioning a file by setting a view on it, computing mappings between a linear space of a file and a linear space of a subfile, computing the intersection between a view and a subfile, and performing data operations.
Automatic reduction of table memory footprint using column cardinality information
In a business system, one or more methods can be used to reduce an amount of redundancy in the storage of data. One implementation includes a method of reducing a memory footprint of a database table having multiple rows and one or more columns, in which each of the one or more columns has a cardinality, and the cardinality is a total number of different values in the rows of each column. The method includes comparing the cardinality with a total number of possible values in the rows of at least one column based on a width of the column. The method also includes reducing the width of the column if the cardinality is less than a threshold based on the total number of possible values in the rows of the column.
System and method for managing simulation models
A system and method for viewing models and model variables within a sophisticated modeling environment is disclosed. The system provides varying levels of insight into a modeling infrastructure to help the user understand model and model variable dependencies, usage, distribution, and/or the like. The method includes storing model and model variable data within a relational database system, receiving a request from a user interfacing with the system via a web interface, extracting search criteria and presentation preferences from the request, formulating and executing one or more queries on the database to retrieve the required data, formatting the data in accordance with the request, and returning the data to the requesting user in the form of a web page.
Data object tracking system and method
A system and method of tracking a data object of a data management system. A tracking object is associated with a first data object, the tracking object including a first status data having a first status value representing a status of the first data object. Upon the creation and/or modification of a second data object that is associated with the first data object, the first status data is automatedly updated with a second status value based on the creating and/or modifying of the second data object.
Dynamic preconditioning of A B+tree
Various approaches for processing a B+tree data structure of a database are disclosed. In one approach a method determines a pattern of multi-column key values. In response to an insert transaction into the database that requires a new index page and before performing the insert transaction, the method generates a plurality of new multi-column key values based on the pattern and stores one or more of the plurality of multi-column key values in one or more new index pages. Before performing the insert, the method further commits to retentive storage of the one or more new index pages and new data pages as linked to the B+tree. After committing the one or more new index pages and new data pages, the method then proceeds to processes and commits the insert transaction.
XML based object-relationship mapping for different object type
A method for XML based object-relationship mapping for different object types in a computer system is provided. The method includes creating a database schema in a database layer including a single table with specific database columns for storing known properties as well as customizable database columns for storing extended properties. The method also includes creating an object in an object layer that has specific methods for known properties and dynamic methods for extended properties, where the object types are variations of the object, the object includes fields for the properties, and the object supports reading and writing the properties to corresponding database columns in the table. The method further includes creating an XML file containing definitions for new object types and new properties, where the property definitions include database column names, and the XML file contains display information for GUI management. The method additionally includes outputting display information a GUI.
Authorization controlled searching
Methods and apparatus, including computer program products, for authorization controlled searching. In general, a search request is received, a database data structure is searched where the data structure is populated with records that include data and criteria for authorization to access the data, and a set of results is presented to a user, where the set of results includes data from the data structure for which a user is authorized the criteria is used to determine which results to include in the set of results. The criteria for authorization to access the data may be simple or complex, and may be based on a formation of associations from multiple layers of associations.
Method for generating structured query results using lexical clustering
The present invention provides for the generation of structured query results using lexical clustering which includes collecting one or more search queries and data associated with the one or more search queries. The present invention further includes preprocessing the one or more queries into a canonicalized form of each of the one or more queries. The canonicalized form of each of the one or more queries may be accomplished using stemming, punctuation, pluralization, word order or other canonicalization rules. The present invention further includes building a lexical index of the one or more search queries and data associated with the one or more search queries and mining the lexical index of the one or more search queries and data associated with the one or more search queries in order to generate a structured query result set.
System for determining changes in the relative interest of subjects
A system for determining changes in the interest of a subject over a time period. The system measures the volume of news articles for a subject over a time period and makes a comparison to a previous volume of news articles for the same subject over a previous time period.
Importance ranking for a hierarchical collection of objects
A system and method of obtaining an importance ranking for a hierarchical collection of objects. The hierarchical collection of objects is represented as a tree containing a plurality of nodes, and each node to be ranked is represented as a respective leaf node of the tree. To obtain the ranking of the respective leaf nodes, the system and method locally ranks nodes contained in one or more sub-trees of the tree, in which each sub-tree has a depth equal to one. Next, the local rankings are effectively propagated up the tree, and the local rankings are aggregated at each level of the hierarchy, until a final importance ranking for the leaf nodes is obtained.
System and method for transcoding digital content
A system and method for transcoding digital content (e.g. web content) by correctly employing one annotation for multiple digital contents. This can efficiently reduce the workloads required for the addition of annotation data during the transcoding process. A transcoding system comprises an annotation database system for storing annotation data to be used for the transcoding of contents, and a transcoder for transcoding the contents based on annotation data stored in the annotation database system. Upon receiving an inquiry from the transcoder, a correlation between elements in the contents and descriptions of the annotation data is checked to select one annotation that can be employed for transcoding the content. The correlation is specifically determined based on XPath information.
A model repository is provided for storing selected data models generated by a data mining application. The model repository may include one or more index data structures for storing attributes of the models within the model repository. A user may then search through the one or more indexes in order to find a model that suits his or her needs.
Mechanism for unsupervised clustering
A computer-implemented method for determining cluster centers in a first data structure, wherein the first data structure comprises a lattice structure of weight vectors that create an approximate representation of a plurality of input data points. The method can include performing a first iterative process for iteratively updating the weight vectors such that they move toward cluster centers; performing a second iterative process for iteratively updating a second data structure utilizing results of the iterative updating of the first data structure; and determining the weight vectors that correspond to cluster centers of the input data points on the basis of the second data structure.
Distributed hierarchical text classification framework
A method and system for distributed training of a hierarchical classifier for classifying documents using a classification hierarchy is provided. A training system provides training data that includes the documents and classifications of the documents within the classification hierarchy. The training system distributes the training of the classifiers of the hierarchical classifier to various agents so that the classifiers can be trained in parallel. For each classifier, the training system identifies an agent that is to train the classifier. Each agent then trains its classifiers.
Method and apparatus for incorporating metadata in data clustering
Documents in a high density data stream are clustered. Incoming documents are analyzed to find metadata, such as words in a documents headline or abstract and people, places, and organizations discussed in the document. The metadata is emphasized as compared to other words found in the document. A single feature vector for each document determined based on the emphasized metadata will accordingly take into account the importance of such words and clustering efficacy and efficiency are improved.
Process for enhancing queries for information retrieval
Enhancing queries for information retrieval that automatically finds the preferred, first ranked matching term usage subject area (“TUSA”) from a prior query. The process automatically finds alternative TUSAs for the prior query, ranked by degree of match or preference, and provides an option to switch among the alternative TUSAs. It is required that a TUSA for the query be passively accepted or actively selected from a presented list based on the prior query. Using means prepared in advance from data sets of messages collected for each TUSA and general vocabulary the process also ranks and presents to the user alternative and additional query terms and phrases reflecting specificity and relevance to the query and the TUSA. Significantly relevant terms and phrases are presented for query refinement and ranked by relevance permitting the user to select and deselect query terms and effect a new search based on the enhanced query.
Compile-time optimizations of queries with SQL spreadsheet
Described herein are optimizations and execution strategies for spreadsheet extensions to SQL. The partitioning of data, as specified in a spreadsheet clause, provides a way to parallelize the computation of spreadsheet and to provide and improve scalability. Even if the partitioning is not explicitly specified in the spreadsheet clause, the database optimizer can automatically infer the partitioning in some cases. Efficient hash based access structures on relations can be used for symbolic array addressing, enabling fast computation of formulas. When rewriting SQL statements, formulas whose results are not referenced in outer blocks can be removed from the spreadsheet clause, thus removing unnecessary computations. The predicates from other query blocks can be moved inside query blocks with spreadsheets clauses, thus considerably reducing the amount of data to be processed. Conditions for validity of this transformation are given.
System and method for semantic analysis of intelligent device discovery
The present invention provides a method, system, and service of analyzing electronic documents in an intranet, where the intranet includes a plurality of web sites. In an exemplary embodiment, the method, system, and service include (1) crawling HTML content and text content in a set of the sites, (2) deep-scanning non-HTML content and non-text content in the set of sites, (3) reverse-scanning the set of sites, (4) performing a semantic analysis of the crawled content and the deep-scanned content, (5) correlating the results of the semantic analysis with the results of the reverse-scanning, and (6) comparing user navigation patterns and content from the members of the set of sites. In a further embodiment, the method, system, and service further include combining the results of the performing, the results of the correlating, and the results of the comparing.
Usage of development context in search operations
Metadata corresponding to a plurality of documents is maintained. The metadata indicates whether a document includes information that is pertinent to a first development context and a second development context of a software development environment. A search term in a current development context of the software development environment is received. Search results comprising selected documents from the plurality of documents are generated. The selected documents are based on at least the search term, the current development context, and the metadata maintained with the plurality of documents.
Generating from application modifications commands to modify the objects in a repository
Provided are a method, system, and article of manufacture for generating from application modifications commands to modify the objects in a repository. An input object including an update to at least one of a plurality of objects in a repository object is received. At least one maintain property associated with at least one of the objects is received. The at least one maintain property indicates whether to maintain the at least one object associated with the maintain property in the repository object that is not indicated in the input object. A determination is made of an object in the repository object that are not indicated in the input object. For the determined object, the maintain property associated with the determined object is used to determine whether to maintain the determined object in the repository object.
Method and system for performing exact match searches using multiple hash tables
A method and system to perform exact match searches for fixed- or variable-length keys stored in a search database. The method is implemented using a plurality of hash tables, each indexed using an independent hash function. A system implementing this method provides deterministic search time, independent of the number of keys in the search database. The method permits two basic implementations; one which minimizes memory storage, and another which minimizes search time. The latter requires only two memory accesses to locate a key.
Methods and systems for verifying the accuracy of reported information
Systems and methods are disclosed for verifying the accuracy of reported information. The systems and methods may include generating a hash based on ingredient data related to the creation of a report, storing the hash and the ingredients in a database, the hash being associated with the ingredient data in the database, and outputting the report, the report including the hash. Furthermore, the systems and methods may include receiving an input, the input being based on a first hash of ingredient data related to the creation of the report and determining if the database contains a record corresponding to the input. Moreover, the systems and methods may include outputting information contained in the record corresponding to the input if it was determined that the database contains the record corresponding to the input, the information contained in the record comprising the ingredient data.
Systems and methods for automatically categorizing digital assets
In a system for managing digital assets in a distributed computing environment, meta-data for the digital assets is generated by clients of the system and stored separately from the digital assets, such as at a central location. A computer system operating under control of an operating system performs categorization of the digital assets using an agent operating in user space of the computer system. The agent receives an I/O request identifying a digital asset and applies categorization information to the identified digital asset based on the received I/O request without intervention by an end-user of the computer system, and the categorization information is stored as part of an asset identification tag associated with the digital asset.
System and method remapping identifiers to secure files
A flexible system for associating a data stream with one or more secure control files based on mapping self-declared identifiers to trusted identifiers. It has particular application in relation to XML documents, XML Schema, XPath/XSLT/XQuery and WSDL file processing. Control file identifiers are detected in a data stream and transformed to map to new identifiers which are correlated to locations which are more secure and/or accessible. Optionally, copies of the control files are then stored and maintained at the new locations.
Information retrieval systems with duplicate document detection and presentation functions
Many companies provide online search facilities that enable users to conduct computerized searches for documents. Unfortunately, these searches frequently provide results that include duplicate documents—that is, documents that are completely or substantially identical to each other. This problem is particularly vexing when searching news stories, for example. Moreover, the duplicate documents are intermixed in the search results, leaving users to manually manage the complexities of identifying and/or filtering them. Accordingly, the present inventors devised systems, methods, and software that facilitate the identification and/or grouping of duplicate documents in search results. One exemplary system includes a signature generation module which generates document signatures based on length, temporal, and/or content components; a real-time duplicate detection module which uses the document signatures to identify “exact” or “fuzzy” duplicate documents; and a user-interface or presentation module which controls how duplicate documents are presented or suppressed in search results.
Analysis of performance data from a relational database system for applications using stored procedures or SQL
Analyzing performance data from a relational database to discover poorly performing SQL statements includes creating event records of performance data for query statements executed by a relational database management system, and condensing the performance data in the event records. A performance summary can be generated for each condensed event record. The performance summaries can then be analyzed based on performance characteristics to identify poorly performing SQL statements.
System and method for restoring data on demand for instant volume restoration
A technique is disclosed for restoring data of sparse volumes, where one or more block pointers within the file system structure are marked as ABSENT, and fetching the appropriate data from an alternate location on demand. Client data access requests to the local storage system initiate a restoration of the data from a backing store as required. A demand generator can also be used to restore the data as a background process by walking through the sparse volume and restoring the data of absent blocks. A pump module is also disclosed to regulate the access of the demand generator. Once all the data has been restored, the volume contains all data locally, and is no longer a sparse volume.
Method and system for generating and restoring a backup image
A method and system for generating and restoring a backup image are disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a server receives a request to generate a backup image. The request includes a selection a backup path. Based on the backup path, the server generates a list of files and/or directories to backup. However, before writing the files to the backup image, the server generates an offset map to indicate where in the backup image each file will be located. The server then writes the offset map to the backup image. During a restore operation, the server receives a request to restore files, including a selection of files and/or directories to restore. The server reads the offset map from the beginning of the backup image to quickly determine the location in the backup image of selected files.
Performance metric-based selection of one or more database server instances to perform database recovery
A method and apparatus for selecting one or more instances to perform database recovery is provided. According to one aspect, one or more performance metrics are determined for each instance on each node in a cluster. Based on these performance metrics, which may be weighted to give one or more metrics more significance relative to the other metrics, an overall score is determined for each instance on each surviving node when a node in the cluster fails. One or more instances with the highest of these scores are selected. The selected instances are assigned the task of performing the database recovery process. Because instances best able to handle to database recovery process are selected, the database recovery process consumes less time, thereby making data accessible in less time after a node fails.
System and method for on-demand integrated archive repository
System, method and computer program product for creating, managing, and accessing an information repository including a source database and an archive database. A source database and the archive database are defined to a same schema. A user terminal presents a common user interface for accessing the source database and the archive database. A timed archive agent, an end user archive agent, and a criteria based archive agent archive source data from the source database as archive data to the archive database. A criteria based restore agent and an end user restore agent are provided to restore archive data from the archive database as source data to the source database. An integrated functions agent assembles compiled data from source data and archive data and present the compiled data to the user interface.
Managing backup of content
Systems and methods for generating incremental backups are provided. In one implementation a method is provided. The method includes receiving, while a current view is displayed in a user interface, a first user input requesting that a history view associated with the current view be displayed. The history view is displayed in response to the first user input, the history view including at least a first visual representation of an earlier version of the current view, the earlier version including a first element. A second user input is received while the history view is displayed. The second user input requests that the current view be modified according to the earlier version, at least with regard to the first element.
Searching a backup archive
Systems and methods are provided for searching. In one implementation, a method is provided. A current view of a search application is displayed in a user interface. The current view of the search application includes a search result including one or more elements. A first user input is received while the current view of a search application is displayed. The first user input requests that a history view associated with the current view of the search application be displayed. The history view includes search results based on a search of system data from an archive. The history view is displayed in response to the first user input, the history view including search results having a first item not present in the one or more elements.
Electronic discovery system and method
A computer investigation system and method that conducts electronic discovery of desired files across a live network in a forensically sound manner. The investigation entails an examining machine electronically identifying, collecting, and preserving evidence from target machines that is responsive to a set of investigation criteria. The set of investigation criteria is associated with an investigation subject that is identified by a global unique identifier (GUID). As the investigation subject is applied to the various files, the responsive files are stamped with the GUID and preserved in a container file referred to as a logical evidence file (LEF). The GUID allows the results of an investigation to be easily and reliably traced to the particular investigation subject that was applied.
System and method to avoid oscillatory behavior in proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers by using fuzzy inference and modified/active damping
An instability avoidance module that can be implemented in SISO PID control loops to automatically adjust the controller's tuning parameters when undesired oscillatory behavior is monitored. This module is a Fuzzy-based Supervisor composed of a dynamic parameter identification module that operates on-line, and a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) with fuzzy rules to modify PID tuning. Tests in nonlinear process models were performed, demonstrating that this Fuzzy Supervisor—Type 1 (non-intrusive) provides the PID controller the ability to adapt its tuning to eliminate the observed oscillatory behavior.
Method and system for sequential compilation and execution of rules
Systems and methods for matching objects against a set of rules are described. The present invention is a novel rule execution algorithm that generally operates with greater efficiency than known algorithms. The algorithm uses a test analyzer to determine the relationships that exist between pairs of tests within a ruleset. Each rule is then translated into loops and tests, and merged into a unified series of loops and tests using the output of the test analyzer. The algorithm then generates pattern matching code corresponding to the unified series of loops and tests for evaluation by a virtual machine, and auxiliary code that provides object manipulations and rule actions at the service of the pattern matching code. In its runtime, the algorithm loads objects into the pattern matching code through an access interface. The pattern matching code is then executed by the virtual machine against the loaded objects.
Method and system for transitioning from a case-based classifier system to a rule-based classifier system
A computer implemented method including determining whether a predetermined condition is satisfied with respect to a case-based dataset stored within memory accessible by at least one processor; generating, for each of a plurality of rule-based classifiers, rule-based classification data identifying class boundaries between the records upon determining that the predetermined condition has been satisfied; computing a structural risk of the rule-based classification data for each of the rule-based classifiers with respect to the records identified within the record data; selecting rule-based classifiers having generated rule-based classification data identifying class boundaries between the records with a structural risk below a predetermined threshold; identifying selected rule-based classifiers having rule-based classification data that is within a predetermined degree of similarity with the case-wise classification data; and replacing the case-based dataset stored within the memory with rule-based classification data of at least one of the identified rule-based classifiers.
System and method for supporting the utilization of machine language
A system and method is disclosed which integrates a machine learning solution into a large scale, distributed transaction processing system using a supporting architecture comprising a combination of computer hardware and software. Methods of using a system comprising such supporting architecture provide application designers access to the functionality included in a machine learning solution, but might also provide additional functionality not supported by the machine learning solution itself.
Method for presenting optimal internet keyword based search result sets using an environmental bitmap and environmental bitmap pyramid structure
A method for simulating the entire superset of potential valid keyword regular expression requests constructed during an Internet browser search and converting the result sets into Environmental Bitmap data to enable efficient and accurate searching without requiring Browser Engine supercomputer cluster searching capabilities.
System and method for implementing a multi objective evolutionary algorithm on a programmable logic hardware device
A system for implementing a multi objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) on a programmable hardware device is provided. The system comprises a random number generator, a population generator, a crossover/mutation module, a fitness evaluator, a dominance filter and an archive. The random number generator is configured to generate a sequence of pseudo random numbers. The population generator is configured to generate a population of solutions based on the output from the random number generator. The crossover/mutation module is configured to adapt the population of solutions to generate an adapted population of solutions. The fitness evaluator is configured to evaluate each member comprising the population of solutions and the adapted population of solutions. The fitness evaluator is implemented on the programmable hardware device. The dominance filter is configured to select a subset of members from the population of solutions and the adapted population of solutions and generate a filtered population of solutions. The archive configured to store populations of solutions.
Portability of financial tokens
A method determines that a first relationship between a holder of a portable consumer device and a first employer is terminated. In response to determining that the first relationship is terminated, the method also disassociates account information of the portable consumer device from the first employer while retaining an association between the portable consumer device and an issuer of the portable consumer device. In addition, the method establishes a second relationship between the employee and a second employer and links the account information of the portable consumer device with the second employer.
System and method for estimating order position
A system and method for providing order queue position information are disclosed. In this application, market updates are received for a tradeable object from at least one exchange. To the extent that the market updates do not include enough details to compute the queue position of a trader's working orders, estimation may be used. As a result, an order queue is generated to approximate a trader's order position in an exchange price order queue. An interface may be used to display the generated order queue estimation to the trader which provides valuable trading information.
System and method for financial planning
Disclosed are systems and methods for financial planning. The systems and methods communicate with a customer and provide a financial planning service for use with at least one financial planning product by collecting data from a customer using a structured data collection form which is dynamically modified based on the financial product selected, the data provided by the customer, and data relating to the customer that is retrieved from a database.
Drift determination in multi-style managed client investment account
A processor and system are provided for determining drift in an investment account having assets associated with a plurality of investment styles. An actual asset allocation of at least one portion of the investment account is determined. The at least one portion of the investment account includes both cash assets and security assets. The actual asset allocation of the at least one portion of the investment account is compared to an allocation rule. A drift of assets associated with the at least one portion is determined based on the comparison. A rebalancing of the investment account may occur based on the determined drift.
Methods and systems for validating the authority of the holder of a digital certificate issued by a certificate authority
A method for a financial services provider to securely process corporate payment requests includes a step of issuing a primary digital certificate to a primary certificate holder of a corporation. The primary certificate authorizes the primary certificate holder to designate a plurality of holders of secondary digital certificates that are derivative from the primary certificate, each of the primary and plurality of secondary certificates including unique identifying information and/or an indication of authority of the holder of the certificate. Pending corporate payment requests are collected for clearing against the account of the corporation, and a pending payment statement is periodically generated, the statement including the collected pending payment requests. Thereafter, each of the collected pending payment requests is required to be validated by an authenticated primary or secondary certificate holder having the authority to validate the payment requests and only the validated corporate payment requests of the pending payment statement are cleared (paid) against the corporate account.
Educational tuition securities system
An educational tuition securities system is provided. An educational institution can securitize tuition or course credits into tuition shares. Tuition shares in an educational institution can be purchased for a student and redeemed for payment of tuition credits or education costs at the educational institution. Tuition shares for an educational institution can be traded for tuition shares of another institution. Redeemed tuition shares can be used to pay for undergraduate and graduate education costs, or could be redeemed for cash. The invention provides a mechanism for paying future education costs, as well as for investing in educational institutions.
Enhanced system and method to verify that checks are deposited in the correct account
Enhanced systems and methods for processing invoices, checks, and money transfers are described. Various aspects include the following: Invoices are compared to distinguishing features of known templates. Templates of matching features are used to extract data in the invoices. Enhanced payment documents are generated to include images of related invoices to ensure proper deposit. Payee information solicited from a payee is printed on an endorsement section of a check payable to the payee to ensure proper deposit. The payee information can be verified through a mock transaction. Unique invoice numbers and payor numbers are included in invoices to ensure proper accreditation of payments of the invoices. Money transfers among accounts of different banks are effected through master accounts in the different banks.
Enhanced automated capture of invoices into an electronic payment system
The recognition of invoices for multiple issuers and multiple recipients is automated. In one approach, many invoices are received. The received invoices are compared to a database of distinguishing features. These distinguishing features are for known templates of invoices from different issuers. Templates are selected for the invoices based on the comparisons to the distinguishing features. This also identifies the issuers for the invoices. Data is extracted from the invoices based on the selected templates. In this way, invoice capture can be automated.
Tax transaction system
A tax transaction system, and combined sale and tax transaction systems, are disclosed for use in electronic commerce for the deduction of a tax, which may be a sales tax, value-added tax, or any tax on income related to a transaction or taxing event. A trusted third party server system (300, 1060) may be provided which handles the calculation and/or deduction of a tax, e.g. related to a transaction of the sale of a good or service from a seller (200) to a buyer (100), on behalf of the seller, and which further provides for the remission of the tax to a tax collection agency (500, 1090), and which may perform the entire sale and tax transaction by proxy on behalf of the seller. Software modules (1070) including objects which embody instruction code and data structures to enable integral tax calculation and collection solutions, including multi-jurisdictional tax calculation, remission and reporting, and even real time tax collection at point of sale, are provided. Such modules may form part of a data processing system hosted by a third party to a taxing event transaction, or be distributed in a pervasive manner, such as via the Internet in multiple server locations, as a downloadable client module, embodied in multiple hardware devices such as smartcards, electronic tags, radio frequency identification (RFID) tags.
Methods and apparatus for freshness and completeness of information
A system that facilitates publishing and consuming information that is of time sensitivity, for example, price information. Methods are employed to achieve completeness and freshness in information for a given domain. A preferred embodiment is a shopping site that is capable of comparing prices, purchasing bundled products and dealing with coupons.
System, method, and computer readable storage medium for the processing of print orders
When a user receives an online service by accessing a plurality of sites in turn, the user is immediately notified that the user cannot obtain the service since a certain site is out of service. A communication terminal accesses a first information processing apparatus and a second information processing apparatus in turn to execute communication, thereby obtaining the service. When a service intermediation apparatus receives a request for a service from the communication terminal, the service intermediation apparatus detects an operating state of the second information processing apparatus. Then, for example, if the second information processing apparatus is in operation, a link to the first information processing apparatus is provided as a response to the communication terminal. If the second information processing apparatus is out of operation, the link thereto is not provided.
Method and system for providing reverse online auction and mobile commerce
A system for providing product pricing information is disclosed. The system includes a mobile client configured to allow a user to issue a request for pricing information on a specified product, a price research server configured to receive the request from the mobile client and generate pricing research results on the specified product in response to the request, the pricing research results including pricing information with respect to the specified product collected from one or more merchants, and a merchant server configured to receive the pricing research results and generate a response for delivery to the mobile client, the response including an offer.
Intelligent performance-based product recommendation system
Systems and methods of utilizing communications networks and multivariate analysis to predict or recommend optimal products from a predefined population of commercially available products are disclosed. The recommendations are based on intelligence contained in processing elements and subjective and/or objective product information received from consumers or input to the systems as part of their initial setup. The output of the systems comprise sets of products that they predict the consumer will prefer and/or perform well for the problem or concern identified by the consumer. The performance and preference predictions are a function of consumer problems and product responsiveness patterns. Objective product information is generally obtained with diagnostic instruments. Data measured with the diagnostic instruments may be communicated to the data processing portions of the invention via the Internet. The outputs of the data processing portion of the system may be presented to consumers via the Internet as well.
Computer-implemented method, tool, and program product for scheduling an information technology (IT) migration
The present invention provides a computer-implemented method, tool, and program product for scheduling an IT migration. Specifically, under the present invention, migration information for the IT migration is received in an electronic database. A schedule to perform the IT migration is the generated based on the migration information using an IT migration tool. Thereafter, messages such as email messages that contain the schedule are generated and sent to corresponding device owners using the IT migration tool. In addition, purchase orders for components needed for the IT migration based on the migration information can be generated using the IT migration tool.
Progressive refinement model for business processes
In one embodiment, a method for refining a business process model includes receiving business process data pertaining to a first phase of a business process definition from a first class of users, creating a model of a business process using the business process data received from the first class of users, receiving business process data pertaining to a second phase of the business process definition from a second class of users, and augmenting the model of the business process based on the business process data received from the second class of users. The method further includes iteratively refining the model of the business process in response to input provided by the first class of users and/or the second class of users.
Method and system for automatically keeping travel data consistent between passenger reservation records and corresponding electronic tickets
A method and a system keeps travel data consistent between a database of airline reservations storing passenger name records (PNR's) including travel segments, and a database of electronic tickets (E-tickets) including travel coupons, this latter database being independently controlled from a ticketing server. Whenever a travel segment is updated or added in one of the PNR's an electronic reconciliation service (ERS) receives images of updated PNR's. Corresponding E-ticket images are requested by ERS and received from the database of E-tickets. Then, ERS establishes a matrix of links between orphan PNR travel segments and orphan E-ticket travel coupons so that E-ticket orphan travel coupons are re-associated with matching PNR orphan travel segments. After E-ticket is updated it is revalidated or reissued. Optionally, a penalty generator calculates penalty fees on the basis of changes brought to the revalidated or reissued E-tickets. The penalty fees are then attached to the updated PNR's.
Rapid business support of insured property using image analysis
A method of providing rapid business support of insured property using image analysis can include the step of receiving at least one digital image of damaged property. Damage can be automatically accessed for insurance purposes based upon the received images. An incident response can be automatically determined based at least in part upon the damage assessment. Incident responses can include, but are not limited to, tendering a claim payoff offer, referring a claim to a human agent, providing repair instructions, and/or arranging for a physical damage assessment of the damaged property.
System and method for providing a consistent visual appearance to output generated by multiple applications
The techniques and mechanisms described herein are directed to a method for creating an identity that defines a visual appearance for output generated by multiple applications. The identity may include a base design, an effects scheme, a color scheme, a font scheme, a logo, and business information. The identity being saved in a form that is accessible by the multiple applications so that when accessed, the application applies the identity to a document to give the document a consistent visual appearance with output from other applications.
Systems and methods for responding to natural language speech utterance
Systems and methods for receiving natural language queries and/or commands and execute the queries and/or commands. The systems and methods overcomes the deficiencies of prior art speech query and response systems through the application of a complete speech-based information query, retrieval, presentation and command environment. This environment makes significant use of context, prior information, domain knowledge, and user specific profile data to achieve a natural environment for one or more users making queries or commands in multiple domains. Through this integrated approach, a complete speech-based natural language query and response environment can be created. The systems and methods creates, stores and uses extensive personal profile information for each user, thereby improving the reliability of determining the context and presenting the expected results for a particular question or command.
A method for managing interactive dialog between a machine and a user is claimed. In one embodiment, an interaction between the machine and the user is managed by determining at least one likelihood value which is dependent upon a possible speech onset of the user. In another embodiment, the likelihood value can be dependent a model of a desire of the user for specific items, a model of an attention of the user to specific items, or a model of turn-taking cues. Further, the likelihood value can be utilized in a voice activity system.
Indexing and searching speech with text meta-data
An index for searching spoken documents having speech data and text meta-data is created by obtaining probabilities of occurrence of words and positional information of the words of the speech data and combining it with at least positional information of the words in the text meta-data. A single index can be created because the speech data and the text meta-data are treated the same and considered only different categories.
Speech recognition application or server using iterative recognition constraints
A speech recognition application including a recognition module configured to receive input utterances and an application module configured to select a recognition from the speech recognition module using output from a first iteration to select a recognition result for a second iteration. In one embodiment, the application module eliminates a previous rejected recognition result or results from the N-Best list for recognition. In another embodiment, the application module rescores N-Best entries based upon N-Best lists or information from another iteration. In another illustrated embodiment, the application module uses a limited grammar from a current N-Best list for subsequent recognition, for example for rerecognition using a recorded input from a previous iteration.
One-step repair of misrecognized recognition strings
A method for use in automatic speech recognition corrects erroneous recognition elements within a recognition hypothesis. A user input is recognized as a correction hypothesis which contains various recognition elements. A non-deterministic alignment is performed to align at least a portion of the correction hypothesis with an earlier recognition hypothesis which also contains various recognition elements such that the recognition elements in the aligned portion of the correction hypothesis are determined to most likely, correspond to a range of recognition elements in the earlier recognition hypotheses. The recognition elements in the range of recognition elements in the earlier recognition hypothesis are replaced with the recognition elements in the aligned portion of the correction hypothesis.
Method and apparatus for improving the transcription accuracy of speech recognition software
The present invention involves an enhanced method for operating a speech recognition system in which sequential vocabularies are loaded for comparison to the input speech. Form each sequential vocabulary a subset of candidate vocabulary elements are selected for matching, the probability match scores of each of the selected candidate vocabulary elements is weighted by a weighting factor that is dependant on the particular vocabulary from which the vocabulary elements are selected. As each set of candidate vocabulary elements is selected from the next sequential vocabulary, the selected set is combined with the set of previously selected and weighted vocabulary elements, which is then further weighted according to the weighting criteria of the then active vocabulary. At the end of the sequential vocabulary selection grouping process, the final, sequentially weighted match scores for the candidate vocabulary elements are arranged and an appropriate match to the input speech is presented.
Voice based keyword search algorithm
A search algorithm utilizing confidence levels of keywords spoken by a caller to identify keyword indexed search items which best match the spoken keywords. In response to receiving a spoken search request from a caller, keywords are identified in the spoken search request. A list of candidates is created comprising a match to at least one of the keywords, wherein each candidate in the list is assigned a level of confidence in the match. Keyword indexed search items having at least one of the keywords as an index and an original matching score are then located. The original matching score of each keyword indexed search item is weighted with the level of confidence in the list of candidates to form weighted matching scores. The keyword indexed search items are sorted based on weighted matching score. A list of the sorted keyword indexed search items is then created.
Vector transformation apparatus and vector transformation method
There is provided a vector conversion device for converting a reference vector used for quantization of an input vector so as to improve a signal quality including audio. In this vector conversion device, a vector quantization unit (902) acquires a number corresponding to a decoded LPC parameter of a narrow band from all the code vectors stored in a code book (903). A vector dequantization unit (904) references the number of the code vector obtained by the vector quantization unit (902) and selects a code vector from the code book (905). A conversion unit (906) performs calculation by using a sampling-adjusted decoded LPC parameter obtained from an up-sampling unit (901) and a code vector obtained from the vector dequantization unit (904), thereby obtaining a decoded LPC parameter of a broad band.
Concept matching system
A system for retrieving documents related to a concept from a text corpus includes a set of stored semantic classes which are combinable to express the concept each class including a set of keywords, each set of keywords including at least one keyword. Syntactic rules are applied to identified text portions which include one or more of the keywords. A rule is satisfied when keywords from the first and second semantic classes are in any one of a plurality of syntactic relationships. A concept matching module identifies text portions within the text corpus which include one or more of the keywords, for applying the syntactic rules to the text portions, and for identifying those text portions which satisfy at least one of the rules. Documents to be retrieved may include at least one of the identified text portions.
System for reading chinese characters in seconds
A method by which a user (who needs no knowledge of character configuration or Pinyin spelling) brings to an electronic device an unknown, user-chosen Chinese or other Oriental character/characters. The method is comprised of entering one or more easy-to-remember symbols (e.g., B, X, 4, 5, lantern, pointer, familiar to users of Western languages and found in all Chinese characters), and a character's stroke and optional stroke range number. The resulting output of character text is then available for use in other software programs, e.g., Microsoft Word. Also, output of a character's associated Pinyin spelling and translation precludes the need for further queries through other hard-copy or electronic translation devices. In addition, other system modes are used for: write-in's, browsing, inputting and retrieving of user-generated words, measure words, games, and dictionary. A single operation from first input to final output can be accomplished, on average, in less than one minute.
System and method for emulating serial port communication
A method and system of emulating serial com port communication. A computer processing system has computer-executable operating system instructions including first instructions that interact with a first serial device according to a predefined input/output (I/O) hardware interface. A first serial device has a receive port and a transmit port and has the predefined (I/O) hardware interface. A second serial device has a receive port and a transmit port. The transmit port of the first serial device is in serial communication with the receive port of the second serial device, and the receive port of the first serial device is in serial communication with the transmit port of the second serial device. Computer-executable instructions emulate serial communication port device communication and include instructions that transmit information over another medium in response to receive requests from the second serial device.
Real time monitoring and control of thermal recovery operations for heavy oil reservoirs
Systems and techniques, including computer programs, for monitoring and controlling thermal recovery involve generating input parameters for use in real time monitoring and controlling of a thermal recovery operation for a reservoir. The input parameters to a thermal generator are generated using a reservoir simulator and an economic model, and the input parameters have a corresponding predicted output of the thermal recovery operation. Data indicative of actual output from the reservoir is received, and the reservoir simulator is automatically updated based on a comparison of the data indicative of the actual output with the predicted output.
Computer aided modeling
Different designers of a structure exchange information on their plans (models) with each other. This information is exchanged by reference data which may be in another format than what the designer's application is using. To facilitate a designer to maintain correspondence between his/her model and models handled by different designers, when the reference data is read and an entity is recognized in the data, geometric characteristics of the entity are calculated, and an identifier is formed for the entity by means of the geometric characteristics. The identifier is stored in the model, and it can be used to identify the entity as long as the entity remains unchanged although reference data is updated.
Waveform analyzing method and apparatus for physiological parameters
A method and an apparatus are provided for performing waveform analysis on physiological parameters. In one embodiment, a method includes reading measurement values of a first physiological parameter relating to time, and displaying them as a trend display graph in a trend display area that includes first coordinates representing time and second coordinates representing the measurement values. The method also includes acquiring a time selected in the trend display graph, and displaying, in a waveform display area, waveform data of a second physiological parameter associated with formation of the first physiological parameter during periods before and after the selected time. The waveform display area includes time coordinates. The disclosed embodiments allow medical staff to view the curve of a patient's physiological parameters throughout a monitoring/therapy period. Medical staff may make a detailed analysis of the waveform data in real time, which may provide a basis for making decisions in the following therapy processes.
Automatic configuration of robotic transaction playback through analysis of previously collected traffic patterns
A system or method which accesses or otherwise receives collected performance data for at least one server application, where the server application is capable of performing a plurality of transactions with client devices and the client devices are geographically dispersed from the server in known geographical locales, which automatically determines from the performance data which of the transactions are utilized by users of the client devices, which selects utilized transactions according to at least one pre-determined selection criteria, which automatically generates a transaction playback script for each of the selected transactions substituting test information in place of user-supplied or user-unique information in the transactions, which designates each script for execution from a geographical locale corresponding to the locale of the clients which execute the utilized transactions, which deploys the playback scripts to robotic agents geographically co-located with client devices according to the locale designation, and which executes the playback scripts.
Apparatus and method of measuring workpieces
A method and apparatus for measuring a surface using a surface sensing device mounted on a scanning head on a member of a coordinate positioning apparatus. The coordinate positioning apparatus may be operated to produce relative movement between the scanning head and the surface profile and the scanning head includes a drive for producing rotational movement of the surface sensing probe about one or more axis. A desired measurement profile on the surface which the surface sensing device will track and the desired motion of the orientation of the surface sensing device as the surface' sensing device follows the measurement profile are defined. This data is used to derive the required path of the relative motion between the member of the coordinate positioning apparatus and the surface, such that the surface sensing device prescribes a trajectory along the measurement profile.
Method for determining metabolic flux affecting substance production
A metabolic flux affecting substance production using cells is determined by 1) creating a stoichiometric matrix based on formulas of biochemical reactions from a substrate through a desired produced substance, 2) selecting the same number of independent metabolic fluxes from all metabolic fluxes as the degree of freedom of the stoichiometric matrix as free fluxes, 3) creating a sufficient number of random combinations of the free fluxes for a statistical analysis and calculating a metabolic flux distribution from each created combination based on the stoichiometric matrix, 4) obtaining a regression equation including a minimum number of free fluxes that shows a correlation with substance production from the calculated metabolic flux distributions by a multivariate statistical analysis, and 5) determining at least one metabolic flux affecting substance production based on a coefficient in the obtained regression equation.
Lightning detector using an X-ray detector and an E- or B-field detector
A lightning detection system (100) includes at least one lightning detector (101-103). The said lightning detector (101-103) includes at least one x-ray detector (110) for providing x-ray data responsive to x-rays received, and an electric field or magnetic field detector (115) for providing electric field or magnetic field data responsive to electric field or magnetic field received. At least one signal processor (122) is coupled to the x-ray detector and the electric field or magnetic field detector. The processor (122) determines whether lightning will strike or has struck proximate to the lightning detector(s) (101-103) based on the x-ray data and electric field or magnetic field data, and can provide a strike point indication having an accuracy of generally better than (100) m.
Geomagnetic sensor and azimuth calculation method thereof
A geomagnetic sensor with 3-axis acceleration sensors is provided. The geomagnetic sensor a geomagnetic measurement module including flux gates of X, Y and Z axes mutually crossing at right angles, a tilt measurement module including acceleration sensors of X, Y and Z axes mutually crossing at right angles, a tilt calculator primarily calculating a pitch angle and a roll angle using output values of each acceleration sensors of the X and Y axes, and performing second calculation by adjusting at least one of the primarily calculated pitch angle and roll angle using an output value of the acceleration sensor of the Z axis, and a controller calculating an azimuth using the readjusted pitch angle and roll angle and an output value of the geomagnetic measurement module. Accordingly, the pitch angle and roll angle are precisely measured to calculate the azimuth.
A navigation apparatus is obtained that can reduce as much as possible to blank interval during the navigation even when a route deviation has occurred. In order to structure a navigation apparatus that includes a guided vehicle position determining portion 3c that finds the position of a guided vehicle and a recommended route searching portion 3i that searches for a recommended route to a destination point, a problem condition identifying portion 3f is provided that identifies the presence or absence of a problem condition that makes the travel along the recommended route Ro difficult when viewed in terms of the current condition of the guided vehicle with respect to the recommended route Ro forward travel side of the position of the guided vehicle, and a route deviation plan portion 3h is provided that sets a point that the guided vehicle is anticipated to reach under the presence of the problem condition to the starting point, activates the recommended route searching portion 3i, and searches for a new recommended route Rn from the starting point to a destination point in the case in which the problem condition identifying portion 3f has identified that a problem condition is present.
Onboard content providing apparatus
In an information providing service that utilizes a car navigation system or the like, ensuring safety while viewing content is a matter of great concern. A vehicle-mounted onboard content providing apparatus for providing content to a user of the vehicle, comprising a current location acquisition unit for acquiring information about the current location, an instruction input unit whereby information about the destination and instructions for selecting the content to be delivered are inputted, a control unit for editing the content retrieved based on the instructions, and an output unit for outputting the edited content, wherein the control unit determines, on the basis of attribute information assigned to the route included in the results of retrieving the route from the current location to the destination, sections in which content is outputted or not outputted on the route, and edits the content on the basis of the result of this determination.
Method for inputting local names
A method is proposed for entering place names into a device for processing the place names, in particular into a navigation device in a vehicle, where in the case that a match of a place name is ambiguous, a graphical representation for distinguishing the respective places of the same name is displayed for selection of the particular place.
Resolving discrepancies between location information and route data on a navigation device
A navigation system and method for resolving discrepancies between a reported position and route data is presented. Based on a reported position, the navigation system identifies prospective road segments within a radius of the reported position. For each road segment, the navigation system generates a series of scores according to various attributes, including the current heading, current speed, proximity of reported location to the prospective road, and the like. Historical scores are also generated based on historical information, i.e., previous navigation device locations. Scores are normalized such that they can be compared, and optionally weighted according to particular implementation details. After scores have been generated for each prospective road, the prospective road, and its determined location, with the best score is selected as the resolved, actual location.
Navigation systems, methods, and programs
Navigation systems, methods, and programs provide appropriate driving guidance to a driver according to the level of the driving skills of the driver. The navigation systems, methods, and programs identify that the vehicle is in a predetermined specified condition based on information detected by a condition detecting device and detect an actual vehicle control state under the specified conditions based on information detected by an actual state detecting device. The systems, methods, and programs specify an appropriate vehicle control state according to the specified conditions. The systems, methods, and programs determine the level of the driving skills of a driver of the vehicle under the specified conditions based on the actual vehicle control state and the appropriate vehicle control state and output driving guidance according to the determined level of the driving skills under the specified conditions.
Method to perform carbon canister purge and adaption of air-fuel ratio estimation parameters
A control scheme is disclosed for performing both an adaption routine and carbon canister purging. In adaption, parameters for estimating air-fuel ratio from flow sensors and actuators are adjusted against an air-fuel ratio under closed-loop control using an EGO sensor. The two processes cannot run simultaneously. In vehicles in which the engine is operating from the time of key on until key off, the adaption occurs shortly after starting and then periodically thereafter. In vehicles in which the engine is turned on and off frequently such as with HEVs, the adaption routine may be run every time the engine is turned on, which is more frequent than necessary and doesn't allow enough time for purging. According to the disclosed control scheme, the time since last adaption and time in adaption is saved when the engine is turned off so that the adaption routine is conducted only when needed.
Pressure boost for vehicle rear brake circuits
Under certain operating conditions, the pressure applied to a vehicle rear brake circuit is increased above the pressure applied to the vehicle front brake circuit to enhance stopping of the vehicle.
Vehicle steering control device and vehicle steering control method
A vehicle steering control device capable of executing automatic steering and manual steering includes: an automatic control amount-setting device that sets a target automatic control amount based on information about vehicle behavior and ambient environment; a steering control amount-setting device that sets a target steering amount based on a manual steering amount input by a driver and the set target automatic control amount; and a steering device that steers based on the set target steering amount. When the target automatic control amount contributes more in the setting of the target steering amount than the manual steering amount does, the steering control amount-setting device sets the target steering amount so as to better the responsiveness in the lateral shift of the vehicle relatively to the responsiveness in the turning of the vehicle, in comparison with when the target automatic amount does not contribute more than the manual steering amount.
Vehicle abnormality monitoring apparatus
An engine control unit has a data memory for storing freeze frame data that is data indicating the operating status of vehicle equipment at the time when an abnormality of the vehicle equipment is detected. The engine control unit saves the freeze frame data stored in the data memory in a storage unit of a management station outside the vehicle through radio communication. The engine control unit determines the properness of the communication and performs a memory operation for erasing the relevant freeze frame data from the data memory based on a determination that the communication has been properly performed.
Protection gas control method for non-sealed process chamber
A protection gas control method for a non-sealed process chamber including the steps of activating a protection gas control apparatus while coupling a protection gas to a plurality of throttle valves, opening all the throttle valves for a pre-determined period of time, closing at least one of the throttle valves if the oxygen concentration in the chamber is smaller than or equal to a first target value, determining whether the oxygen concentration in the chamber is smaller than or equal to a second target value, and stopping supplying the protection gas when the temperature of the chamber is lower than a pre-determined temperature.
Transportation state notification system and method, program, and information storage medium
A server includes a communication section which receives event information from an event detection device which detects a plurality of types of events occurring in a plurality of temporary storage devices provided at different locations, and transmits transportation load display information to a PC, a storage section which stores lot state data indicating states of lots and storage state data indicating states of the temporary storage devices, an update section which updates the lot state data and the storage state data based on the event information, and an information generation section which generates transportation load display information for notifying a lot transportation state to the user based on the lot state data and the storage state data.
System and method for order picking of articles into order containers
Herein, a picking system and method for picking articles into order containers is disclosed, the system having a picking station which includes in at least one picking bucket, wherein first conveying means are arranged such that articles to be picked, which are picked via the picking buckets directly onto the first conveying means, can be conveyed into an order container associated with a picking order.
Transportation system and transportation method
In the case of transporting an article to a load port which is occupied by another article, at the time of generating a transportation command, estimated arrival time T1 when the article arrives at the load port and estimated removal time T2 when the article which occupies the load port is removed are compared with each other. If the time T2 is earlier than the time T1, a transportation command for transporting the article to the load port is assigned. If the time t2 is later than the time T1, a transportation command for transporting the article to a buffer on the upstream side of the load port is assigned.
Numerically controlled machining apparatus
A machining apparatus, in which a plurality of user set programs in relation to one axis is written and the amount of the infeed motion of the grinding wheel is increased to restrain the change of the load of the grinding wheel, improves a machining accuracy and achieve a longer life of the grinding wheel.When the grinding wheel 30 cut arc portions 11A, 11C, U having its diameter of which is gradually small according to a position apart from the shoulder, the numerical controller 40 controls a rotation of the workpiece 10 around said C-axis, a motion of a grinding wheel 30 relative to the workpiece 10 along an X-axis and Z-axis to trace an arc profile of the arc portion 11A, 11C, U of the extending portion, and an infeed motion of the grinding wheel 30 to the workpiece 10 along the X-axis to increase gradually an amount of the infeed motion of the grinding wheel 30 to the workpiece 10 along the X-axis in order to grind the extending portion to the arc profile and in order to increase gradually a grinding load of the grinding wheel 30.
Power savings method for rotating pulp and paper machinery
A power saving method for rotating pulp and paper machinery includes a fiber quality measurement device, a control system and a variable speed drive. The power savings method is applied to either fiber refiners or pressurized screens. Pulp stock enters a rotating machine, which is driven by an electric motor. The electric motor receives electrical current from the variable speed drive to implement rotation. The variable speed drive changes a frequency of the electrical current according to input received by the control system. The control system includes a control algorithm to optimize the efficiency of the rotating machine. The control system receives inputs of pressures, flows, consistency and position. The control system also receives input from the pulp quality measurement device. The algorithm calculates the process values and input from the pulp quality measurement device to determine the appropriate electrical current frequency to output to the electric motor.
Working apparatus and working method for circuit board
In estimating a curved surface model by approximating the shape of the board surface of a circuit board, auxiliary measurement spots are set other than measurement spots on the board surface, eligibility as a sampling displacement magnitude in estimating a curved surface model is determined according to a difference in a displacement magnitude from a work reference surface. When the sampling displacement magnitude is determined to be ineligible, a new measurement spot is reset. By this operation, a local increase and decrease in the displacement magnitude due to a discontinuity of the board surface exerts no influence on the estimation of the curved surface model, and the curved surface model approximated more closely to the shape of the actual board surface is estimated, leading to an improvement in the work quality with the working height adjusted to the proper height.
Coating and developing apparatus, coating and developing method and storage medium in which a computer-readable program is stored
A coating and developing apparatus comprises a washing section for washing the surface of a substrate after it has been subjected to a dipping exposure process in an exposing apparatus, and a first substrate carrying means adapted to transfer the substrate carried out from the exposing apparatus after the dipping exposure process to the washing section. The first substrate carrying means is controlled by a control means. Namely, the control means controls the first substrate carrying means such that the substrate can be washed in the washing section in a period of time prior to a time zone in which the size of liquid drops remaining on the substrate due to the dipping exposure process becomes smaller quite rapidly, based on a carrying-out ready signal for the substrate from the exposing apparatus, by using a relationship between the time elapsed from the end of the dipping exposure process and the size of liquid drops remaining on the substrate due to the dipping exposure process.
Advanced-process-control system utilizing a lambda tuner
An advanced process control (APC) system. The APC system comprises a database for receiving process data from a measurement tool for a plurality of process runs and for storing the process data. A lambda tuner determines a tuned-lambda value corresponding to a process-capability-index value based on upper and lower process control limits and statistics derived from the process data. A process-run controller updates a recipe value based on the received process data and the tuned-lambda value.
Framework for automatic generation of sequence of operations
A method for generation of a sequence of operations for a manufacturing process including modeling the manufacturing process through a finite state machine to create a sequence of operations generator operative to generate a list of sequences of operations for the manufacturing process and utilizing the sequence of operations generator to input process information and automatically generate a list of sequences of operations.
Method and apparatus for simulating composite panel manufacturing
A method and apparatus for managing production of a composite part. A three dimensional digital part definition is received for the composite part. A plurality of layers for the composite part is generated using the digital part definition with respect to a set of performance variables for an automated material placement system. A time needed to form the plurality of layers for the composite part to form a result and a cost ratio of production rate are identified. Production of the composite part is managed using the result.
Systems and methods for authoring lighting sequences
The systems and methods descried herein relate in part to intuitive methods for creation and design of lighting sequences, e.g., for theatrical, entertainment or advertising purposes, using a software interface. Additionally, the lighting sequences can be coordinated with control of additional devices. Also described herein is a controller capable of executing programs for lighting sequences and modifying the output and/or execution of the program based on external signals. In this way, the final output can be made responsive to external stimuli, or even interactive.
Implantable medical electrode device, in particular cardiovascular cardiac pacemaker or defibrillator electrode device
An implantable medical electrode device, in particular a cardiovascular cardiac pacemaker or defibrillator electrode device, comprises an elongate, tubular electrode body (2), a fixing zone (4) in front of the distal end (3) of the electrode body (2), in which the externally closed peripheral envelope (8) of the electrode body (2) is reversibly expandable into a body lumen (27) for detachable fixing of the electrode device (1), and an expansion apparatus, situated in the fixing zone (4), for controlling the expansion and contraction in the fixing zone (4).
Electrical stimulation to alleviate chronic pelvic pain
The disclosure describes a method and system for applying electrical stimulation to a genitofemoral nerve or a genital branch of a genitofemoral nerve of a patient. The system includes electrical stimulators that apply electrical stimulation for alleviation of pelvic pain. The system may apply electrical stimulation for pelvic pain in men or women. The electrical stimulators may comprise various types of electrodes such as cuff electrodes, electrode leads, and microstimulators implanted at various locations proximate to a single or both genitofemoral nerves and the genital branch of a single or both genitofemoral nerves of a patient. When implanted proximate to a genital nerve branch, the electrode may be implanted proximate to the genital nerve branch. In a male patient stimulation may be delivered proximate to the spermatic cord, which contains a portion of the genital nerve branch.
Two wire oscillator system for determining body impedance
An apparatus for determining body impedance comprising: first and second electrodes suitable for being electrically coupled to the body; and a variable frequency relaxation oscillator coupled to the electrodes; wherein, the period of oscillation is indicative of the body impedance.
Method and system for limiting interference in electroencephalographic signals
This invention provides methods and systems for removing or limiting interference and artifacts often found in EEG signals and/or EOG signals and/or other physiological signals, and produces output signals that can be of greater use for analytic or diagnostic purposes, such as sleep studies. Interference and artifacts are removed by applying a plurality of filtering methods targeted to the particular time-frequency characteristics of the anticipated interference.
Event detection—apparatus and method for measuring the activity of neural networks
Apparatus for measuring neural network activity with a textured semiconductor substrate. Sensor elements have a respective detection electrode on the substrate surface for detecting neural network signals, and the detected neural signals are a basis for outputting electrical sensor output signals via respective sensor element outputs. Each amplifier element has an input and an output. Each of the sensor elements has associated therewith one of the amplifier elements whose input is connected to the sensor output of the respective sensor element. The amplified sensor output signal is output the amplifier output as an amplifier output signal. An activity evaluator has an input, which is connected to at least one of the amplifier outputs, and an output. The activity evaluation device produces an activity signal, which is a measure of activity of the neural network, based on the amplifier output signal, and outputs the amplifier output signal via the evaluation output.
Method of optically imaging biological tissues by using fluorescence, in particular for defining regions of interest in tissues to be analyzed by tomography
The present invention relates to a method of optically imaging at least one biological tissue, in particular to define areas of interest of tissue(s) to be analyzed by tomography.The method according to the invention comprises the following steps: a) introducing at least one fluorescent marker into the tissue(s); b) exciting the marker by incident light and detecting emission bands relating to fluorescence emitted by the marker in response to that excitation; then c) analyzing the fluorescence in these emission bands; and the step b) comprising: sequentially exciting said marker at n different incident excitation wavelengths λi, said marker being adapted to be excited by at least two of the wavelengths λi and to emit in response to each wavelength λi a series Si of m simultaneous emission bands Bj having different maximum wavelengths λ′j that are substantially the same from one series Si to another; and detecting these series Si in order to deduce therefrom an estimate of the three-dimensional location of said marker in the tissue(s) and/or the mean absorption coefficients of the tissue(s) for the excitation wavelengths λi.
To improve usability. This invention provides an imaging apparatus that operates in a first mode to image a subject as an imaging target and in a second mode to image an inside of a body as an imaging target. This imaging apparatus comprises: an irradiation means for irradiating a body with near-infrared light of a prescribed luminance level; a filter means comprising a color filter array with color pixels for performing color dispersion on visible light reflected by a subject and a near-infrared light pixel for allowing near-infrared light to pass therethrough as a unit; and an exposure time adjustment means for adjusting exposure time of a solid imaging element for performing photoelectric conversion on dispersed light and pattern near-infrared light.
Medical system calibration with static metal compensation
A method for calibrating a medical system capable of generating a magnetic field for tracking a position of a medical device has various steps such as defining a mapping volume within the generated magnetic field and placing a metallic object within the mapping volume. A sensor is aligned at a first point within the mapping volume and the magnetic field at the first point is measured with the sensor to establish a first coordinate position (Xi, Yi, Zi). An interpolation technique in one embodiment and an extrapolation technique in another embodiment are used in the calibration method.
Optical device components
Embodiments of the invention relate to an apparatus including a light source to generate a plurality of light beams with each of the plurality of light beams having a different wavelength range. The apparatus also includes a light funnel to direct the plurality of light beams to the target area, an aperture to direct the plurality of light beams emitting from the target area to a lens, the lens configured to collect the light beams emitting from the target area. Further, the apparatus includes a detector including a plurality of light-sensing devices each configured to detect a light beam and configured to generate an output signal indicative of an intensity of light detected and a processor for determining the blood characteristic as a function of each generated output signal.
OFDM signal transmission system, portable terminal, and e-commerce system
A portable terminal includes a receiver, a barcode former configured to form barcodes and a display. The barcode former forms a barcode from the data received by the receiver and the display displays the formed barcode.
System and method for reducing aviation voice communication confusion
The present invention is a method for reducing aviation voice communication confusion. The method includes receiving a first voice radio communication in a processing system. The method further includes receiving a second voice radio communication in the processing system. The method further includes comparing the first voice radio communication to the second voice radio communication. The method further includes providing an alert when the compared first voice radio communication and second voice radio communication are at least substantially inconsistent in content. The processing system implements speech recognition functionality when comparing the first voice radio communication to the second voice radio communication.
Method and system for controlling transmit circuitry in a wide band CDMA network
A method and system for determining synchronization status in a wide band CDMA (WCDMA) network may comprise calculating a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of a downlink dedicated physical channel (DPCH) based on a plurality of transmit power control (TPC) bits received via the downlink dedicated physical channel (DPCH), wherein the value of at least one of the plurality of TPC bits is not known when at least one of the plurality of TPC bits is received. The transmit circuitry may be controlled based on the calculated signal to noise ratio. The transmit circuitry may be disabled if the calculated SNR of the plurality of TPC bits is below a first channel threshold. The transmit circuitry may be enabled if the calculated SNR of the plurality of TPC bits is above a second channel threshold.
Method and arrangement for setting the transmission of a mobile communication device
A method for setting the transmitted power of a mobile communication device, particularly for a UMTS, involves setting a transmitted power with great accuracy and a good signal-to-noise ratio. The difference between a measurement of the transmitted power of the signal that is applied to the output antenna and a desired value for transmitted power according to power commands from the base station is used to produce the desired transmitted power.
Handling attachment content on a mobile device
Embodiments described herein provide a user with the ability to download a selected attachment document that is associated with a message received on a mobile device. Attachment data corresponding to the selected attachment document can be downloaded according to at least one of a native application attachment content handling option and a client-server attachment content handling option.
Location visit detail services for wireless devices
A location visit detail service, typically provided by a wireless carrier to a subscriber, includes a portable wireless device, a location identification means and a central processor. The central processor periodically receives location data generated by the location identification means. The central processor data transforms the location data into time and position data pairs that identify the location of the portable wireless device at a particular time. Through a geographic information system database, the position data is converted to street address data. The details data is provided by the wireless carrier to the subscriber, which can use the details data to provide a summary report describing the activity of the service person. This summary report can be used for preparation of bills or for gathering statistics on (individual or group) service person efficiency. Alternatively, the wireless carrier can prepare the report that is then transmitted to the subscriber.
Enhanced analogue of interactive voice response structures and functions for mobile phones and similar handheld communications devices
An integrated system and method that provides an enhanced analogue of interactive voice response structures and features for mobile phones and similar handheld communications devices, comprised of customized kernel applications, for communicating with central control servers and optional ancillary control servers with pertinent databases, auxiliary coordination applications on network-enabled computers, and an optional website that facilitates the creation of IVR-like structures and functions, via reference codes which are predominantly formatted as telephone numbers, to present a parallel, yet more powerful utilization of this widely-implemented and well-known voice-only construct, applied as an abbreviated Internet URL replacement in the typing-challenged mobile space, giving mobile devices access to VoIP-class features that also off-loads voice-only PABX platforms, without requiring IVR equipment or an infrastructure overhaul, by making full use of wireless and landline multi-protocol (i.e. TCP/IP) gateways, to provide easy and primarily visual access to wealth of organized content, with the ability to manipulate, send and receive specific, context and time sensitive multimedia information in a well-coordinated, controlled and scalable manner.
Method of transmitting and receiving radio access information in a wireless mobile communications system
In a wireless mobile communications system, a method of transmitting and receiving radio access information that allows a faster and an efficient way of establishing a radio connection between a terminal and a target base station while performing a handover for the terminal to a cell of the target base station. The network transmits in advance, the radio access information and the like, to the terminal so that the terminal can be connected with the target cell in a faster manner which minimizes the total time for the handover process.
Wireless transmission method, and communication terminal apparatus, for accessing a random access channel
A communication terminal apparatus that exhibits a shorter time period required until a start of communication and causes the throughput in the wireless communication system to be less reduced. In this apparatus, when the number, N, of retransmissions notified by a response determining part (107) is zero, a subchannel-to-be-used selecting part (108) selects a subchannel, among others, which exhibits the highest order one of the reception qualities of the subchannels notified by a reception quality determining part (106), and then notifies the selected subchannel to a subchannel allocating part (113). When the notified number, N, of retransmissions is one or more, the response determining part (107) selects a subchannel which exhibits the N-th lower order reception quality than the highest order reception quality, based on the reception qualities of the subchannels notified by the reception quality determining part (106) for a pilot signal received after a transmission of the latest access request signal, and then notifies the selected subchannel to the subchannel allocating part (113).
Method for over the air mobile station management
The invention provides a system and method for managing a mobile station wirelessly. The control software includes a dynamic agent operating program and a group of objects linked to the dynamic agent operating program. Some of the objects allow the mobile station to utilize services, such as accessing the Internet or E-mail services. Additional objects for providing access to new services may be wirelessly transmitted from a management server to the mobile station over the air and stored in the mobile station. Users may selectively delete and download objects to customize the services available through their mobile stations while minimizing the memory requirements of the mobile station.
Method and apparatus for providing subscriber-based ringback tone
The present invention relates to method and apparatus for providing an arbitrary sound chosen by a called subscriber instead of ringback tone to a calling subscriber. In this present invention, if a call is received, a terminating exchanger requests a trunk connection to a sound db server based on the first information on whether or not to replace a ringback tone and the second information on a route to the sound db server that are received from a home location register (HLR), and provides a called subscriber identification for the sound server. Then, the sound db server searches its db for a sound specified by the called, and provides the found sound for the caller instead of a conventional ringback tone via the terminating exchanger connected through a trunk. Through this sequential procedure of network elements, a caller can hear a sound specified by a called instead of a dry ringback tone.
Address privacy in short-range wireless communication
A security enhancing system for creating temporary identification information used to mask actual identification in a wireless communication device. The temporary identification information conforms to a standard usable by at least one wireless communication medium, and may be used by other devices in communicating with the wireless communication device, however, only other devices possessing secret address component information may determine the actual identity of the masked wireless communication device. The temporary identification information may further be recompiled when a threshold condition is satisfied.
Optimization of calendar, itinerary, route plan, and PIM efficiencies according to assimilated wireless service availability conditions
Real-time optimization of one or more events in an electronic agenda, an electronic itinerary, an electronic calendar, or an electronic route plan, by receiving an electronic personal plan for a first user having wireless connectivity service need indications during event(s) of the plan; receiving electronic reports from devices operated by users other than the first user indicating actual historical availability conditions of the required wireless connectivity at a location associated with the event of the plan; analyzing the electronic historical reports to find an alternate time, location, route, or combination of time, location, and route, for an event responsive to determining the needed wireless connectivity would not likely meet a service quality preference according to the historical availability; modifying the electronic personal plan to reflect the alternate finding to the first user; and transmitting a communique to said first user containing said alternate findings.
Automatic security action invocation for mobile communications device
A mobile communications device, method and computer program product for providing security are described. In one embodiment, the device comprises: a processor; a communications subsystem; a storage element having application modules and data; and a security module operable to detect a locked state of the device and initiate a lockout data protection timer for a predetermined duration upon detection of the locked state. The security module is operable to, after the lockout data protection timer has been initiated, detect if a password is entered through a user input device within the predetermined duration and to terminate the lockout data protection timer if entry of the password is detected to perform a security action comprising erasing or encrypting at least some of the data if entry of the password is not detected.
Method for protecting information in a mobile terminal and a mobile terminal
A mobile terminal and a method for protecting information in a mobile terminal, the method includes: sending an information protection command to a mobile terminal via current home mobile switching center of the mobile terminal; the mobile terminal receiving and decoding the command, and executing a protection operation on the information in the mobile terminal according to a protection range defined by the command. When the mobile terminal roams, an information protection command is sent to its current home mobile switching center via a home location register for the mobile terminal. When the mobile terminal is powered off, the command is stored in the home location register, and when the mobile terminal is powered on again and informs the home location register, the home location register sends the command. Thus, information to be protected in a mobile telephone may be deleted or locked via remote operation.
Methods and systems for differential billing of services used during a mobile data service session
Methods and systems for differential billing of services used during a mobile data service user session are disclosed. A method includes identifying a mobile data service user session and identifying a mobile data service user that is associated with the identified mobile data service user session. One or more services used by the mobile data service user during the mobile data service user session are identified. A service usage report is generated for each of the one or more services used by the mobile data service user. The usage reports are based on a measure of service usage of each of the identified one or more services and a billing profile that is associated with the user. Access is provided to the user service usage reports for storage as a part of billing records.
Compensating circuit for a mixer stage
A compensating circuit for a mixer stage is provided, wherein the mixer stage has an input stage to which an input signal for mixing can be applied and has, following the input stage, a switching stage for mixing a differential input signal—obtained from the input stage as a function of the input signal—with an oscillator signal, wherein the input of the compensating circuit can be connected to an input signal terminal of the input stage and the output of the compensating circuit can be connected to an input signal terminal of the switching circuit at which the differential input signal obtained by means of the input stage is present, and wherein a compensating signal obtained by means of a compensating stage of the compensating circuit, in particular for compensating intermodulation products, can be produced by the compensating circuit at its output. The compensating circuit has a compensating input stage with means for influencing an amplitude and/or phase of the input signal, by which means the compensating stage can be supplied with a modified input signal.
Systems and methods for providing product information over a carrier wave
A customer relationship management (CRM) method using IBOC-radio signals is provided. A message in the radio signal is parsed to obtain a key. The key is compared to a plurality of stored keys. When the received key matches a stored key, a data structure associated with the message is outputted. A device comprising a lookup table with a plurality of stored keys, a tuner unit that receives a CRM in an IBOC signal, and a controller in electrical communication with the lookup table and tuner is provided. The controller comprises (i) instructions for comparing a key in the CRM to one or more stored keys in the plurality of stored keys and (ii) instructions for permitting the display of a display text associated with the received key when there is a match between the received key and a key in the plurality of stored keys.
Apparatus for implementing enhanced hand shake protocol in microelectronic communication systems
An apparatus is provided for implementing an enhanced hand shake protocol for microelectronic communication systems. A transmitter and a receiver is coupled together by a transmission link. The transmitter receives an idle input. The idle input is activated when the transmitter is not transmitting data and the transmitter applies a first common 10 mode level to the receiving unit. The idle input is deactivated when the transmitter is ready to transmit data and the transmitter raises the common mode level to the receiving unit. Responsive to the receiver detecting the common mode level up-movement, then the receiver receives the transmitted data signals. After the desired data has been sent, the 15 transmitter terminates communications, drops the common mode level with the idle input being activated.
System and method for streaming identical data over several short range links
Method for streaming data over a plurality of data links formed between a Bluetooth® master device and a plurality of Bluetooth® slave devices includes constructing a vendor specific command host controller interface (HCI) packet, sending the vendor specific command HCI packet to a host controller of the Bluetooth® master device, and constructing at least one baseband packet addressed to each slave device of the plurality of slave devices. The vendor specific command HCI packet includes a plurality of ACL headers, a plurality of L2CAP headers, and a payload. A Bluetooth®-enabled device configured to stream data over a plurality of data links formed between a plurality of slave devices includes a Bluetooth®-enabled host adapted to construct a vendor specific command host controller interface (HCI) packet, an HCI transport layer and a host controller adapted to receive the vendor specific command HCI packet over the HCI transport layer.
Efficient service registration for legacy applications in a bluetooth environment
A method and device for providing a service record for an application (e.g., a legacy application) running on a virtual serial port of a wireless transceiver device, such as a Bluetooth-enabled device. The virtual serial port emulates a serial connection (e.g., a serial cable) for the application. The virtual serial port for the application is opened by a virtual serial port driver. In accordance with the present embodiment of the present invention, the virtual serial port driver also provides the service name of the application. The virtual serial port driver can derive the service name from the name of the application, or the virtual serial port driver can use a default name. Thus, the virtual serial port driver performs the additional function of automatically providing a service name for a application, thereby introducing a standard, efficient and user-friendly approach for providing a readily-identifiable service name for a legacy application.
System and method for providing recording and playback of digital media content
A system and method for time-shifting a live broadcast, and facilitating the purchase of live or time-shifted broadcast content. The device records broadcast content being listened to by user, which gives the user the option to replay content. The device and method also provides a preview service that allows the user to experience fresh media content on a regular basis, even where a live signal is not available. The broadcast source broadcasts new content on a regular basis to avoid providing users with stale content. The user identifies content using the device and data is stored that corresponds to the identified content. The broadcast source or a third-party content provider uses the corresponding data to provide the identified content to the user. In addition to audio content, the device also provides and facilitates the acquisition of video, graphics, text or any other media content.
SDM automatic control algorithm
A device, method and program for automatically adjusting a paper curl of media in an imaging device are provided. The imaging device includes a decurler having two rollers defining a nip. A first roller has a substantially uncompressible surface, and a second roller has a substantially compressible surface. The first roller penetrates the second roller at the nip. The amount of curl of the media is adjusted at the nip by automatically adjusting the penetration of the second roller into the first roller. The amount of penetration of the second roller into the first roller is based on a set of factors and conditions. A penetration value based on the factors and conditions is used to adjust the position of the first roller and the second roller respective to each other, which in turn, will alter or reduce the media curl to a target curl.
Cleaning device, process cartridge and image forming apparatus
A cleaning brush configured to remove toner from a surface of a member of an image forming apparatus; wherein the cleaning brush includes a plurality of fibers having an inside part formed from a conductive material and a surface part formed by an insulating material.
Fixing device and image forming apparatus having longitudinal pressure applying section
A fixing device for conducting fixing by heating and pressurizing a recording material conveyed between a fixing member and a belt, having therein a pressing section that presses the recording material against a fixing member through a belt, a pressure applying section that generates pressing force proceeding to the pressing section, and a pressing force transmission section that is positioned between the pressing section and the pressure applying section and that transmits the pressing force to the pressing section, wherein the pressing force transmission section has plural first elastic members arranged in the same direction as the longitudinal direction of the pressing section, and the first elastic members have a plurality of different elastic coefficients.
Intermediate transfer device and image forming apparatus
An intermediate transfer device including an intermediate transfer member, an intermediate transfer part configured to transfer a toner image from an image bearing member onto the intermediate transfer member, a heating member configured to heat the intermediate transfer member to apply heat to the toner image thereon, a deformation member configured to apply pressure to the heated toner image on the intermediate transfer member, and a recording transfer part configured to transfer the compressed toner image from the intermediate transfer member onto a recording medium.
Transfer apparatus for transferring an image of a developer in a printer and method for calibrating the heating system thereof
A transfer apparatus for transferring an image of a developer from an image-bearing medium onto an image receiving medium in a transfer zone includes a heating device that heats the image-bearing medium, an adjustable power supply device that supplies electrical power to the heating device, a first temperature sensor for sensing a basis temperature in the vicinity of the image-bearing medium away from the transfer zone and for transmitting to a controller a signal indicative of the basis temperature. The controller is adapted to adjust the power supplied by the power supply device to the heating device to obtain a target temperature in the transfer zone, in response to the signal indicative of the sensed basis temperature and based on a pre-established relationship between the power supplied to the heating device and a temperature difference between a temperature in the transfer zone and the basis temperature.
Image forming apparatus capable of preventing generation of residual images and transfer failure
An image forming apparatus includes an image bearing member, supporting rollers, a belt-like-shaped medium, a primary transfer member, secondary transfer rollers, and a grounded conductive roller. The image bearing member forms a toner image at a predetermined process speed. The belt-shaped medium has a charge voltage. The primary transfer member sequentially transfers the toner image onto the belt-like-shaped medium and the secondary transfer member transfers the toner image onto a recording sheet. The conductive roller is arranged in contact with the belt-shaped medium for a predetermined wrapping length. A relationship Tb
Image forming apparatus
An image forming apparatus (100) includes a photoreceptor drum (1), a development unit (2), a pressing member (7), and a vibration absorption member (8). The development unit (2) is disposed adjacent to the photoreceptor drum (1), and supported movably toward and away from the photoreceptor drum (1). The pressing member (7) urges the development unit (2) toward the photoreceptor drum. The vibration absorption member (8) frictionally suppresses the movement of the development unit (2) toward and away from the photoreceptor drum (1). The vibration absorption member (8) attenuates a self-excited vibration of the development unit (2), by suppressing the movement of the development unit (2).
Photosensitive-member driving mechanism
It is an object to prevent distortions and deviations of images caused by the eccentricity of a driven gear mounted to a rotational shaft of a photosensitive drum. There are provided a driving gear which is secured to a rotational shaft of a rotational driving power source and is rotated at a constant peripheral speed, a driven gear secured coaxially to a rotational shaft of a cylindrical-shaped photosensitive member, a phase control gear having the same diameter as that of the driven gear and having the same rotational speed variation characteristic as that of the driven gear, and a transmission gear, and a driving force from the driving gear is transmitted to the driven gear through the phase control gear and the transmission gear.
A process cartridge includes a photosensitive member, a charger, a frame and a block member. The charger charges the photosensitive member and includes a charging wire and a grid electrode, which is provided between the charging wire and the photosensitive member, and which has an opening area in a surface opposing the photosensitive member. The frame supports the photosensitive member and the charger. The block member is provided between the charging wire and an end portion of the grid electrode in a longitudinal direction thereof and prevents a marginal area of the grid electrode from facing the charging wire in a direction with a minimum distance therebetween, the marginal area being defined between an end of the grid electrode and an end of the opening area.
Image processing apparatus selectively operable during a disaster, and method for performing the same
The image processing apparatus includes an acquiring unit that acquires information on disaster; and a switching unit that switches an operational mode of the image processing apparatus from a first operational mode in which image processing is not performed when there is lack of a part of consumables or failure of a part of functions to a second operational mode in which the image processing is performed by using other consumables that are available and other functions that do not fail even when there is the lack of a part of consumables or the failure of a part of functions, in response to the information on disaster acquired by the acquiring unit.
Image forming apparatus showing preview of finishing as applied to sample image
Sample image data are stored beforehand in a storage unit. A first generation unit generates temporary finishing information by making setting processing on the sample image data based on setting information, and a second generation unit generates input screen information including setting processing items to accept various setting inputs to the temporary finishing information. A display unit displays an input screen based on the temporary finishing information and the input screen information, and a setting output unit outputs setting information received via the input screen to the first generation unit. Finally, a copying processing unit executes copying processing with respect to the real image data based on the temporary finishing information.
Printing device toner control including rest recovery system, method and algorithm
A method and computer program for preventing excess supply of toner in an imaging device include detecting a change in a tribo-electric charge of toner after a period of inactivity of the imaging device, compensating a toner dispense control value, such as a PID (Proportional, Integral, Differential) value, based on the detected change in the tribo-electric charge of toner, and outputting the compensated toner dispense control value. A system for preventing excess supply of toner includes a sensor that detects a change in a tribo-electric charge of toner after a period of inactivity of the imaging device, and a controller that compensates the toner dispense control value based on the detected change in the tribo-electric charge of toner and outputs the compensated toner dispense control value. The detected change may be based on a charge prior to the inactivity.
Image forming apparatus with a two component developer, toner density detection and toner density correction
An image forming apparatus in which a predetermined image density can be obtained by correcting a toner density control target value without consuming toner. The output value Vt of the magnetic permeability sensor and the target output value Vtref are compared, and the toner density is controlled by controlling a powder pump on the basis of the comparative result thereof so that the output value Vt approximates the target output value Vtref. In addition, the target output value Vtref is corrected on the basis of the detected result of the image coverage ratio so as to maintain a predetermined development potential of the development apparatus. By virtue of this, even when image forming that involves a significant change in the toner replacement amount in the development apparatus is performed, for example, even when an image of high image coverage ratio is output, the toner density is adjusted to maintain the development capability at a constant, and a predetermined image density is ensured. Moreover, because the image coverage ratio can be detected without consuming toner, toner does not need to be consumed when the target output value Vtref is corrected.
Image processing apparatus
The present invention provides an image processing apparatus which can promptly detect whether or not a jam has been removed in the case of occurrence of the jam such as a paper jam. A paper feeding apparatus 1b includes a paper feed tray 11, a pickup roller 61, a paper roller 63, a sorting roller 64, feeding rollers 66a, resist rollers 67, a paper ejection roller 73, a passage detection sensor 69, an overlapped feeding detection sensor 68 and a second detection apparatus 71. An image processing apparatus 100 includes a position detection portion 41 for detecting a location of a jam which occurs during feeding of recording paper, a determination portion 42 for determining a jam state based on a detection result of the position detection sensor 69, an examination portion 43 for examining whether the jam has been resolved and a resuming portion 44 for resuming the processing when an examination of the jam location by the examination portion 43 is finished. If the position detection sensor 69 detects the occurrence of the jam (S2), the determination portion determines the jam state and simultaneously provides notification of the occurrence of the jam (S4). If clearing work is finished (S5), the examination portion 43 feeds a test sheet (S6). It is detected whether or not the test sheet passes through the jam location (S8), and the processing is resumed if it is detected within predetermined time (S10).
Color image forming device utilizing toner sensors to detect withdrawal amount of drawer section
In a color laser printer, four toner cartridges are juxtaposed in a straight line in a process unit. When the process unit is withdrawn from the laser printer to a position at which the toner cartridge nearest the front of the laser printer can be removed, an out-of-toner sensor farthest from the front of the laser printer from among four out-of-toner sensors turns on. Side surfaces of a unit-accommodating section constituting the process unit block detection light from the other three out-of-toner sensors so that these out-of-toner sensors remain off. Since the farthest out-of-toner sensor switches from off to on, the CPU determines that the process unit has been withdrawn to a position at which the nearest toner cartridge can be removed.
Optical receiver for regeneration of optical signal
An optical receiver includes: a converting unit that converts an optical signal into an electrical signal; an amplifying unit that amplifies the electrical signal; a regenerating unit that regenerates the amplified electrical signal; a correcting unit that performs correction of an error included in the regenerated electrical signal; a monitoring unit that performs monitoring of an optical current flowing through the converting unit; and a control unit that calculates a decision threshold based on a result of the correction and a result of the monitoring.
Receiving circuit and optical signal receiving circuit
A receiving circuit comprises a transimpedance amplifier 3 including an inversion amplifier 2 for amplifying an input current IN, and a feedback resistance R1 connected between an input and an output of the inversion amplifier 2, a comparison circuit 4 for comparing an output OUT of the transimpedance amplifier 3 with a certain desired reference value, and outputting a result of the comparison, and a control circuit for holding the comparison result, and generating an AGC signal 20 for adjusting a gain of the transimpedance amplifier 3. The transimpedance amplifier 20 has a function capable of gain adjustment in accordance with the input AGC signal 20. The control circuit 5 performs gain adjustment until the output OUT of the transimpedance amplifier 3 exceeds the reference value so that an appropriate gain is obtained. Therefore, even when an input has a wide dynamic range, it is possible to prevent signal saturation and a distortion in output waveform in the transimpedance amplifier, so that appropriate reception can be invariably performed and a signal having a stable duty can be output.
System and method for receiving coherent, polarization-multiplexed optical signals
An apparatus, a polarization diversity receiver and a method of receiving a received optical signal. In one embodiment, the apparatus includes: (1) an optical device configured to separate in-phase and quadrature components of a received optical signal, to transmit the in-phase components to a first optical output thereof and to transmit the quadrature components to a second optical output thereof, (2) a first polarization splitter coupled to receive light at the first optical output and (3) a second polarization splitter coupled to receive light at the second optical output.
System and method using differential loop gain for fault identification in line monitoring equipment
A system and method using differential loop gain for fault analysis in line monitoring equipment. Differential loop gain data is calculated from loop gain data, and fault analysis is conducted using differential loop gain data, e.g. by comparing the differential loop gain data to predefined fault signatures.
Electronic device with reflection structure for reflecting optical signal to receiver thereof
The electronic device includes a device housing, an emitter, a receiver, and a reflection structure. The emitter is separated from the device housing and emits an optical signal. The receiver is disposed on the device housing for receiving the optical signal. The reflection structure is formed on the device housing and neighboring to the receiver. When the emitter is disposed in front of the device housing, the optical signal transmitted from the emitter is reflected by the reflection structure, and then the optical signal travels toward the receiver.
Transmission technique in system including chamber
A system is provided including a chamber having an internal environment different from an external environment. The chamber includes a transmission line, disposed through a partition wall of the chamber, for transmitting an electromagnetic wave therethrough. A plurality of generators, disposed outside the chamber, are included for generating electromagnetic waves for measurement, and a first multiplex/demultiplex unit is disposed outside the chamber for multiplexing a plurality of electromagnetic waves from the plurality of generators and sending a multiplexed electromagnetic wave to the transmission line and demultiplexing a multiplexed electromagnetic wave received from the transmission line. A second multiplex/demultiplex unit is disposed inside the chamber for multiplexing a plurality of electromagnetic waves and sending a multiplexed electromagnetic wave to the transmission line and demultiplexing a multiplexed electromagnetic wave received from the transmission line. A plurality of measurement units are disposed inside the chamber for directing electromagnetic waves received from the second multiplex/demultiplex unit to to-be-measured regions and sending electromagnetic waves from the to-be-measured regions to the second multiplex/demultiplex unit.
End-to-end chromatic dispersion characterization of optically amplified link
An economic way of determining the chromatic dispersion along a link of a DWDM network is provided. A transmitter modulates the output signals of two lasers operating at two different wavelengths and the modulated output signals are sent into the link. Detectors at each one of a plurality of detection sites along the link determine a phase difference in modulation between the output signals of the two lasers. The chromatic dispersion for each detection site can be calculated from the modulation frequency and determined phase differences at that site.
Remodulating channel selectors for WDM optical communication systems
The present invention provides a remodulating channel selector for a wavelength division multiplexed optical communication system. The remodulating selector receives a WDM input signal, selects a particular optical channel from the WDM signal and places the information from the selected signal onto a newly-generated optical output signal. The wavelength of the output optical signal can be the same as or different from one of the optical channels which comprises the WDM input signal. When used in a WDM optical communication system with remodulators at the transmission input, the remodulating selectors provide complete control over the interfaces with optical transmitters and receivers, permitting use with a broad range of optical equipment.
Integrated optical service channel and quantum key distribution channel
A method for integrating an Optical Service Channel (OSC) with a Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) channel across a DWDM network having a single mode optical fiber is provided. An optical signal is received. An OSC is coupled with the optical signal. A QKD channel is integrated with the OSC on the single mode optical fiber.
Prescriptive and diagnostic system and method for combined RF/optical transmission management
A diagnostic and prescriptive system and method for management of a combined optical and RF cable plant system. In an exemplary embodiment the method and system uses optical receivers in a hub or headend to determine a variety of cable plant parameters such as the OMI of the received signal and automatically facilitated prescriptive service through prioritization and automatic recalibration. In another exemplary embodiment the method allows doing such signal OMI measurements in a closed loop system (that is a fully operational system). In addition, a further exemplary method and system allows storing of standard receiver calibration information such that from thereon signal OMI measurements that can be performed without signal interruption.
Optical transmission apparatus and control method therefor
An optical transmission apparatus comprising a first detector for detecting the power of the supervisory signal light separated from received wavelength-division multiplexed signal lights; a second detector for detecting the power of the wavelength-division multiplexed signal lights after the separation of the supervisory signal light; a gain-controlled type optical amplifier for amplifying the wavelength-division multiplexed signal lights; an optical attenuator coupled to the amplifier; and a control unit for controlling the optical amplifier and the optical attenuator so as to keep the output level of the wavelength-division multiplexed signal lights to a predetermined target value, wherein the control unit restrains automatic output level control by the optical attenuator when the supervisory signal light power fluctuates within its permissible range and fluctuations in the signal light power have deviated from its permissible range.
Image sensing apparatus and control method
An image sensing apparatus to which a detachable lens unit (102) is attached, is provided with an image sensor (106) that converts light beams entering through the attached lens unit into electrical signals, and a display unit (107), including an electronic viewfinder mode to continuously display on the display unit images based on the electrical signals obtained by the image sensor. The image sensing apparatus has a control unit (135) that causes an aperture unit (104) included in the attached lens unit to stop down, when there is an instruction to display on the display unit an image other than the image based on the electrical signals obtained by the image sensor while in the electronic viewfinder mode.
Optical disk and optical disk device
A first recording layer for recording information of an optical disk and a second recording layer of the optical disk on which a visible image can be recorded are disposed at an interval of 0.5 mm or more. Thus, even when a high power laser is used on one of the layers, data on the other layer will not be destroyed.
Camera and method for use with camera
An infrared (“IR”) camera includes first and second imaging parts for capturing an IR image and a visible light image, respectively. The field of view of the second imaging part at least partially overlaps the field of view of the first imaging part. The first imaging part includes IR optics. The second imaging part includes visible light optics. The IR camera also includes a focus motor for focusing at least one of the IR optics or the visible light optics. A sensor is operable to determine the position of the focus motor. Based on the position of the focus motor, a processor determines actual displacement for aligning the IR and visual light images. The actual displacement includes displacement due to parallax error and error due to the angle between the optical axes of the first and second imaging parts.
Imaging lens device and imaging apparatus
The invention aims to achieve slim design by employing a light path folding optical system, add a hand-shake correction capability, and lower power consumption. An imaging lens device includes a light path folding optical system having a reflector that folds the optical axis incident perpendicular to the gravitational direction toward the gravitational direction, and an imaging element that converts an image formed by the light path folding optical system into an electrical signal. The imaging lens device also includes drive means that moves some of lens groups or one lens (hereinafter referred to as “shake correction lens group”) in the direction perpendicular to the optical axis folded toward the gravitational direction by the reflector (hereinafter referred to as “vertical optical axis”). The shake correction lens group is moved in the direction perpendicular to the vertical optical axis to move the image in the direction perpendicular to the vertical optical axis.
Compact air drying system
A fully integrated drying or heating system utilizes forced air and electrical heaters. A solid cartridge heater is enclosed within a heater cavity of a block. The block includes a separate air cavity in heat transfer communication with the heater through a solid portion of the block. The blocks are shaped and configured to be used in banks of plural blocks, with the operating controls and all the components of the air distribution system and air heating system fully integrated into a modular package.
Information recording/reproduction apparatus
A disk camcorder includes an image pickup optical system including an image pickup element, a memory for temporarily storing recorded information from the image pickup element, and a recording/reproduction unit which records the recording information stored in the memory onto a disk-shaped recording medium through an intermittent operation or reproduces the recording information recorded onto the disk-shaped recording medium through an intermittent operation, and temporarily stores the recording information. The disk camcorder has a plurality of modes including a first mode in which the recording medium is irradiated with light flux having a first laser power for a first time period, and a second mode in which the recording medium is irradiated with light flux having a second laser power lower than the first laser power, for a second time period, longer than the first time period.
Randomly accessible visual information recording medium and recording method, and reproducing device and reproducing method
Access point pictures designated as randomly accessible positions are I pictures or P pictures. Information indicating the decoding sequence (I1, P1, B1, B2, B3, B4, P2, . . . ) of pictures functioning as access points and attribute information (picture_type) indicating whether a picture functions as an access point or is necessary for decoding of the access point following a given access point are recorded on the video information recording medium. Random access is possible even if the GOP interval is lengthened.
Recording medium and method and apparatus for reproducing and recording text subtitle streams with style information
A recording medium and method and apparatus for reproducing and recording text subtitle streams are disclosed. Each text subtitle stream includes a dialog style segment defining a set of region styles and at least one dialog presentation segment, each of which contains one or more regions of dialog text. Each region of dialog text is linked to one of the set of region styles defined in the dialog style segment, and includes at least one pair of an inline style and a text string. The inline style is configured to change one of region presentation properties specified by the linked region style for the text string.
Recording resource limitation resolution
Recording resource limitation resolution is described. In one implementation a time period is detected during which programs are designated to be recorded, and during which at least one of the designated programs cannot be recorded due to a recording resource limitation. All possible combinations to record the designated programs which will resolve the recording resource limitation can be determined using an iterative selection process. A recording conflict user interface is displayed, and any one of the possible combinations which will resolve the recording resource limitation can be selected via the recording conflict user interface. Other implementations are also described.
Audio frequency scaling during video trick modes utilizing digital signal processing
The invention concerns a method and apparatus for audio track playback during fast forward playback video trick modes. A storage medium reader is provided for reading digital data from a storage medium such as a DVD. The digital data represents a video presentation and a corresponding audio programming. A decoder decodes from a portion of the digital data comprising the audio programming a plurality of digital audio samples corresponding to a selected portion of the video presentation. Subsequently, a digital signal processor can convert the audio samples to their corresponding frequency domain equivalents and scale the frequency and amplitude of a playback audio frequency associated with the audio samples in accordance with trick mode video playback.
Electric appliance system having selectable user interfaces and method for controlling the same
In an electric appliance system, an electric appliance for performing designated functions and first and second remote controllers are included. The first remote controller is optionally triggered for controlling a first group of the designated functions, and the second remote controller is optionally triggered for controlling a second group of the designated functions. The second group includes at least one designated function included in the first group and at least one designated function excluded from the first group.
Optical fiber holder and heat sink
An optical fiber holding device is disclosed having an optical fiber held therein. The device has a base with a spiral channel in an upper surface holding and housing the optical fiber. The channel has a first location where the fiber enters leading to a plurality of turnings for holding the optical fiber wrapped therearound at another end a second location where the fiber exits the channel wherein the bend radius of the optical fiber housed within the spiral channel is at least 2 cm. The dimensions are such that housing forms a heat sink allowing heat within the fiber to dissipate within the base. The spiral channel is preferably designed to keep the fiber within the channel and to prevent it from inadvertently springing out spring tension of the bent fiber holds the fiber within the groove or channel.
Fiber distribution device
A fiber distribution device includes a swing frame chassis pivotally mounted to a support structure. At least a first optical splitter module is mounted to the swing frame chassis. Pigtails having connectorized ends are carried by the swing frame chassis and have portions that are routed generally vertically on the swing frame chassis. An optical termination field includes fiber optic adapters carried by the swing frame chassis. The fiber optic adapters are configured to receive the connectorized ends of the pigtails.
Telecommunications cabinet with connector storage
A housing including a plurality of openings for receiving fiber optic connectors and protecting the polished end face of the connectors from damage while the connectors are stored within a telecommunications connection cabinet. A module with a plurality of optical fiber cables connected to a first optical fiber cable and terminated by a fiber optic connector. Each of the connectors are inserted within openings in a connector holder for storage and protection until the cables need to be connected to a customer equipment cable.
Fiber distribution hub
A fiber distribution hub includes a frame within the enclosure, the frame having a swinging portion configured to pivot from a first position to a second position. The fiber distribution hub also includes a subscriber termination field mounted on the swinging portion; at least one optical splitter mounted on the frame; and a pigtail fiber routed from the optical splitter. The swinging portion swings from the first position to the second position without increasing a distance for routing the pigtail fiber from the optical splitter to a first front termination connection.
Apparatus and method for processing at least one optical waveguide
An apparatus for processing at least one optical waveguide comprises a base and a movable part, the movable part being movable with respect to the base. The apparatus comprises a lever, the lever being attached to the base and comprising a notch for holding a cleaved-off part of the at least one optical waveguide. The apparatus comprises a link, one end of which is adapted to be coupled to the lever and an other end of which coupled to the movable part. The cleaved-off part is moved transversely with respect to the longitudinal direction of the at least one optical waveguide by the lever in response to a movement of the movable part.
Apparatus for shaping the end of an optical fiber
An apparatus is provided for shaping an end of an optical fiber. The apparatus may include a frame and a clamp constructed to hold the optical fiber in a fixed location relative to the frame. The apparatus may further include a tip shaper supported by the frame and movable in a first direction toward and away from the clamp, and moveable in a second direction that lies in a plane transverse to the first direction to shape the end of the optical fiber when the tip shaper is placed in contact with the optical fiber. The apparatus may include an abrasive substrate which abrades the end of the fiber.
Imaging system and related techniques
A method and apparatus for imaging using a double-clad fiber is described.
Digital mosaic image construction
Digital mosaic image construction with an apparatus, method, computer program, and integrated circuit is disclosed. In the method, a first digital image and a second digital image are obtained, and a global motion vector is defined between the first digital image and the second digital image. Next, a mosaic image is combined from the first digital image and the second digital image utilizing the relative locations of the first and second digital images with each other as expressed by the global motion vector.
Image normalization for computed image construction
Image normalization examines the pixels of two frames, most commonly sequentially obtained sub-images, and mathematically determines the displacement of those pixels from the first frame to the second based on pixel data. The pixel data is obtained from a scanning device, and may be for example grayscale value. The image may be for example that of a user's fingerprint, and the image normalization used to form a computed image of the fingerprint from a plurality of sub-images obtained from a fingerprint scanner. The computed image may be stored, compared to a reference frame or otherwise processed, for example for identifying the user.
Image sharpening with halo suppression
An image sharpening technique with halo suppression is presented. Generally, one implementation of this technique completely suppresses the haloing effect typically caused by image sharpening by restricting values to within the local minimum and maximum intensities of the unsharpened image. Thus, if the sharpened value is below the local minimum, it is replaced with the local minimum. Similarly, the local maximum is taken if the sharpened value exceeds it. In other implementations of the technique, haloing caused by image sharpening is suppressed but not completely eliminated, thereby producing a subtle haloing effect.
Pre-processing method and system for data reduction of video sequences and bit rate reduction of compressed video sequences using spatial filtering
Methods for pre-processing video sequences prior to compression to provide data reduction of the video sequence. Also, after compression of the pre-processed video sequence, the bit rate of the pre-processed and compressed video sequence will be lower than the bit rate of the video sequence after compression but without pre-processing. Pre-processing may include spatial anisotropic diffusion filtering such as Perona-Malik filtering, Fallah-Ford filtering, or omni-directional filtering that extends Perona-Malik filtering to perform filtering in at least one diagonal direction. Pre-processing may also include performing filtering differently on a foreground region than on a background region of a video frame. This method includes identifying pixel locations having pixel values matching characteristics of human skin and determining a bounding shape for each contiguous grouping of matching pixel locations. The foreground region is comprised of pixel locations contained in a bounding shape and the background region is comprised of all other pixel locations.
Dynamic range compression of high dynamic range imagery
An improved apparatus and method adaptively compresses the dynamic range of an image from a sensor by rescaling the value of every pixel to fit within the dynamic range of a low dynamic range display while preserving local image contrast and global scene appearance.
Method for automatically determining the acceptability of a digital image
A method for automatically determining the acceptability of an input image for a predetermined output operation, such as printing, includes the steps of: (a) identifying one or more important areas in the input image; (b) calculating a salient acceptability feature for each of the important areas; (c) determining the acceptability of the input image from the salient acceptability features of the important areas; and (d) implementing the predetermined output operation based on the acceptability of the input image determined in step (c).
System and method for recognizing objects from images and identifying relevancy amongst images and information
An embodiment provides for enabling retrieval of a collection of captured images that form at least a portion of a library of images. For each image in the collection, a captured image may be analyzed to recognize information from image data contained in the captured image, and an index may be generated, where the index data is based on the recognized information. Using the index, functionality such as search and retrieval is enabled. Various recognition techniques, including those that use the face, clothing, apparel, and combinations of characteristics may be utilized. Recognition may be performed on, among other things, persons and text carried on objects.
Extracting dominant colors from images using classification techniques
A method and system for generating a detector to detect a dominant color of an image is provided. A dominant color system trains a detector to classify colors as being dominant colors of images. The dominant color system trains the detector using a collection of training images. To train the detector, the dominant color system first identifies candidate dominant colors of the training images. The dominant color system then extracts features of the candidate dominant colors. The dominant color system also inputs an indication of dominance of each of the candidate dominant colors. The dominant color system then trains a detector to detect the dominant color of images using the extracted features and indications of dominance of the candidate dominant colors as training data.
Method of generating image of component
An image generation method for distinguishing a shape of a component includes: a color image taking step (S101) of taking an image of the component in color, and a conversion step (S102, S104) of converting the color image taken in the color image taking step (S101) into a black-and-white grayscale image in which the shape of the component is shown in black-and-white grayscale.
Biometric information input device, biometric authentication device, biometric information processing method, and computer-readable recording medium recording biometric information processing program
The invention is a biometric information input device including biometric information collection means for reading a relatively-moving living body site and successively collecting a plurality of partial images of the living body site as biometric information, movement direction detection means for detecting a movement direction of the living body site with respect to the biometric information collection means based on the biometric information collected by the biometric information collection means, and coordinate conversion means for performing a coordinate conversion on the biometric information collected by the biometric information collection means using the movement direction detected by the movement direction detection means, thereby allowing the device to be used irrespective of a direction in which a living body is swept when biometric information is entered.
Method for prohibiting a person with a facial mask to operate an automatic teller machine
A method for prohibiting a person with a facial mask to operate an automatic teller machine essentially includes the followings steps of: a) arranging a visual spectrum camera and an alarm unit approaching an automatic teller machine (ATM); b) capturing a facial picture of an experimental subject via the camera; c) judging if the picture performs generic facial features of a human face; if false, proceed Step g); d) if true, a facial temperature of the subject is detected to gain a measured temperature; e) comparing the measured temperature with a predetermined reference temperature; if the measured temperature is not within the reference temperature range, a spurious human face is determined and Step g) goes on; f) if the measured temperature is within the reference temperature range, a genuine human face is determined and the ATM is allowably operated without proceeding Step g); and g) activating the alarm unit to transmit a warning signal without operating the ATM.
Techniques for generating and using a fingerprint for an article
Techniques for generating fingerprints for articles and using the fingerprints for various applications. Scan-related parameter values, including the area of an article scanned, may be specified and varied from one scan to another for collecting data points used for generating fingerprints for articles. A paper shredder is provided that is configured to, prior to shredding a paper sheet, scan the paper sheet and generate a fingerprint for the paper sheet. Fingerprints may also be generated for media keys that are used to access media data. The fingerprint generated for a media key may be used to authenticate the media key. Access to media data corresponding to the media key may be made contingent on successful authentication of the media key.
Computing a higher resolution image from multiple lower resolution images using model-base, robust Bayesian estimation
A result higher resolution (HR) image of a scene given multiple, observed lower resolution (LR) images of the scene is computed using a Bayesian estimation image reconstruction methodology. The methodology yields the result HR image based on a Likelihood probability function that implements a model for the formation of LR images in the presence of noise. This noise is modeled by a probabilistic, non-Gaussian, robust function. The image reconstruction methodology may be used to enhance the image quality of images or video captured using a low resolution image capture device. Other embodiments are also described and claimed.
Video entity recognition in compressed digital video streams
A method and system for detection of video segments in compressed digital video streams is presented. The compressed digital video stream is examine to determine synchronization points, and the compressed video signal is analyzed following detection of the synchronization points to create video fingerprints that are subsequently compared against a library of stored fingerprints.
Visible authentication patterns for printed document
Techniques for determining authenticity of analog forms such as packaging or documents (117). One of the techniques determines whether the analog form has been made directly from a digital representation (903) or by photocopying or scanning an analog form. The technique makes the determination by comparing (911) an original digital representation of a portion of the analog form with a digital recording (203) of the portion from the analog form and measuring differences in features that are affected by the operations of photocopying or scanning. The original digital representation (105) and the analog form may have a “noisy”, i.e., random or pseudo random pattern. Such noisy patterns may further be used for other authentication purposes, such as determining whether the portion of the analog form that has the noisy pattern has been altered and to carry hidden messages. The noisy pattern may carry a logo or may be part or all of a barcode.
Method and apparatus to reduce entrainment-related artifacts for hearing assistance systems
A system providing method and apparatus to detect occurrence of an entrainment artifact and address it. The system analyzing a feedback canceller filter for certain characteristics that are associated with an entrained filter. When an entrained filter is detected, the feedback canceller filter is reset to a good filter that ideally represents the current approximate external acoustic feedback path without the characteristics of the entraining signal.
Osseous conduction acoustic transducer
Transducer substantially comprising a hollow housing, a device located inside the hollow housing to transform the electrical signals output by a vibration pickup microphone, a generally discoid shaped element for acoustical coupling with the mastoid bone, having one face directed to the outside of the housing and one face arranged onto the inside of the housing itself, and a coupling element for connection between the vibrating unit and the acoustic coupling element. The acoustic coupling element comprises one soft material headset apt to close and seal one opening made on one face of the hollow housing, and to hold the vibrating element freely hanging into said housing, by means of the coupling element.
Ultra small microphone array
Methods and apparatus for signal processing are disclosed. A discrete time domain input signal xm(t) may be produced from an array of microphones M0 . . . MM. A listening direction may be determined for the microphone array. The listening direction is used in a semi-blind source separation to select the finite impulse response filter coefficients b0, b1 . . . , bN to separate out different sound sources from input signal xm(t). One or more fractional delays may optionally be applied to selected input signals xm(t) other than an input signal x0(t) from a reference microphone M0. Each fractional delay may be selected to optimize a signal to noise ratio of a discrete time domain output signal y(t) from the microphone array. The fractional delays may be selected to such that a signal from the reference microphone M0 is first in time relative to signals from the other microphone(s) of the array. A fractional time delay Δ may optionally be introduced into an output signal y(t) so that: y(t+Δ)=x(t+Δ)*b0+x(t−1+Δ)*b1+x(t−2+Δ)*b2+ . . . +x(t−N+Δ)bN, where Δ is between zero and ±1.
QKD system with synchronization channel verification
Systems and methods for verifying error-free transmission of the synchronization (“sync”) channel of a QKD system are disclosed. The method includes sending a first pseudo-random bit stream (PRBS) over the sync channel from Alice to Bob, and verifying at Bob the accurate transmission of the first PRBS. The method also includes sending a second pseudo-random bit stream (PRBS) over the sync channel from Bob to Alice, and verifying at Alice the accurate transmission of the first PRBS. If the transmissions of a select number of bits in the first and second PRBSs are error-free, then the sync channel is verified and the QKD system can commence operation.
Ciphering by blocks of the content of a memory external to a processor
A method and an element for ciphering with an integrated processor data to be stored in a memory, including applying to each data block to be ciphered a ciphering algorithm which is a function of at least one key specific to the integrated circuit, and before applying the ciphering algorithm thereto, combining the data block to be ciphered with the result of a function of the storage address of the ciphered block in the memory, and/or of combining the key with the result of a function of the storage address of the ciphered block in the memory and of a digital quantity different from the ciphering key.
Methods and apparatus for persistent control and protection of content
A novel method and apparatus for protection of streamed media content is disclosed. In one aspect, the apparatus includes control means for governance of content streams or content objects, decryption means for decrypting content streams or content objects under control of the control means, and feedback means for tracking actual use of content streams or content objects. The control means may operate in accordance with rules received as part of the streamed content, or through a side-band channel. The rules may specify allowed uses of the content, including whether or not the content can be copied or transferred, and whether and under what circumstances received content may be “checked out” of one device and used in a second device. The rules may also include or specify budgets, and a requirement that audit information be collected and/or transmitted to an external server. In a different aspect, the apparatus may include a media player designed to call plugins to assist in rendering content. A “trust plugin” is disclosed, along with a method of using the trust plugin so that a media player designed for use with unprotected content may render protected content without the necessity of requiring any changes to the media player. In one aspect, the streamed content may be in a number of different formats, including MPEG-4, MP3, and the RMFF format.
Method for encrypting information and device for realization of the method
The cryptographic system and method for securing data from unauthorized access includes, in one embodiment, an iterative probabilistic cipher for converting plaintext into ciphertext comprising at least two components, a core and a flag. A corresponding key and the core and flag may be output in one or more data channels. For each round of encryption additional keys, cores and flags can be generated. Unless all keys, cores and flags are known, no recovery of the plaintext can be possible.
Randomized modular reduction method and hardware therefor
A cryptographically secure, computer hardware-implemented modular reduction method systematically underestimates and randomizes an approximate quotient used for computation of a remainder. The randomizing error injected into the approximate quotient is limited to a few bits, e.g. less than half a word. The computed remainder is congruent with but a small random multiple of the residue, which can be found by a final set of subtractions by the modulus. In addition to a computational unit and operations sequencer, the computing hardware also includes a random or pseudo-random number generator for producing the random error. The modular reduction method thus resists hardware cryptoanalysis attacks, such as timing and power analysis attacks.
Adjusting sensor time in a network security system
Sensor device times can vary and may be set significantly wrong. In one embodiment, the present invention can adjust a sensor's time by receiving a raw security event from a sensor device, determining whether a timestamp included in the raw security event is within a timerange around a time known by the agent, determining whether a time offset is in a non-initialized state, and determining whether to adjust the timestamp by applying the time offset to the timestamp, the determination being based on whether the timestamp included in the security event is within the timerange around the time known by the agent and whether the time offset is in a non-initialized state.
Password recovery system and method
A system, method and computer program product for recovering a password including, for each possible password to be tested, generating a periodicity unit based on a number of symbols in the password and a size of a chunk used by a one-way function to encrypt the password. The periodicity unit is substantially shorter than an input string, that includes replicated actual password used to encrypt the password. Based on the periodicity unit, using the one-way function, generating a control value for the periodicity unit. The control value is tested for a match with a control value generated from the actual password. An indication of a match is provided to a user.
Methods and systems for per-session traffic rate policing in a media gateway
Methods and systems for per-session traffic rate policing in a media gateway include receiving voice over IP (VoIP) packets at a media gateway where it is determined whether each VoIP packet is associated with an existing VoIP session in the media gateway. A per-session traffic rate policing policy is applied to the packets associated with the existing sessions in the media gateway. In response to determining that a packet violates the per-session traffic rate policing policy, the packet is discarded.
Method for discovering problem agent behaviors
A contact center is provided that includes a plurality of agents for servicing incoming contacts and a target behavior identification module operable to (i) process a set of events to yield a corresponding measure; (ii) compare the measure to a plurality of rule sets, each of the rule sets corresponding to a different type of target behavior; and (iii) when the measure is defined by the a selected rule set, associate the measure with a type of target behavior corresponding to the selected rule set.
Meeting lobby for web conferencing
A conferencing system provides the scheduling of virtual meetings with meeting lobbies so that a meeting presenter can conduct a virtual meeting without the need to send out invitations to attendees. A person that wants to conduct a virtual meeting can schedule with the conferencing system a meeting with a meeting lobby. The meeting lobby has an address, but there is no associated privileged information, such as a meeting password. Would-be meeting attendees use the meeting lobby address to enter the meeting lobby as visitors in the lobby, and request to enter the meeting from the meeting lobby. A meeting presenter can then either grant authorization for a visitor in the meeting lobby to enter the meeting, or deny authorization for a visitor in the meeting lobby to enter the meeting. If a visitor in the meeting lobby is denied authorization to enter the meeting from the meeting lobby, the conferencing system removes the visitor from the meeting lobby.
System and method for generating call records based on account codes
A telecommunications service implements an account code reporting feature by storing an account code associated with a subscriber at a service control point (SCP) in the public switched telephone network (PSTN). When a call is initiated from the subscriber's terminal, the SCP receives outgoing call data, including the subscriber's telephone number, a called party number and an account code entered from the subscriber's terminal. The SCP determines whether the call is subject to the account code reporting service and, if so, stores the call data. The SCP transmits the call data to a service management system accessible by the subscriber via a graphical user interface through a packet switched data network and an interactive voice response through the PSTN. The call is subject to the account code reporting service when the called party number is in the same local access and transport area as the subscriber's telephone number.
Identification of calling devices dialing a universal number to access a telecommunications relay service center
A dialed universal telephone number is translated into a toll free telephone number corresponding to a telecommunications relay service center in a telecommunications system. When the call is connected to the telecommunications relay service center, information that identifies the caller is reliably forwarded to the telecommunications relay service center.
Method and system for blocking incoming calls to mobile subscriber devices
A method includes setting an account value of an account to a first amount, wherein the first amount is associated with a specified level of authorized usage of a phone associated with the account. The method further includes blocking an incoming call intended for the phone when the account value is at a second amount that is at or lower than a predetermined threshold amount, wherein the second amount is associated with available usage of the phone. A data processing system includes a triggering module to generate a trigger signal when an account value of an account is at or lower than a predetermined reserve amount, greater than zero wherein the account value is associated with authorized usage of a phone associated with the account and a blocking module to block an incoming call to the phone in response to the trigger signal.
Field emitter based electron source for multiple spot X-ray
A multiple spot x-ray generator is provided that includes a plurality of electron generators. Each electron generator includes an emitter element to emit an electron beam, a meshed grid adjacent each emitter element to enhance an electric field at a surface of the emitter element, and a focusing element positioned to receive the electron beam from each of the emitter elements and focus the electron beam to form a focal spot on a shielded target anode, the shielded target anode structure producing an array of x-ray focal spots when impinged by electron beams generated by the plurality of electron generators. The plurality of electron generators are arranged to form an electron generator matrix that includes activation connections electrically connected to the plurality of electron generators, wherein each electron generator is connected to a pair of the activation connections to receive an electric potential therefrom.
Method and device for generating EUV radiation and/or soft X-ray radiation
A method of generating in particular EUV radiation (12) and/or soft X-ray radiation (12a) emitted by a plasma (26) is described. The plasma (26) is formed by an operating gas (22) in a discharge space (14) which comprises at least one radiation emission window (16) and an electrode system with at least one anode (18) and at least one cathode (20). This electrode system transmits electrical energy to the plasma (26) by means of charge carriers (24) introduced into the discharge space (14). It is suggested for obtaining a reliable ignition of the plasma (26) at high repetition frequencies that a radiation (30) generated by at least one radiation source (28) is introduced into the discharge space (14) for making available the discharge carriers (24).
Method for controlling modulation strength in radiation therapy
Methods for developing and using treatment plans with improved modulation for radiation therapy are disclosed. The methods involve adding an extra component to the patient-related objective function in order to make the optimization algorithm used to develop the treatment plan arrive at a solution with increased modulation. The extra component may take many forms. For example, the user may specify that the treatment plan favor solutions using a range of monitor units. The present invention is particularly useful in conjunction with radiotherapy systems having multileaf collimators for beam shaping, and in connection with advanced radiotherapy techniques, such as IMRT and arc therapy.
Medical diagnostic system and method for capturing medical image information
The invention relates to a medical diagnostic system having two C-arms which are adjustable with the aid of two drive means and serve as retaining devices for one medical measuring system in each case. At least one evaluation unit and at least one display element are provided for each medical measuring system. The first measuring system is an X-ray measuring system comprising an X-ray emitter and an X-ray detector and has a high spatial resolution. The second measuring system is a nuclear medicine measuring system for visualizing tissue functions. Accurate and rapid medical diagnoses and interventions are possible based on image information generated by both measuring systems.
Vision measuring system having vision measuring apparatus
A vision measuring system includes a vision measuring apparatus. The apparatus includes a first body mechanism, a carrying stage movably mounted in the first mechanism for supporting an article thereon, a second body mechanism spanning the first mechanism, a third body mechanism movably mounted on the second mechanism, and an imaging device movably mounted to the third mechanism for picking up images of the article. Adjusting structures are installed on the apparatus for ensuring the device to be movable relative to the article in three directions perpendicular to one another. The system further includes a motion controller for controlling movements of the stage, the third mechanism, and the device, an input unit, a computer system for converting operating orders from the input unit into electronic signals and sending the electronic signals to the controller, and analyzing image data from the device, and an output unit for displaying analyzing results.
Method for detecting the presence of high atomic number elements
Disclosed herein is a method for detecting high atomic number elements in an article by using radiation having two different energies. The detecting of high atomic number elements can be accomplished by using an algorithm, curve fitting or using a data table. Disclosed herein too is a radiation system that uses the aforementioned method for detecting high atomic number elements.
Modular multispot X-ray source and method of making same
A modular x-ray source for an imaging system includes an electron source mounting plate, two or more electron sources each mounted on and electrically coupled to the electron source mounting plate, and a target block positioned proximately to the two or more electron sources. The source includes two or more targets mounted on and electrically coupled to the target block, each target positioned opposite a respective one of the two or more electron sources to receive a respective beam of electrons therefrom.
System for exchanging a control rod drive
A system for exchanging a control rod drive of a nuclear reactor is provided. The system may include an integrated drive exchange assembly system (IDEAS). The IDEAS may include a trunnion cart attached to a tower assembly. The tower assembly may include an integrated extension carriage assembly.The IDEAS may also include a control rod drive adapter; and a lead cart connected to the trunnion cart assembly.
Adaptive interference cancellation algorithm using speech mode dependent thresholds
The present invention provides a method of processing radio frequency (RF) bursts dependent on a speech mode associated with data contained within the RF burst. Different voice modes, full rate, half rate, and adaptive multi-channel rates each may require different signal to noise ratio (SNR) conditions in order to be successfully processed. To improve the equalization of the received RF burst(s), the SNR associated with the burst is estimated. Then based on the SNR or other related conditions (i.e. the presence or absence of colored noise, and the estimated channel profile) a decision can be made as to whether or not an interference cancellation burst process should be implemented. For example, the presence of colored noise may indicate the presence of interference requiring the cancellation of such interference, the channel profile as described by the channel length and other associated properties may help determine when an interference cancellation process should be utilized as well, and if there is insufficient SNR, i.e. the SNR is below the predetermined threshold, all indicate that it may be desirable to implement interference cancellation to improve the processing of the received burst(s).
To provide a mobile terminal capable of shortening the time required for deciding whether a terminal is located within the range of an area frequency at the time of the terminal power switched on, and securely performing location registration to a cell producing a large electric field intensity by recognizing an area frequency in advance.
Blind data rate identification for enhanced receivers
In a method for determining a transmitted data rate, a received data frame may be decoded using different candidate rates to generate a first decoded bit sequence associated with each candidate rate. A first frame quality indicator and a first error metric may be generated for each of the candidate rates based on the associated first decoded bit sequence and a decoding metric for the associated first decoded bit sequence. One of the candidate rates may be selected as the transmitted data rate based on the first frame quality indicators, the first error metrics and an error metric threshold.
Multiphase receiver with equalization
A multiphase receiver to compensate for intersymbol interference in the sampling of an input signal includes a first integrating receiver to integrate and sample data of the input signal on a first phase of a clock and a second integrating receiver to integrate and sample data of the input signal on a second phase of the clock. The multiphase receiver also includes an equalization circuit to adjust integration by the first integrating receiver dependent on a result of integration of data previously received by an integrating receiver distinct from the first integrating receiver, and to adjust integration by the second integrating receiver dependent on a result of integration of data previously received by an integrating receiver distinct from the second integrating receiver.
Power detection techniques and discrete gain state selection for wireless networking
A wireless communication device may include a receiver coupled to a modem. The receiver may receive a wireless packet according to a wireless networking protocol such as a protocol in the IEEE 802.11 family of wireless protocols. Upon receiving a packet, the receiver may processes the packet according to a selected one of a plurality of discrete gain states. The modem coupled to the receiver may select the gain state used to process the packet such as by sending one or more signals to the receiver to reduce the gain state after determining that the current gain state is too large. The modem may implement a plurality of power detection modules in order to detect signals at varying power levels. The implementation of a plurality of power detectors may allow the gain state selection process to be performed very quickly as required by some wireless networking protocols.
Apparatus and methods for demodulating a signal
An apparatus for demodulating an analogue input signal comprises a hard limiter stage (4) for converting the signal to a two level signal. A digital down converter/low pass filter stage (6) converts the signal to a base band signal, and a symbol synchronization stage (8) extracts symbol timing. An instantaneous phase detector (10) calculates the instantaneous phase of the one or more symbols associated with the input signal. If the input signal has been modulated according to a pi/4DQPSK, pi/2DBPSK, GMSK, or a GFSK modulation scheme, a differential detector (12) determines a difference in the phase between adjacent symbols, a coarse frequency offset compensation stage (14) applies a compensation signal to compensate for frequency offset, and a frequency offset estimation stage (16) updates this compensation signal. A demapper (18) generates a demodulated output signal after compensation by the frequency offset compensation stage.
Data recovery system for source synchronous data channels
A high-definition multimedia interface (HDMI) receiver recovers high speed encoded data which are transmitted differentially over data channels of a lossy cable, along with a clock. Inter symbol interference, high-frequency loss, skew between the clock and data channels, and differential skew within a differential signal are compensated by analog circuits which are automatically tuned for best performance by observing the quality of the recovered analog signal. Oversampling is used to provide a 24-bit digital representation of the analog signal for determining the quality of the signal.
Digital pre-distortion technique using nonlinear filters
A method and computer program product for operating a linearizer for a circuit, including generating a set of coefficients via a characterizer; predistorting a signal input to the circuit responsive to the coefficients and generating a linearized output in response thereto; filtering the signal through a linear digital filter having linear digital filter taps, each tap other than a first tap being successively delayed by one delay unit; generating powers of the signal; inputting the generated powers of the signal through tapped delay lines, each line having nonlinear digital filter taps, each tap other than a first tap being successively delayed by one delay unit; applying the coefficients to the linear and nonlinear digital filter taps; summing each of the nonlinear digital filter taps corresponding to a certain number of delay units; and adding the sum of each of the delay units to a particular linear digital filter tap.
Radio communication base station apparatus in multiple-carrier communication and radio communication method
A base station is provided to suppress a drop of receiving power and deterioration of receiving characteristics by cancellation between the same symbols in the case of application of a repetition technology to multiple-carrier communication. In this base station (100), a repetition unit (103) for reproducing (making repetition of) each data symbol input from a modulating unit (102) to make out a plurality of identical data symbols, and a phase rotating unit (106) for giving a phase rotation to a data symbol input from a multiplexing unit (105). This time the phase rotating unit (106) provides the identical symbols made out by the repetition with the phase rotation which has a phase rotating difference different from phase rotating differences among a plurality of identical symbols transmitted with the ones identical to a plurality of the identical symbols at time and a frequency identical to those of a plurality of the identical symbols in adjacent cells or adjacent sectors.
MIMO symbol detection for SNR higher and lower than a threshold
A system detects symbols communicated from multiple transmitting antennas to multiple receiving antennas. A first detector determines the symbols from respective partial distances of potential choices for symbols from a constellation. A second detector determines the symbols from respective partial distances of more potential choices. The first and second detectors determine their partial distances from signals received at the receiving antennas. The second detector has a lower bit error rate than the first detector. The potential choices for the second antenna are smaller than the potential choices for the first antenna in response to a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) being higher than a threshold. An evaluator estimates the SNR of the signals received at the receiving antennas. The evaluator enables the first detector in response to the SNR being lower than the threshold, and the evaluator enables the second detector in response to the SNR being higher than the threshold.
Transmitter and receiver for use in a relay network, and system and method for performing transmission and reception using the same
An apparatus and method are provided for transmitting high-speed data through a plurality of transmitter antennas using a relay network, receiving signals transmitted from the plurality of transmitter antennas, and removing interference in a mobile communication system. The received signals are despread on a transmitter antenna-by-transmitter antenna basis according to a preset spreading factor. The despread signals are divided into data signals and noise. The signals transmitted through the plurality of transmitter antennas are regenerated from recovered data signals. Data components and interference signal components are identified. The interference signal components are removed from the signals transmitted on the transmitter antenna-by-transmitter antenna basis.
Multi-carrier OFDM UWB communications systems
The present invention, generally speaking, provides for signaling methods in which multiple sub-hands of a transmission band are continuously occupied by an OFDM signal that would otherwise occupy only a single sub-hand. In accordance with one embodiment, steps include producing an OFDM symbol; transforming the OFDM symbol to produce an OFDM signal; upsampling the OFDM signal to produce an upsampled OFDM signal; applying a pseudo-random code to the upsampled OFDM signal to produce a coded OFDM signal; and upconverting the coded OFDM signal to produce a radio frequency signal. In accordance with another embodiment, steps include producing a sequence of N consecutive identical OFDM symbols; transforming the OFDM symbols to produce corresponding OFDM signals; and upconverting the coded OFDM signal to produce a radio frequency signal; wherein the radio frequency signal occupies N sub-hands of a transmission band.
Systems and methods of flexible power management applicable to digital broadcasting
A system for receiving a digital broadcast includes an input terminal that receives the digital broadcast containing scalable data, and a controller for controlling an operation mode of the system. In addition, the system may also include a processor that decodes the data, and a power management device that varies the amount of data to be decoded according to the operation mode.
Moving picture stream generation apparatus, moving picture coding apparatus, moving picture multiplexing apparatus and moving picture decoding apparatus
A moving picture stream generation apparatus that generates a moving picture stream that can be played back in trick-play such as variable-speed and reverse playback even in a coding format such as MPEG-4 AVC, in which flexible prediction structures are allowed. The moving picture stream generation apparatus includes: a trick-play information generation unit generating supplemental information, the supplemental information being referred to at the time of playback of each random access unit including one or more pictures; and a variable length coding unit generating a stream including the generated supplemental information and the one or more pictures by adding the supplemental information to each corresponding random access unit. At the top of each random access unit, an intra coded picture that can be decoded without depending on any picture is placed, and the supplemental information includes information specifying pictures to be decoded at the time when pictures included in each random access unit are played back in trick-play.
Video compression system
A video compression system is disclosed that is optimized to take advantage of the types of redundancies typically occurring on computer screens and the types of video loss acceptable to real time interactive computer users. It automatically adapts to a wide variety of changing network bandwidth conditions and can accommodate any video resolution and an unlimited number of colors. The disclosed video compression encoder can be implemented with either hardware or software and it compresses the source video into a series of data packets that are a fixed length of 8 bits or more. Sequences of one or more of these packets create unique encoding “commands” that can be sent over any network and easily decoded (decompressed) with either software or hardware. The commands include 3 dimensional copying (horizontal, vertical and time) and unique efficiencies for screen segments that are comprised of only two colors (such as text). Embodiments are also disclosed that improve the video compression depending on the popularity of pixel colors.
Spread spectrum device and related random clock generator for a switching amplifier
A random clock generator for a spread spectrum modulating device includes a random number generator for generating a plurality of random number signals according to a first square wave signal and a control signal, a reference wave generator coupled to the random number generator for generating a triangular signal and a second square wave signal according to the plurality of random number signals, and a trigger signal generator coupled to the random number generator and the reference wave generator, for generating the first square wave signal according to the second square wave signal.
Device and method for control scaling and quantization of soft output values from an equalizer
A device for scaling and quantization of digital soft output values (sk) from an equalizer has a control loop for controlling a statistical parameter (θ) for the scaled and quantized soft output values (sD,k), which contains a calculation unit (4) for calculation of the statistical parameter (θ), and a control unit (5) for calculation of a scaling factor (c) for scaling the soft output values (sk) from the equalizer on the basis of the statistical parameter (θ).
On-channel repeating apparatus and method for terrestrial digital television broadcasting service
A repeater and method for an ATSC terrestrial digital TV broadcasting service. The on-channel repeater includes: a receiving unit for receiving a Radio Frequency (RF) broadcast signal from a main transmitter; a frequency downlink converting unit for converting the received RF broadcast signal into an intermediate frequency (IF) signal; a demodulating unit for converting the converted IF signal into a baseband signal; an equalizing unit for removing noise and multi-path signals generated from the converted baseband signal; a modulating unit for converting the baseband signal into an IF signal; a frequency uplink converting unit for converting the IF signal into a RF broadcast signal; a high power amplifying unit for amplifying and repeating the converted RF broadcast signal; a transmitting unit for transmitting the RF broadcast signal outputted from the high power amplifying unit; and a signal synchronizing unit for generating the first reference frequency, and generating the second reference frequency based on the first reference frequency such that the transmission/reception signal are frequency-and-phase synchronized.
Disjoint iterative chip equalization and multi-user detection for CDMA communication system on a MIMO channel
The invention relates to a reception method for communication over frequency-selective channels with a plurality of send antennas and a plurality of receive antennas, to process data received by the receive antennas that, on sending, was successively modulated and spread.To this end, reception uses: first linear filtering (202, 202′); first interference subtraction (201) that uses an estimate of previously regenerated multi-antenna interference (MAI) and intersymbol interference (ISI); second linear filtering (205, 205′); second interference subtraction (204) that uses an estimate of previously regenerated multi-user interference (MUI); processing to generate an MAI+ISI interference estimate and an MUI interference estimate for the received data from the data filtered in this way. The invention relates further to a reception system adapted to implement the method and a transmission system including the reception system.
Method and system for a flexible automatic frequency control (AFC) design supporting transmit diversity
Aspects of a method and system for a flexible automatic frequency control (AFC) design supporting transmit diversity are presented. Aspects of the system may include one or more circuits that enable computation of at least one frequency error value based on one or more previous computed frequency error values, current received symbols, and/or corresponding previously received symbols. A weighted sum may be computed from a plurality of computed frequency error values. A current demodulation frequency may be adjusted based on the computed weighted sum. The adjusted demodulation frequency may be utilized for receiving one or more subsequent symbols.
Eye-safe laser navigation sensor
The apparatus includes a diode laser and a current source interconnected with the diode laser. Two independent circuits in the current source are configured to limit current flowing through the diode laser. A first current limiter circuit configured to limit a current output from the current source to an anode of the diode laser, and an independent second current limiter circuit configured to limit a current return from a cathode of the diode laser to the current source so that laser output power does not exceed a specified maximum regardless of a single fault in either the first or second current limiter circuits.
Articles comprising an optical fibre with a fibre bragg grating and methods of their production
The invention relates to an article comprising a length of an optical fiber and a package, the optical fiber comprising a fiber Bragg grating dispersed over a FBG-section of the length of the optical fiber, the package comprising a carrier with a carrier surface for supporting at least a supported part of the optical fiber including the FBG-section. The invention further relates to an apparatus comprising the article, to its use and to a method of manufacturing such an article. The object of the present invention is to seek to provide an optimized (e.g. elongate) package having a relatively low sensitivity to mechanical vibrations from the environment. This is achieved by providing that the carrier surface for supporting the optical fiber comprising a fiber Bragg grating is convex in a longitudinal direction of the optical fiber during use of the article. This has the advantage of providing a lowering of the influence of vibrations from acoustic sources (or other sources of mechanical vibration) in the environment compared to prior art solutions. In an embodiment, the carrier comprises two different materials, each adapted to provide a specific tuning of the wavelength selected by the fiber Bragg grating. The invention may e.g. be used for the fiber lasers for sensing, (low frequency/low phase noise fiber lasers) in wavelength tuneable fiber lasers, and in packaging of fiber lasers in general.
Systems and methods for multi-pair ATM over DSL
At a transmitter, an ATM cell stream is received from the ATM layer and is distributed on a cell-by-cell bases across multiple DSL PHY's. At the receiver, the cells from each DSL PHY are re-combined in the appropriate order to recreate the original ATM cell stream, which is then passed to the ATM layer.
System and method for providing on-chip delay measurements in serializer/deserializer systems
A system and method is provided for making highly accurate data propagation delay measurements in a serializer/deserializer (SERDES) integrated circuit. The invention detects a selected special character when the special character is present at the input of a transmit data path of the SERDES integrated circuit. The invention also detects the special character when the special character appears at the output of the transmit data path. The invention then counts the number of clock cycles during which the selected character was in the transmit data path. This provides the data propagation delay of the special character through the transmit data path. The invention also makes data propagation delay measurements for a receive data path of a SERDES integrated circuit.
Communication system and method for sending isochronous streaming data within a frame segment using a signaling byte
A communication system, network interface, and communication port is provided for interconnecting a network of multimedia devices. The multimedia devices can send streaming and/or non-streaming data across the network. The network accommodates all such types of data and assigns data types to time slots or frame segments within each frame to ensure streaming data maintains its temporal relationship at the receiver consistent with the transmitter. A signaling byte is preferably used to keep track of an amount by which isochronous streaming data occupies a frame segment.
Communication system and encoding method having low overhead
A communication system processes blocks of input data that include control words and a packet of information words are received. The packet has a start preceded by ones of the control words and an end followed by others of the control words. When the block consists exclusively of information words, a one bit block header having a first sense is appended to the block to form a frame. When the block does not consist exclusively of information words, the block is condensed to accommodate a TYPE word, the TYPE word is generated and inserted into the block and a one bit block header is appended to the block to form the frame. When the block does not consist exclusively of information words the one bit block header has a second sense, opposite to the first sense. Use of a one bit block header reduces overhead. Forward error correction is also utilized.
Weighted fair bandwidth distribution system
An efficient policer (210-1, . . . , 210-M) based weighted fairness bandwidth distribution system (200) is disclosed. The system (200) is based on a plurality of policers (210-1, . . . , 210-M) and at least one queue (220). To achieve fairness, the rate for queuing packets is adaptively controlled. Specifically, first the queue occupancy is determined and it then is used for computing an attenuation value (Attn). This value is multiplied by the excess information rate of each policer (210-1, . . . , 210-M) to get a new excess information rate to be enforced.
AAL0 cell format of an ATM protocol for communicating voice traffic in a CDMA system
Disclosed herein are devices and methods for communicating full-rate voice data under an ATM protocol. An exemplary device is configured to communicate voice data through a vocoder in a CDMA backbone network using an ATM Adaptation Layer 0 (AAL0) cell-generating system, which is configured to generate an AAL0 cell for each frame of full-rate voice data. In an exemplary embodiment, the device generates AAL0 cells that each comprise (a) 5 bytes of a Header field; (b) 1 byte of a Length field indicating a size of the voice data; (c) 24 bytes of a Voice-Data field containing the voice data; (d) 19 bytes of a Control-Data field containing information for controlling the voice data; (e) 1 byte of an Error-Detection field containing information for detecting an error of the voice data; and (f) 3 bytes of a PAD field for padding data used to exactly fit into the ATM cell.
Method and system for authenticated fast channel change of media provided over a DSL connection
A method and system for fast channel changes of media that is provided by carriers over an xDSL connection to a home. Each customer's subscriber information is stored at the DSLAM that supports the xDSL connection to the home. Also, each DSLAM supports multicast protocols so that only one instance of a channel is provided on the core network regardless of how many customers have requested access to the channel.
Low cost implementation for a device utilizing look ahead congestion management
The invention utilizes a separate queue per output port as implemented in the traditional simple queuing schemes of the prior art. Further, it also uses the information found in the packet header to determine the output port and the next output port. Based on this information, it utilizes queues dedicated to congested flows, or “Congested Flow” queues. When the switch determines that, based on the first output port and the second subsequent output port, a packet in the output queue is destined for a congested path, it sets the offending packet aside in a Congested Flow queue, thereby allowing other packets destined for the first output port to continue to be transmitted. In this way, the HOL blocking issue is addressed, without the need for a significantly increased number of output queues.
Routing with virtual channels
An approach to introducing adaptive routing into a communication approach for passing messages between nodes over links between the nodes includes forming virtual channels over the links of the system and defining a deterministic routing function over the virtual channels such that the deterministic routing function is deadlock free. Adaptive routing is then permitted at nodes using the existing virtual channels by introducing a constraint on the available virtual channels used to forward communication that arrives at a node for a particular destination. The constraint on the virtual channels is such that the adaptive system is also deadlock free.
Updating next-expected TSN and receiver window to avoid stall conditions
Updating the next-expected transmission sequence number (NET) or the receiver window position to ensure that the NET always falls within the receiver window range to prevent unnecessary delays in delivering data blocks in order to avoid stall conditions and achieve high speed data transmission capabilities for a high-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA) system.
Method and system for forwarding data between a plurality of provider Ethernet networks
The present invention discloses a method and a system for forwarding data between provider Ethernet networks, wherein a first provider Ethernet network is the first provider Ethernet network in a path through which a first data packet is transmitted, and a second provider Ethernet network is the last provider Ethernet network in the path. The method includes using network addresses of the first provider Ethernet network and the second provider Ethernet network as a source address and a destination address of an outer MAC header with which the first data packet is encapsulated when the first data packet is transmitted between the first provider Ethernet network and the second provider Ethernet network; and decapsulating the first data packet and forwarding the decapsulated data packet to the second client network after the first data packet is forwarded to the second provider Ethernet network.
Packet forwarding apparatus and method for virtualization switch
Disclosed is a packet forwarding apparatus and method for a virtualization switch, applicable to switch environments built by Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) connections. The packet forwarding apparatus comprises a header extractor, a dispatcher, and a forwarding unit. After completion of the authorization for iSCSI session connections, the header extractor receives iSCSI packets and extracts the headers for the iSCSI packets. The dispatcher decides the flow directions for the received packets. The forwarding unit forwards the packets between the client-side connection and the storage-side connection of the virtualization switch, including converting virtual addresses into physical addresses for the received iSCSI packets, building the mapping between the client-side interface and the storage-side interface, and delivering the payload associated with the connections.
Method and system for data filtering for data packets
A method and system for filtering data packets, is provided. One implementation involves filtering data packets using a set of filters, each filter having a bit mask and corresponding bit values, by categorizing the filters into different groups based on their bit mask value differences, and generating a new mask of bits having corresponding bit values, applying the new mask to the incoming packet to select a filter category for the incoming packet, and filtering the incoming packet by applying the group of filters for the selected category to the incoming packet.
Multiple-domain processing system using hierarchically orthogonal switching fabric
A multiple-domain processing system includes a multi-dimensional switching fabric to provide intra-domain and inter-domain communication within the system.
Distributed services for mesh networks
Nodes in a mesh network are configured to access centralized Internet Protocol (IP) services whenever the Internet infrastructure is accessible and then dynamically switch to providing the IP services locally in the mesh network when the Internet infrastructure is not accessible and operate through collaborative cooperation. In one embodiment, a Reported Node Time Server (RNTS) is elected when the mesh network is disconnected. In another embodiment, a Mesh Network Name Cache (MNNC) protocol pre-provisions each mesh node with the names and addresses of all other mesh nodes. In another embodiment, a Mesh Address Allocation Protocol (MAAP) provides DHCP services for DHCP clients in the mesh network.
Routing method, system, corresponding network and computer program product
A system for controlling the routing of the traffic relating to a mobile node associated with a provider's network, the mobile node being capable of communicating with at least one correspondent node associated with an additional network. For the mobile node and the correspondent node, there is the possibility of communicating in at least a first operation mode through the provider's network and in a second operation mode by an at least partial exclusion of the provider's network. The system includes at least one element associated with the provider's network typically formed by a server acting as a home agent and configured to selectively check the authorization of said mobile node to operate in the second operation mode.
Photonic home area network
An apparatus for a service node used in a multimedia network. The apparatus has a data distributor circuit, and a decoder. The data distributor card has a data port for coupling with a data stream. The data distributor circuit has a relational code for determining whether an address field of a data packet of the data stream is intended for local distribution to peripheral devices by the distribution circuit. The decoder, in communication with the distribution circuit, has a virtual channel filter for filtering the address field to route the data packet to at least one data port, such as that associated with a peripheral device. An incorporator circuit is provided that is electrically-coupled to the data port to insert an address value having a relational code and a virtual channel code in a data input from the at least one data port. The incorporator then inserts the data input from the at leas tone data port into the data stream. In a method of the invention, interfacing a multimedia communications data stream having a plurality of data packets is provided. Inputting a data packet of the data stream, determining whether an address field of the data packet is intended for local distribution, and routing the data packet to a data port if the data packet is intended for local distribution. Otherwise, the data packet is returned to the data stream if the data packet is not intended for local distribution.
Packet telephony across the public switched telephone network
A network device that allows packet relay across a public switched telephone network. The network device has a converter operable to convert a packet data stream to a public switched telephone network data stream. The converter may be a voice codec or a modem, as examples. The network device also includes a controller that can send signals in the public switched telephone network data stream identifying the network device as a packet device, receive signals indicating at least one other network devices are participating in a public switched transmission session with the network device, and then send the packet data stream across the public switched transmission network directly to the at least one other network device.
Routing cache for distributed hash tables
In a distributed hash table (DHT), a participating node has a routing cache associating nodes in the DHT with their respective network addresses. Messages can be routed with the routing table using prefix-matching or numerical-closeness without requiring rigid structuring of the node's cache. Entries in the cache may be replaced using routing information obtained from en route messages. Entries in the routing cache may be replaced without regard for the nodeIDs in or entering the routing cache, and/or without structuring the routing cache according to the nodeIDs placed therein. Cache entries may be replaced randomly.
Method of dynamically assigning mobility configuration parameters for mobile entities
A method and system of enabling dynamic configuration of mobility configuration parameters for a mobile entity (105) by a mobility configuration agent (120) may be implemented, wherein the assigned mobility configuration parameters for the mobile entity are based on mobility configuration parameters corresponding to a group to which the mobile entity (120) belongs. An SLP directory (445) may be used to allocate an optimal home agent to the mobile entity.
Voice over internet protocol (VoIP) ready computer system and method
A VoIP ready computer system includes a housing having an integrated audio communications device holder adapted to receive an audio communications device. The housing includes a portion adapted to contain processing circuitry operable to execute programs and a storage device coupled to the processing circuitry. The storage device stores a VoIP program and other general purpose programs for execution by the processing circuitry. An audio communications device is removably positioned in the audio communications device holder and is coupled to the processing circuitry. The audio communications device is operable to communicate audio signals during execution of the VoIP program.
Method for determining non-broadcast multiple access (NBMA) connectivity for routers having multiple local NBMA interfaces
The present invention discloses an efficient architecture for routing in a very large autonomous system where many of the layer 3 routers are attached to a common connection-oriented layer 2 subnetwork, such as an ATM network. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, a permanent topology of routers coupled to the subnetwork is connected by permanent virtual circuits. The routers can further take advantage of both intra-area and inter-area shortcuts through the layer 2 network to improve network performance. The routers pre-calculate shortcuts using information from link state packets broadcast by other routers and store the shortcuts to a given destination in a forwarding table, along with corresponding entries for a next hop along the permanent topology. The present invention allows the network to continue to operate correctly if layer 2 resource limitations preclude the setup of additional shortcuts.
Device employment of multiple beacon slots in a distributed network
Multiple nodes communicate using repeating patterns of superframes, where each of the superframes includes a beacon period. A beacon slot in a first Media Access Slot (MAS) is reserved by the plurality of nodes. This reserved slot occurs in the beginning of the beacon period and is used for communicating information relating to the superframe configuration. This information may involve adjustments to the number of MASs reserved for beaconing.
Medium access control method and system
A medium access control method is provided in which a control station transmits one specific frame to terminal stations, thereby arranging a schedule of a data transmission time of the control station and each of the terminal stations and allowing a time zone unused by a station for data transmission to be allocated to another station. The control station transmits a schedule frame having defined therein a time occupied by each of the terminal stations, thereby reducing overhead. Also, the completion of the preceding communication performed by another station is detected, thereby effectively using an idle time of a medium and improving transmission efficiency.
Modified dual symbol rate for uplink mobile communications
The specification and drawings present a new method, system, apparatus and software product for using a new modified dual symbol rate (MDSR) in an uplink direction in mobile communication systems. The communication between the mobile station and the network element may be performed within evolved GSM/EDGE radio access networks. The MDSR can be for example one and a half times a symbol rate of an uplink speech service, e.g., the current GSM/EDGE symbol rate (13/48 MHz) in the mobile communication system, thus the MDSR may be substantially 13/32 MHz or about 405 kHz. The uplink signal with the MDSR may be modulated, e.g., using a quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), e.g., 16-QAM with 16 states and/or a quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK, or π/4-QPSK) modulation.
Communication of audio control signals for wireless audio headphones
A wireless audio headphone communication system has an audio input for receiving an audio signal from an audio source. A wireless transceiver receives and transmits radio frequency communications with a wireless audio headphone, the communications including an audio control signal that conforms to a wireless audio control protocol of a wireless communication protocol. A converter converts the audio control signal between the wireless audio control protocol transceived by the wireless transceiver and a local control protocol for controlling the audio source.
Topology system of wireless network with dynamic balance
The present invention is to provide a topology system of wireless network with dynamic balance comprising at least one subsidiary topology system of wireless network each having a plurality of access points and only one access point automatically becomes a root access point which operates on a channel different from others, and dynamically generates an unique derivative group ID different from others as the root access point linked with a wired network; other access points not linked with the wired network join one of subsidiary topology systems of wireless network according to loading and dataflow of the subsidiary topology systems of wireless network, and automatically become either a pure access point or an escape access point, dynamically generate an unique derivative group ID same as those linked with other root access points, and operate on a channel same as those linked with other root access points.
Wireless LAN terminal, wireless LAN base station, wireless communication method, and roaming method
The present invention makes it possible to expand wireless LAN areas without installing a plurality of LAN base stations or wireless LAN repeaters. A wireless LAN terminal has not only a wireless LAN terminal function to communicate with another wireless LAN base station, but also a wireless LAN base station function to communicates with a wireless LAN terminal. The wireless LAN terminal encapsulates a wireless LAN signal sent from another wireless LAN terminal and sends the encapsulated signal to the wireless LAN base station. The wireless LAN base station encapsulates a wireless LAN signal destined for a wireless LAN terminal and sends the encapsulated signal to another wireless LAN terminal.
Method and system for controlling data rate in a communication system
A system and method are provided for controlling a data rate in a communication system. A transmitter sets threshold values for classifying Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) levels. When receiving information about an MCS level desired to be used in the receiver, the transmitter sets an MCS level to be actually used in the receiver and transmits information about the set MCS level to the receiver. When detecting that the information is to be transmitted to the transmitter, the receiver computes instantaneous link capacity using a channel estimation result, sets an MCS level mapped to the instantaneous link capacity, and transmits information about the set MCS level to the transmitter. The receiver receives the information about the MCS level to be actually used from the transmitter.
Rate adaptation of wireless communication channels
A wireless communication network manages variable data rate communication channels using both short-term data rate adaptation and longer-term resource allocation adjustment. For example, an exemplary base station system may track the actual transmit power being used to transmit a given communication channel on a per frame basis, or faster, and use that tracked value to infer changing channel conditions, e.g., for a given current data rate, higher power indicates poorer channel conditions and lower power indicates better channel conditions. Additionally, or alternatively, channel quality information reported by a receiving mobile station can be used. Regardless, relatively fast data rate changes can be made responsive to monitoring the channel conditions, while retaining the communication resource allocation for the channel. Over the longer term, however, the allocation itself can be changed, e.g., increased or decreased, depending on whether the channel is being efficiently utilized.
Method and apparatus for handover of wireless communication between networks
A method is provided for handover of a communication of a mobile communication device between a first radio access network and a second radio access network. The method comprises storing, by at least one of the communication device and an element of the first radio access network, a context of the communication device in the first radio access network, the context being useable to transfer the communication back to the first radio access network after a transferring to the second radio access network; and transferring the communication to the second radio access network.
Method for scheduling distributed virtual resource blocks
A method for efficiently scheduling virtual resource blocks to physical resource blocks is disclosed. In a wireless mobile communication system, for distributed mapping of consecutively allocated virtual resource blocks to physical resource blocks, when nulls are inserted into a block interleaver used for the mapping, they are uniformly distributed to ND divided groups of the block interleaver, which are equal in number to the number (ND) of physical resource blocks to which one virtual resource block is mapped.
Methods for informing mobile stations of control channel architectures
A method for informing mobile stations of a control channel architecture for a wireless communications system is disclosed. At a controller in the wireless communications system, the controller sends a control channel architecture message on a broadcast channel. The control channel architecture message informs the mobile station of a control channel architecture for the wireless communications system. At a mobile station in the wireless communications system, the mobile station receives a control channel architecture message on a broadcast channel, retrieves information relating to the control channel architecture from the received control channel architecture message, and performs control channel processing using the retrieved information.
Apparatus and methods for selectively communicating voice communications via a fee-based network and a nonfee-based spectrum
An apparatus and method for communicating voice communications to the communications devices of respective recipients thereof using multiple call modes, including, but not limited to, a fee-based network call mode and non-fee based mode. Generally, the fee-based call mode utilizes a wireless communications network to communicate voice communications over relatively large distances and the non-fee based call mode utilizes a proximity communication transport mechanism to communicate voice communications over relatively small distances. The non-network communication transport mechanism includes, for example, the unlicensed free radio spectrum. The apparatus is operable in either of the call modes or in an auto-select call mode in which the apparatus initially attempts to communicate voice communications via a proximity communication transport mechanism and if unsuccessful, subsequently communicates voice communications via a wireless communications network. The apparatus is configurable to operate in any of the call modes.
Virtual connection for packetised data transfer in a video and audio network
A packet-based data network includes a packet-based network switch, and a plurality of packetised data sources coupled to the network, where the packetised data includes at least one of audio data or video data. The data network further includes at least one destination, being a data handling device for handling packetised data sources, coupled to the network, and a network control arrangement coupled to the network, the network arrangement being arranged to provide virtual circuit-switched connections for transfer of packetised data from sources to destinations via the network switch by assigning multicast group identifiers to the sources, so that the sources launch packetised data onto the network as multicast data packets identified by the multicast group identifiers, and instructing a destination to issue a request to the network switch to join the multicast group of a source so as to receive data packets from that source.
High capacity ring communication network
A method for communication includes configuring a plurality of ring nodes to communicate over a communication network that includes two or more overlapping communication rings, each ring including two unidirectional ringlets in mutually-opposite directions. A data packet including one or more header fields is accepted at an ingress ring node. An egress ring node to which the data packet is to be forwarded by the ingress ring node is determined. A subset of the rings including one or more common rings that are connected to both the ingress and egress ring nodes is identified. A ringlet of a ring among the one or more common rings is selected responsively to a respective value of at least one of the header fields of the packet. The data packet is forwarded from the ingress ring node to the egress ring node over the selected ringlet.
Dynamic multipoint tree rearrangement
A mechanism to dynamically map a multicast session to a transport tree to reduce flooding of egress routers on the transport tree is provided. A mechanism to reduce the length of time in which transient flooding can occur while the transport tree is being chosen or configured is also provided. The disclosed dynamic mapping mechanisms avoid interruption of an established multicast session. One mechanism disclosed provides for remapping of a multicast session by cloning an original transport tree with which the multicast session is associated, associating the multicast session with the cloned transport tree, and then reconfiguring the cloned transport tree in accord with edge egress routers that have subscribers to that multicast session.
Apparatus and method for preventing disruption of fibre channel fabrics caused by ReConfigure Fabric (RCF) messages
An apparatus and method for preventing the disruption of Fiber Channel Fabrics caused by ReConfigure Fabric (RCF) messages is disclosed. The apparatus includes a storage area network and a plurality of Fiber Channel Switches arranged in a Fabric. Each of the plurality of Switches includes logic to selectively configure their Ports to either reject or accept RCF messages. When configured to reject RCF messages, the Switch Port that receives an RCF message will generate a reject message along with a reason code explanation “E_Port Isolated”, and then transition into an Isolated state. When the Switch that generated the RCF message receives the reject message, its Port also transition into the Isolated state. In accordance with the method of the present invention, either a Storage Service Provider or a client can access the Switches of the Fabric through either a command line interpreter or a management application. Once access to the Fabric is established, the logic of the Ports of the Switches can be selectively configured to reject or accept RCF messages as described above.
High-speed traffic measurement and analysis methodologies and protocols
In one embodiment, a node-implemented method for performing analysis of traffic within a packet communications network. First, the node measures a traffic aggregate at specified nodes within the network with regard to a packet set of interest. Each traffic aggregate (i) is a set of packets, observed at one of the specified nodes, having a common characteristic and (ii) is measured at one of the specified nodes by creating a digest for the packets having the common characteristic. The digest characterizes the traffic aggregate without containing the actual packets themselves. Next, the node formulates an intersection set cardinality determination for a network traffic-characterizing parameter to be measured in the network utilizing the digests characterizing the traffic aggregates. Next, the node solves the set cardinality determination for the network traffic-characterizing parameter to be measured.
Method of routing and resource allocation in a wireless communication system
The present invention provides a method for route and resource allocation. One embodiment of the method includes determining at least one network variable associated with a network that includes a plurality of nodes connected by a plurality of links. The network variable(s) are determined based on a plurality of basic loads associated with the plurality of links and a plurality of data rates associated with the plurality of links. The method also includes determining at least one communication variable based on the determined network variable(s) and allocating at least one resource for communication over the network based on the determined network variable(s) and the determined communication variable(s).
Devices, softwares and methods for incorporating burstiness of packet loss metric in QoS based network routing
Devices, software, and methods quantify a burstiness quality of the packet loss in the node of a path. The quantified burstiness becomes a metric for determining the Quality of Service (QoS) offered by a node in retransmitting data through a network. Network routing and rerouting decisions are made according to the improved QoS. The burstiness statistic is determined by counting lengths of episodes of sequentially discarded packets at the node. The burstiness statistic is incorporated as a metric with the other metrics of the QoS of the node.
Communication terminal, congestion control method, and congestion control program
The congestion in a network can be avoided by effectively utilizing a prepared network band even in a network where reception intervals of acknowledgments are not correct. According to the information about Ack or Sack (selective acknowledgment) received in a time of the minimum value of an RTT (rtt_min), the number of bytes of received segments (rcv_bytes) for which a receiving side acknowledges the reception is counted, and a received byte number setting unit 16 sets a congestion window (CWND) or a slow start threshold (SSTHRESH) when a packet loss occurs according to the number of bytes of received segments (rcv_bytes) counted by a received byte number counting unit 14 when a packet loss is detected by a loss detection unit 15.
Systems and methods for communicating a lossy protocol via a lossless protocol using false acknowledgements
The present invention is generally directed towards a remote access architecture for providing peer-to-peer communications and remote access connectivity. In one embodiment, the remote access architecture of the present provides a method for establishing a direct connection between peer computing devices via a third computing device, such as a gateway. Additionally, the present invention provides the following techniques to optimize peer-to-peer communications: 1) false acknowledgement of receipt of network packets allowing communications via a lossless protocol of packets constructed for transmission via a lossy protocol, 2) payload shifting of network packets allowing communications via a lossless protocol of packets constructed for transmission via a lossy protocol, 3) reduction of packet fragmentation by adjusting the maximum transmission unit (MTU) parameter, accounting for overhead due to encryption, 4) application-aware prioritization of client-side network communications, and 5) network disruption shielding for reliable and persistent network connectivity and access.
Transmission method, sending device and receiving device
Stream data and a command output from a drive device are individually packetized in a first packet processing unit. The stream data packet and the command packet are further multiplexed, and the multiplexed data is transmitted to a transmission path using a synchronous channel. When the command output from a decoding unit is packetized in a second packet processing unit, it is packetized by multiplexing flow control information output from the decoding unit, and is transmitted to the first packet processing unit using a synchronous channel of the transmission path. Based on this flow control information, reading/writing by the drive device is controlled.
Method, apparatus, and medium for providing multimedia service considering terminal capability
A method of providing multimedia services in consideration of the capability of a terminal, a method of receiving the multimedia services, and a terminal for receiving the multimedia services. The method of providing multimedia services includes receiving information regarding capability of a terminal, and processing data according to the received information and providing the processed data to the terminal. Accordingly, it is possible to provide the server or proxy server with information regarding resources available for a lightweight application terminal, allowing it to provide data at a level of quality best suited to the capabilities of the terminal.
Fast network security utilizing intrusion prevention systems
Intrusion Prevention Systems (“IPSs”) are used to detect and/or prevent intrusion events from infiltrating a computer network. However, in large computer networks the IPSs cannot conduct their analysis on network data traffic quickly enough in the network core to meet the demand placed on them by the computer networks, thereby causing delays in the transmission of network data traffic from a source to a destination. To prevent this delay, the IPSs can be configured to intelligently communicate with a high-capacity network switch. The IPSs conduct the initial inspection of the network data traffic flows to determine if an intrusion event is present. However, after the initial inspection, the IPS can inform the switch of what actions to take for future traffic flows including determining which future traffic flows are inspected by the IPSs and which future traffic flows are allowed to be blocked or transmitted to their destination by the switch.
Data path-based service deployment in hierarchical networks
Provides optimizing a data path and forwarding a data from a start node to an end node over a network, wherein the data is forwarded through the data path which is determined by a data path option having a minimum overall capacity regarding first capacity values. Provides a first capacity value for a specific first node and for a specific first node function including determining a number of second data path options for the second nodes of the specific first node to perform the specific first node function, for each second data path option, the second nodes having one or more assigned second node functions. Provides a second capacity values for each of the second nodes and for each of the assigned second node functions, and determines overall capacity values of the nodes and for each of the assigned second node functions.
System and method for streaming video on demand (VOD) streams over a local network
A system and method for streaming numerous video on demand (VOD) streams over a network, such as a local area medium sized network on a vehicle such as an aircraft. The system and method that provides redundant and restricted paths for streaming numerous VOD streams while providing maximum bandwidth for traffic from multiple sources with minimal packet loss due to contention.
Network fault correlation in multi-route configuration scenarios
A method and network device are shown that include identifying at least one fault identifier to be a member of a first fault set, and identifying at least one fault identifier to be a member of a second fault set, the first fault set associated with a first path from a source node to a destination node, and the second fault set associated with a second path from the source node to the destination node. Further, the method and network device include identifying a reduced fault set by eliminating the second fault set, when the first fault set is a subset of the second fault set.
Bridge/router and method for avoiding packet replication during a failure in a network
A bridge/router and method are described herein that are capable of avoiding packet replication at layer 2 where there is a failure in a network. In one embodiment, the bridge/router is informed about a fault which occurred within the network. Then, the bridge/router makes a determination about whether or not multiple LSPs would be used to flood/carry the same IP traffic out off a single port. If yes, the first bridge/router chooses one of the LSPs to carry the IP traffic out the single port and then prevents the IP traffic from being carried on the remaining LSP(s) out the single port which avoids the packet replication on a link which is associated with the single port. If no, then the first bridge/router allows the IP traffic to be carried on the LSPs out off more than one port.
Optical disk drive with hybrid solid immersion objective lens
A small form factor optical disk drive is provided that incorporates a hybrid solid immersion objective lens (SIOL). The SIOL includes a central aspheric lens portion and a surrounding diffractive optical element portion.
Optical pickup apparatus and drive apparatus having the same
An optical pickup apparatus and a drive apparatus having the same are provided. Second light-receiving elements or third light-receiving elements for receiving ±first-order diffraction light beams from a polarization hologram are arranged outwardly of a circular region having the optical axis of a zero-order diffraction light beam on a light detector as its center, a radius of which is expressed by (2×t/n)×(f2/f1), where f1 denotes a focal length of an objective lens, f2 denotes a focal length of a coupling lens, t denotes a maximum value of a light transmitting layer thickness, n denotes a refractive index of a light transmitting layer.
Data recording apparatus
A data recording apparatus automatically displays a GUI for suggesting the finalization process when the apparatus ejects a disk which has not been finalized. Since the user can eject the disk after he determines if he will make the apparatus perform the finalization process, the user, who does not fully understand the meaning of the finalization, even can decide whether he finalizes a recording medium with the DVD-R standard to enable the recording medium to be played in a device of a different standard.
Power control apparatus and method for an optical drive
A power control apparatus and method for an optical drive is disclosed. The power control apparatus estimates the temperature rising effect of a laser diode and performs a partial open-loop power control, achieving accurate write power control. Therefore, regarding to a high-speed, high-density optical disk recording medium combined with multi-pulse write waveforms, the invention can also achieve accurate write power control even though the response speed of a front photodiode is much slower than the modulation speed of recording pulses of the laser diode.
Information recording apparatus, information recording method, information playback apparatus, and information playback method
According to one embodiment, an information recording apparatus which records content compliant with a second DVD standard on an information storage medium, the second DVD standard being a DVD standard later than a first DVD standard defined for a first image quality and being defined for a second image quality higher than the first image quality, includes a determination unit configured to determine whether narrow burst cutting area (NBCA) of the information storage medium is valid or not, and whether supported maximum recording speed of the information storage medium is triple speed or more of a predetermined recording speed, and a recording unit configured to perform real-time recording of the content compliant with the second standard on the information storage medium on the basis of the determination.
Method for determining disk type
A method for determining a disk type is provided. In the invention, a pickup head of a DVD optical drive is moved to a blank area of the disk where no data is stored. After rotation of the disk is stopped, the blank area is irradiated with a laser beam, and reflective signals reflected from a surface layer and a reflective layer of the disk are measured respectively. According to a time difference between the two reflective signals, the type of the disk placed in the DVD optical drive is determined. Therefore misjudgment because of effects of pits in a data area of the disk on the reflective signals can be avoided, so that the disk type can be accurately determined.
System with read protecting function
The present invention relates to a system with read protecting function that comprises a record medium, having a data substrate with a control data zone and a data zone thereon, wherein the control data zone has a plurality of blocks, and every block has a plurality of sectors, and every sector has a plurality of bytes, and the data zone has encoded data, as well as a control code is disposed in the one of the sectors in control data zone; an optical storage device, for loading the record medium and reading and identifying the control code, then decoding the control code and outputs the decoded data if the control code is identifiable; or directly output the encoded data if the control code is not identifiable. Furthermore, the present invention relates to a method for protecting a record medium.
Apparatus and method for recording/reproducing data on/from a recording medium
There is provided an apparatus for recording/reproducing data on/from a recording medium including: a pickup unit including an objective lens and a solid immersion lens(SIL) to allow a light to be incident onto a recording medium; a photoelectric element for receiving the light reflected from the recording medium to output a controlling signal; and a controller to control the pickup unit using the controlling signal outputted from the photoelectric element, wherein the controlling signal includes a tilting error signal by skew of the recording medium.
Laser/detector device for optical recording with adjustable detector position
An assembly structure and method for an integrated laser/detector device with a mirror at an angle to redirect the laser beam to a medium. The mirror is not attached to the circuit board with the laser/detector as in the prior art, but rather is mounted separately in the housing immediately above the circuit board. This allows the circuit board to be moved laterally toward and away from the mirror during assembly to adjust the reflected beam along a first direction so that it contacts the photodetector. A hologram lens is mounted above the mirror, and can be rotated to adjust the reflected beam to hit the photodetector along a second, orthogonal direction. In one embodiment, two laser beams are generated, and two hologram lenses are used to separately adjust the two beams.
Oscillating shear valve for mud pulse telemetry
An oscillating shear valve system for generating pressure fluctuations in a flowing drilling fluid comprising a stationary stator and an oscillating rotor, both with axial flow passages. The rotor oscillates in close proximity to the stator, at least partially blocking the flow through the stator and generating oscillating pressure pulses. The rotor passes through two zero speed positions during each cycle, facilitating rapid changes in signal phase, frequency, and/or amplitude facilitating enhanced, multivalent data encoding. The rotor is driven by a motorized gear drive. In one embodiment, a torsional spring is attached to the motor and the resulting spring mass system is designed to be near resonance at the desired pulse frequency. The system enables the use of multivalent encoding schemes for increasing data rates.
According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, an analog memory includes a first to third memory blocks. Each of the first to third memory blocks includes a plurality of capacitive elements for storing electric charges corresponding to an input signal, an output line for transferring the electric charges, and a plurality of MOS transistors each for changing connection between the capacitive element and the output line. When a signal is outputted from the output line to a buffer circuit by sequentially connecting the capacitive element to the output line in the first memory block, all connections between the capacitive elements and the output line are disconnected in the second and third memory blocks with the output line of the first memory block and the output line of the second memory block connected.
Distributed front-end FIFO for source-synchronous interfaces with non-continuous clocks
In one embodiment, an integrated circuit such as an FPGA includes one or more data I/O blocks, one or more FIFOs, and a FIFO controller. At least one data I/O block receives an incoming bit stream from an external device. At least one FIFO is connected to receive a corresponding incoming bit stream from a corresponding data I/O block. The FIFO controller controls operations of the one or more FIFOs, such that (i) bits from the corresponding data I/O block are written into the at least one FIFO using a FIFO write clock that is based on an incoming clock signal and (ii) bits are read out from the at least one FIFO using a FIFO read clock that is based on a local reference clock signal.
Test circuit for multi-port memory device
A semiconductor memory device includes a read bus line for transferring read data; a write bus line for transferring write data; and a temporary data storage unit connected between the read bus line and the write bus line and controlled by a test mode signal enabled during a test mode.
Semiconductor device and system
First and second data output circuits obtain corresponding parts of read data of a storage circuit to output to first and second input/output pads in a second test mode. First and second data input circuits obtain output data of the first and second data output circuits via the first and second input/output pads to output in the second test mode. A comparison object selection circuit selects output data of the first and second data input circuits to output in the second test mode. A judging circuit performs a test judgment by comparing output data of the comparison object selection circuit with expected value data and outputs a test result signal in the second test mode.
Memory repair circuit and repairable pseudo-dual port static random access memory
The present invention relates to a memory repair circuit and a repairable pseudo-dual port static random access memory (pseudo-dual port SRAM). The memory repair circuit uses fewer redundant column blocks and stores a few failed block addresses to reduce the required complexity of decoding the redundant column blocks. Thus, the present invention can reduce a layout area required by redundant memory cells.
Semiconductor memory device
A semiconductor memory device to/from which a data signal is input/output in synchronism with a clock, including: an input signal delaying circuit for delaying an input signal to output the delayed input signal; a delayed clock generation circuit for delaying an input clock by different amounts of delay time to thereby generate a plurality of delayed clocks; a plurality of delayed input signal holding circuits for holding the delayed input signal on the plurality of delayed clocks, respectively; an input signal latch timing determination circuit for outputting a determination signal indicating a timing at which to latch the delayed input signal, based on a plurality of held signals held by the delayed input signal holding circuits; and a held signal selector circuit for integrating the plurality of held signals into a single signal.
Methods and apparatus for improved memory access
A memory access scheme employing one or more sets of shift registers interconnected in series to which data may be loaded from or written into one or more memory devices. That is, data from the memory devices may be parallel loaded into the sets of shift registers and then serially shifted through the shift registers until it is output from the sets of shift registers and transferred to its destination. Additionally, the data may be read from and loaded into the memory devices to/from the sets of shift registers such that the shifting of the shift registers is uninterrupted during the reading and/or loading of data. Additionally, data from the memory devices may be loaded into two or more parallel chains of shift registers and then serially shifted through the shift register chains.
Integrated circuit and method of operating the same
An integrated circuit includes a storage component, a voltage stabilizer circuit with an input configured to receive an input voltage and an output configured to provide an output voltage, and a load. The load is coupled to the output of the voltage stabilizer circuit. The integrated circuit is operable in a first and second operating state. In the first operating state, the storage component receives an input voltage and in the second operating state the input voltage is provided to the input of the voltage stabilizer circuit.
System to adjust a reference current
System and methods to adjust a reference current are disclosed. A current reference circuit generates an adjustable reference current. A microprocessor-based feedback circuit adjusts the reference current, wherein the adjustment is based on read and write parameters attributed to a memory cell.
Non-volatile memory with adaptive setting of state voltage levels
A non-volatile memory device is accessed using voltages which are customized to the device, and/or to portions of the device, such as blocks or word lines of non-volatile storage elements. The accessing can include programming, verifying or reading. By customizing the voltages, performance can be optimized, including addressing changes in threshold voltage which are caused by program disturb. In one approach, different sets of storage elements in a memory device are programmed with random test data. A threshold voltage distribution is determined for the different sets of storage elements. A set of voltages is determined based on the threshold voltage distribution, and stored in a non-volatile storage location for subsequent use in accessing the different sets of storage elements. The set of voltages may be determined at the time of manufacture for subsequent use in accessing data by the end user.
Non-volatile memory and method with improved sensing having a bit-line lockout control
In sensing a group of cells in a multi-state nonvolatile memory, multiple sensing cycles relative to different demarcation threshold levels are needed to resolve all possible multiple memory states. Each sensing cycle has a sensing pass. It may also include a pre-sensing pass or sub-cycle to identify the cells whose threshold voltages are below the demarcation threshold level currently being sensed relative to. These are higher current cells which can be turned off to achieve power-saving and reduced source bias errors. The cells are turned off by having their associated bit lines locked out to ground. A repeat sensing pass will then produced more accurate results. Circuitry and methods are provided to selectively enable or disable bit-line lockouts and pre-sensing in order to improving performance while ensuring the sensing operation does not consume more than a maximum current level.
Read disturb mitigation in non-volatile memory
Read disturb is reduced in non-volatile storage. In one aspect, when a read command is received from a host for reading a selected word line, a word line which is not selected for reading is randomly chosen and its storage elements are sensed to determine optimized read compare levels for reading the selected word line. Or, a refresh operation may be indicated for the entire block based on an error correction metric obtained in reading the storage elements of the chosen word line. This is useful especially when the selected word line is repeatedly selected for reading, exposing the other word lines to additional read disturb. In another aspect, when multiple data states are stored, one read compare level is obtained from sensing, e.g., from a threshold voltage distribution, and other read compare levels are derived from a formula.
Non volatile memory
An electrically programmable and erasable non-volatile semiconductor memory such as a flash memory is designed into a configuration in which, when a cutoff of the power supply occurs in the course of a write or erase operation carried out on a memory cell employed in the non-volatile semiconductor memory, the operation currently being executed is discontinued and a write-back operation is carried out to change a threshold voltage of the memory cell in the reversed direction. In addition, the configuration also allows the number of charge-pump stages in an internal power-supply configuration to be changed in accordance with the level of a power-supply voltage so as to make the write-back operation correctly executable. As a result, no memory cells are put in deplete state even in the event of a power-supply cutoff in the course of a write or erase operation.
Controlled bit line discharge for channel erases in nonvolatile memory
Systems and/or methods that facilitate discharging bit lines (BL) associated with memory arrays in nonvolatile memory at a controlled rate are presented. A discharge component facilitates discharging the BL at a desired rate thus preventing the “hot switching” phenomenon from occurring within a y-decoder component(s) associated with the nonvolatile memory. The discharge component can be comprised of, in part, a discharge transistor component that controls the rate of BL discharge wherein the gate voltage of the discharge transistor component can be controlled by a discharge controller component. The rate of BL discharge can be determined by the size of discharge transistor component used in the design, the strength and/or size of the y-decoder component, the number of erase errors that occur for a particular memory device, and/or other factors in order to facilitate preventing hot switching from occurring.
Interleaved memory program and verify method, device and system
An interleaved memory programming and verification method, device and system includes a memory array including first and second memory banks of memory cells. The memory device further includes a controller configured to concurrently program a first data into the first memory bank and a second data into the second memory bank using iterative programming and verification operations in each of the first and second memory banks with the programming and verification operations in the second memory bank being offset from the programming and verification operations in the first memory bank.
RFID tag with redundant non-volatile memory cell
Two floating gate devices are arranged in a redundant configuration in a non-volatile memory (NVM) of a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tag such that stress induced leakage current (SILC) or other failures do not result in a complete loss of memory storage. The redundant NVM may be arranged as a series configuration, a parallel configuration, a single-ended device, a differential device, a simple logic circuit function, and/or a complex logic circuit function.
Nonvolatile semiconductor memory including memory cell for storing multilevel data having two or more values
A write controller performs verification for checking whether each memory cell is on a predetermined verification level. For a memory cell to be written to a voltage level higher than the predetermined verification level, the write controller stores, in first and second latch circuits, the number of times of write to be performed by a write voltage after the verification. Whenever write is performed by the write voltage, the write controller updates the number of times of write stored in the first and second latch circuits. After write is performed the number of times of write by the write voltage, the write controller performs write by an intermediate voltage lower than the write voltage.
Secondary injection for NROM
Secondary electron injection (SEI) is used for programming NVM cells having separate charge storage areas in an ONO layer, such as NROM cells. Various combinations of low wordline voltage (Vwl), negative substrate voltabe (Vb), and shallow and deep implants facilitate the process. Second bit problems may be controlled, and retention and punchthrough may be improved. Lower SEI programming current may result in relaxed constraints on bitine resistance, number of contacts required, and power supply requirements.
Semiconductor memory device and method for fabricating semiconductor memory device
According to an aspect of the present invention, there is provided a semiconductor memory device, including, a semiconductor substrate, a phase-change element formed on the semiconductor substrate, the phase-change element including a phase-change film and electrode films, a joule heat portion contacting with the electrode film, the phase-change film being formed around the joule heat portion, and a radiation-shield film suppressing dissipation of thermal radiation emitted from the joule heat portion.
Magnetization state control device and magnetic information recording device
The magnetization state of a ferromagnetic material is controlled by applying a current pulse to it while externally applying a weak magnetic field to it. The magnetic state of a ferromagnetic material can be switched between a uniformly magnetized state and a multiple magnetic domain structure by controlling the direction and intensity of the magnetic field applied to it and the intensity and pulse width of the current pulse. When an external magnetic field is applied, the possibility of occurrence of the reversal of the magnetic state upon application of the current pulse shows a hysteresis, and the reversal of the magnetic state can be controlled reliably. The intensity of the magnetic field to be applied may be as weak as a few gauss. Furthermore, by using such magnetic information recording elements, a magnetic information recording device (memory) that can achieve a high degree of integration can be produced.
Magnetic memory cell reading apparatus
There is provided a magnetic memory device capable of reading information even with a lower power supply voltage.The magnetic memory device is equipped with a plurality of storage cells laid out in two dimensions in (i+1) rows and (j+1) columns (where i, j are integers of one or higher). Two magnetoresistive effect revealing bodies 2a, 2b are disposed in each of the storage cells 1, and each storage cell includes: a first stage circuit 41 that supplies currents Ib1, Ib2 for detecting resistances of magnetoresistive effect revealing bodies 2a, 2b; an X-direction address decoder circuit 32 that supplies currents Iw1, Iw2 to the magnetoresistive effect revealing bodies 2a, 2b; and a current control circuit (constant current circuit 25n) that carries out control so that the total of the current Ib1 and the current Iw1 and the total of the current Iw2 and the current Ib2 are respectively constant.
Resistance semiconductor memory device having three-dimensional stack and word line decoding method thereof
A resistance semiconductor memory device of a three-dimensional stack structure, and a word line decoding method thereof, are provided. In the resistance semiconductor memory device of a three-dimensional stack structure, in which a plurality of word line layers and a plurality of bit line layers are disposed alternately and perpendicularly, and in which a plurality of memory cell layers are disposed between the word line layers and the bit line layers; the resistance semiconductor memory device includes a plurality of bit lines disposed on each of the bit line layers in a first direction as a length direction; a plurality of sub word lines disposed on each of the word line layers in a second direction as a length direction, intersected to the first direction; a plurality of memory cells disposed on the memory cell layers; and a plurality of main word lines individually disposed on a main word line layer specifically adapted over the bit line layers and the word line layers, in the second direction as a length direction, each one of the plurality of main word lines being shared by a predetermined number of sub word lines. An efficient word line decoding adequate to high integration can be achieved.
Multilevel nonvolatile memory cell comprising a resistivity-switching oxide or nitride and an antifuse
A nonvolatile memory cell includes a layer of a resistivity-switching metal oxide or nitride compound, the metal oxide or nitride compound including one metal, and a dielectric rupture antifuse formed in series. The dielectric rupture antifuse may be either in its initial, non-conductive state or a ruptured, conductive state. The resistivity-switching metal oxide or nitride layer can be in a higher- or lower-resistivity state. By using both the state of the resistivity-switching layer and the antifuse to store data, more than two bits can be stored per memory cell.
Column address control circuit capable of selectively enabling sense amplifier in response to column addresses
A column address control circuit comprises a control unit for outputting a control signal in response to a DDR mode signal and a first signal, and an address counting unit configured to receive a start column address and output a start column address in response to the control signal. The first signal is a burst read single write mode signal. The control signal is activated when the first signal is activated in a DDR mode. The control unit includes a first logic unit for performing an AND operation of the DDR mode signal and the first signal, and a second logic unit for performing an OR operation of an output signal of the first logic unit and a SDR mode signal.
Fastener and heat sink assembly having the same
A fastener includes a connecting pole, a sleeve, an elastic element enclosing the sleeve and a baffling portion. The connecting pole includes a shaft, a head and a thread portion. The sleeve includes an engaging portion and a receiving portion extending from the engaging portion. The engaging portion encloses a top end of the shaft therein and abuts against the head. The receiving portion encloses a bottom end of the shaft and a top end of the thread portion. The receiving portion includes a plurality of spaced resilient pieces. The baffling portion screws onto the thread portion of the connecting pole. When the connecting pole rotates relative to the sleeve, the baffling portion moves upwardly along the thread portion to push the pieces of the receiving portion outwardly to make the pieces abut against a bottom surface of a printed circuit board.
Multi-layer electrically isolated thermal conduction structure for a circuit board assembly
A thermal conduction structure is integrated into a multi-layer circuit board to thermally couple a power electronic device to a heatsink while electrically isolating the power electronic device from the heatsink. The thermal conduction structure includes a stack of alternatingly insulative and conductive layers, a first set of vertical vias that thermally and electrically join the power electronic device to a first set of conductive layers, and a second set of vertical vias that thermally and electrically join the heatsink to a second set of conductive layers that are interleaved with the first set of conductive layers.
Heat spreader and method of making the same
A heat spreader having at least two adjoining strips of pyrolytic graphite material is made by cutting a strip from a sheet of pyrolytic graphite in the z direction. Thermal conductivity in the xy plane of the graphite sheet is greater than in the z direction. The z direction cut provides strips which are then each individually oriented 90 degrees such that the thickness direction of the original pyrolytic graphite sheet becomes the width or length of the cut strip. A face on the side of a first strip adjoins a face on the side of a second strip. Due to the greater thermal conductivity in the xy plane of the strips as compared to in the z direction heat transfers more rapidly in the length and thickness direction of the strips than across adjoining sides of the oriented strips.
Multiple chip module cooling system and method of operation thereof
Disclosed herein is computer system having a first and second multiple chip modules (MCM) and a cooling module. The cooling module includes a first cooling loop associated with said first MCM and a first evaporator. The cooling module further includes a second cooling loop associated with said second MCM and a second evaporator. Each cooling loop is coupled to a common condenser that receives thermal energy from each cooling loop. A controller is coupled to the first and second cooling loop and adapts the operation of the first and second cooling loop in response to variances in operating conditions to provide cooling of the first and second MCM.
Apparatus and methods for high-performance liquid cooling of multiple chips with disparate cooling requirements
Apparatus and methods are provided for packaging multi-chip modules with liquid cooling modules designed to provide different thermal resistances for effectively conducting heat from various chips with disparate cooling requirements while minimizing mechanical stresses in thermal bonds due to thermal excursions.
Variable flow computer cooling system for a data center and method of operation
Disclosed herein is a data center having a plurality of liquid cooled computer systems. The computer systems each include a processor coupled with a cold plate that allows direct liquid cooling of the processor. The cold plate is further arranged to provide adapted flow of coolant to different portions of the processor whereby higher temperature regions receive a larger flow rate of coolant. The flow is variably adjusted to reflect different levels of activity. By maximizing the coolant temperature exiting the computer systems, the system may utilize the free cooling temperature of the ambient air and eliminate the need for a chiller. A data center is further provided that is coupled with a district heating system and heat is extracted from the computer systems is used to offset carbon emissions and reduce the total cost of ownership of the data center.
Rotatable dock for portable electronic devices
A docking system for supporting a portable electronic device with a vertical operational orientation and a horizontal operational orientation is disclosed. The docking system includes a base stand unit that has a flat top surface. Additionally, there is a device support platform that is rotatably mounted to the base stand unit. The device support platform defines a cradle portion that is engageable to the portable electronic device. The device support platform has a first position corresponding to the vertical operational orientation, and a second position corresponding to the horizontal operational orientation.
Electronic part and process for producing the same
To provide electronic parts having a platy terminal secured through a conductive adhesive layer onto a device, which electronic parts are low in ESR and excel in the bonding strength between device and terminal. The conductive adhesive contains a flat conductive member and an organic solvent and is characterized in that through vaporization of the organic solvent in vacuum atmosphere, the flat conductive member has a region standing in the direction of thickness of the conductive adhesive layer. Further, the conductive adhesive is characterized by containing portion wherein the angle between the platy terminal and the flat plane of conductive member is ≧45°.
Electrical insulation system and method for electrical power storage component separation
An electrical insulation system and method for electrical power storage component separation is disclosed. Some implementations of the system use various forms of polyurethane elastomer based material such as tapes to electrically separate various components of electrical power storage devices such as battery packs. These components can include cells, connecting tabs, printed circuit assemblies, solder joints, nickel strips, and other conductive members.
Monolithic ceramic capacitor
In an LW-reverse-type monolithic ceramic capacitor including external terminal electrodes each including a resistance component, internal electrodes include nickel or a nickel alloy, and the external terminal electrodes each include a first layer, a second layer provided on the first layer, and a third layer provided on the second layer. The first layer has a wrap-around portion extending from an end surface to principal surfaces and side surfaces of a capacitor main body, and contains a glass component and a compound oxide that reacts with Ni or the Ni alloy. The second layer covers the first layer such that the edge of the wrap-around portion of the first layer remains exposed, and contains a metal. The third layer covers the edge of the wrap-around portion of the first layer and the second layer, and is formed by plating.
An element body has first and second inner electrodes which are alternately laminated. The first inner electrode has a first main electrode, a first coupling conductor extending to a first side face of the element body while being connected to an edge part of the first main electrode, and a first lead conductor extending to a third side face while being connected to the first coupling conductor. The second inner electrode has a second main electrode, a second coupling conductor extending to the first side face of the element body while being connected to an edge part of the second main electrode, and a second lead conductor extending to a fourth side face while being connected to the second coupling conductor. The first and second lead conductors are separated from the first and second main electrodes by gaps, respectively.
Extension cord having a temperature indicator
An extension cord comprising of a male electrical plug; at least two electrically conducting wires electrically connected to the male electrical plug, each electrically conducting wire having a length; and at least one thermal indicator circuit electrically connected between two of the conducting wires, the thermal indicator circuit configured to actuate an alarm upon detecting a temperature at or above a threshold temperature without interrupting electrical flow along the electrically conducting wires.
System and method for monitoring negative bias in integrated circuits
A bias voltage monitoring circuit is disclosed which comprises a first device coupled between a positive high voltage power supply (VDD) and a first node, a second device coupled between the first node and a second node where the bias voltage is applied, and a pad coupled to the first node, wherein the first and second devices form a voltage divider and a voltage measured at the pad reflects the bias voltage, and the first device and the second device is so chosen that a voltage at the first node is always positive for a given range of the bias voltage.
Thin-film magnetic head comprising magneto-resistive effect device, and hard disk system
The thin-film magnetic head of the invention comprises a magneto-resistive effect device including a multilayer film and a bias mechanism portion including a bias magnetic field-applying layer formed on each widthwise end of the multilayer film. When the magneto-resistive effective device including a multilayer film and the bias mechanism portion are viewed in plane on their own, the uppermost extremity of the rear end of the magneto-resistive effect device and the uppermost extremity of the rear end of the bias mechanism portion lie at substantially the same depth-wise position, and the rear slant of the bias mechanism portion is gentler in gradient than the rear slat of the magneto-resistive effect device. It is thus possible just only to facilitate the fabrication of the device but also to achieve several advantages of being a lower rate of occurrence of noise, higher reliability and higher yields.
Magnetoresistance effect element, substrate therefor and manufacturing method thereof
A magnetoresistance effect element which is used in a magnetic sensor is disclosed. The magnetoresistance effect element includes a soft layer whose magnetization easy direction is changed by a direction of an external magnetic field, and a magnetization fixing layer whose magnetization direction is fixed by having a magnetic layer and an anti-ferromagnetic layer. A magnetoresistance effect is generated by a change of electric conduction which is caused by a relative angle between the magnetization easy direction of the soft layer and the magnetization direction of the magnetization fixing layer. When the magnetic sensor includes two or more magnetoresistance effect elements for having two-axis or more vectors of the magnetization directions, the two or more magnetoresistance effect elements are adjacently disposed.
Magnetoresistive element including heusler alloy layer
A pinned layer of an MR element includes an underlying magnetic layer made of a magnetic alloy layer having a body-centered cubic structure, and a Heusler alloy layer formed on the underlying magnetic layer. A free layer of the MR element includes an underlying magnetic layer made of a magnetic alloy layer having a body-centered cubic structure, and a Heusler alloy layer formed on the underlying magnetic layer. Each of these two Heusler alloy layers is made of a CoMnSi alloy having an Mn content higher than 25 atomic percent and lower than or equal to 40 atomic percent, and contains a principal component having a B2 structure in which Co atoms are placed at body-centered positions of unit cells and Mn atoms or Si atoms are randomly placed at vertexes of the unit cells.
Apparatus including a dielectric mirror and method of reflecting radiation away from a portion of an apparatus
An apparatus includes a base layer, a bonding layer subject to laser radiation, and an insulating layer positioned between the base layer and bonding layer. The insulating layer includes a dielectric mirror, which is capable of reflecting laser radiation away from the base layer.
Head slider and disk drive device
Embodiments of the present invention help to adjust the recess depth of a head element portion of a head slider. In an embodiment of the present invention, in a test step in manufacturing an HDD, the HDD examines the recess depth of a head element portion and decreases and adjusts the recess depth if the recess depth of the head element portion does not satisfy the predetermined condition. The HDD moves an actuator to a ramp of a retract position and supplies power to a heater in a head slider. If the heater power is large, the head element portion undergoes plastic deformation. The plastic deformation of the head element portion decreases the recess depth of the head element portion.
Magnetic disk drive and control method thereof
Embodiments of the present invention provide a magnetic disk drive capable of suppressing variations in flying height of a magnetic head caused by decrease in the amount of a low density gas inside a housing and a control method therefore. According to one embodiment, the magnetic disk drive includes a magnetic head, a magnetic disk, and a housing containing the magnetic head and the magnetic disk, wherein the housing is filled with a low density gas having a lower density than air. An amount of the low density gas in the housing is estimated and, based on the amount of the low density gas, a flying height of the magnetic head from a surface of the magnetic disk is controlled.
Information storage apparatus for adjusting flying height of head
A storage apparatus including a motor for rotating a medium and a head that has a heater. The clearance between the medium and the head is controlled by expansion of the head by the heater. Some embodiments could include a monitor configured to monitor atmospheric pressure, and a controller configured to control the heater in accordance with the atmospheric pressure so as to control the clearance. Some embodiments could include a monitor configured to monitor a driving current flowing through the motor, and a controller configured to control the heater in accordance with the driving current so as to control the clearance.
Magnetic disc controller and method
A magnetic disk controller includes a first buffer that includes a first storage area that stores former portions of pieces of writing data, and a second storage area that stores latter portions of pieces of writing data; an encoding unit that encodes a former portion of the first piece of writing data; a second buffer that stores the encoded former portion of the first piece of writing data; and a buffer control unit that writes the encoded former portion of the first piece of writing data into a first sector of the magnetic disk. The encoding unit encodes the latter portion of the first piece of writing data. The second buffer stores the encoded latter portion of the first piece of writing data. The buffer control unit, writes the encoded latter portion of the first piece of writing data into the first sector of the magnetic disk.
Monitoring a fly height of a magnetic transducer
A method for monitoring a fly height of a magnetic transducer comprises flying the magnetic transducer at a distance of separation from a recording media. The fly height is modulated with a predetermined modulation frequency with a fly height control device. A read-back signal is read from the recording media with the magnetic transducer. A change of the read back signal is measured that results from modulating the fly height. A fault signal is provided in response to the change crossing a threshold.
Lens guide mechanism, lens barrel, and image pickup apparatus
The present invention provides a lens guide mechanism, a lens barrel, and an image pickup apparatus. A lens guide mechanism relating to the present invention includes: a plurality of lens frames each including a sliding section; and a guide shaft engaged with the sliding sections of the lens frames for slidably guiding the lens frames along an optical axis. The sliding section includes a contact portion in contact with the guide shaft. The sliding sections of neighboring lens frames are formed so as to overlap with each other at least when the neighboring lens frames come closer to each other.
Lens barrel and image pickup apparatus
A lens barrel that can be reduced in size and improve drive accuracy. A first cylindrical member is fixed. A rotatable second cylindrical member cam-engages with the first cylindrical member so as to move in an axial direction of an axial center. A third cylindrical member engaging with the first cylindrical member so as not to rotate can move in the axial direction by the rotation of the second cylindrical member. A fourth cylindrical member cam-engaging with the third cylindrical member engages with the second cylindrical member so as to move in the axial direction by following the rotation of the second cylindrical member. A lens holding member engaging with the third cylindrical member so as not to rotate relative to the third cylindrical member can move in the axial direction by cam-engaging with the fourth cylindrical member.
Spectroscopy lens for telecentric sensor
A lens system with a first group having a positive meniscus lens and a sensor. The optical distance between the front surface of the first group and the sensor can be not greater than the height of the sensor times the image F-number, which may alternatively be referred to as the working F-number. A second group can be disposed adjacent to the front focal point of the first group, and a lens-stop can be disposed adjacent to the second group. A third group can be disposed midway between the lens-stop and the object field of the first and second groups. The image F-number can be 2.8 or greater. The first group can have a doublet formed by a first lens that is plano convex and a second lens that is plano concave. The second group can have a first, plano convex lens and a second, biconvex lens forming a doublet with a third, plano concave lens.
Photographic lens system and electronic imaging device using the same
A photographic lens system includes a positive lens element, a positive lens element, a negative lens element having a concave surface facing toward the image, a diaphragm, a negative lens element having a concave surface facing toward the object, a positive lens element which is cemented to the negative lens element, and two or three positive lens elements, in this order from the object. An intermediate negative lens element, having the weakest negative refractive power out of all of the negative lens elements, is provided between the negative lens element having the concave surface facing toward the image and the negative lens element having the concave surface facing toward the object.
Image providing apparatus
Provided is an image providing apparatus having connecting member connecting a head set and optical housing capable of adjusting displacement of the optical housing in the vertical direction to the eyeball of the observer when adjusting the eye-relief of the optical housing to the eyeball of the observer. The ball joint has ball portions respectively on two ends thereof, on one of the ends (upper ends) is provided to the supporting member side capable of maintaining a posture thereof, and the ball portion on another ends (lower ends) is provided to the optical housing side for maintaining a posture thereof. The connecting member has a first member and a second member, the first member is connected to the second member so as to be movable and capable of maintaining a posture thereof.
Optical apparatus for simultaneously focussing first and second coaxially spaced object planes in respective separate first and second areas of a common image plane 13 (such as the sensor of a CCD camera) comprises non-diffractive beamsplitter means for receiving light from said object planes along a common path 2 for transmission to said first and second image areas along respective first and second optical paths 3, 4, and reflective or transmissive focussing means 8 arranged to bring said first and second object planes into focus in said first and second areas. The object planes may be differentiated by having different length paths 3,4 (different physical lengths and/or using a differential optical delay), and/or by having different focussing powers in the two paths. In an add-on for a camera, differently curved mirrors of long focal length modify the main camera lens. Polarising optics may be used to separate the two images. The apparatus may be used for 3-D imaging or wavefront analysis.
Method of producing and displaying a three dimensional image
A method of manufacturing a lenticular sheet having as its primary steps the provision of a substantially transparent substrate material; forming a plurality of lenses on a first side of the substrate; and shaping the substrate to correspond to a display area of a display device, wherein the plurality of lenses are angled to correspond to the pixel size and pitch of the display area. A display system is also disclosed, wherein the display systems generally includes a computer for processing, saving and playing at least one image; software for interlacing the image; software for processing slides and movies comprised of multiple images; a lenticular screen overlaid upon a video display device for viewing the interlaced images in three dimensions.
Injection molded microlenses for optical interconnects
Disclosed are a microlens array, and a method of positioning and aligning the microlens array on another device. Generally, the microlens array comprises an array of injection molded microlens elements, and a supporting flange. Each of the microlens elements has a generally spheroid or spherical shape, and the supporting flange connects together the array of microlens elements to facilitate positioning that array of lenses on a printed circuit board, semiconductor package or wafer. This array is well suited for use with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs); and, in particular, the preferred embodiment of the invention addresses the problem of VCSEL laser array alignment by using arrays of microlenses elements fabricated by injection molding.
Microscope lens for total internal reflection microscopy and microscope
A microscope objective includes an optical fiber. The optical fiber can deliver light for total internal reflection microscopy. The optical fiber can couple illumination light directly into the microscope objective through the optical fiber.
Method and device for modulating light
Improvements in an interferometric modulator that has a cavity defined by two walls.
Image reading apparatus and copying apparatus
An image reading apparatus including: a circulating transport path for transporting an original document to circulate; plural reading sections for reading a single image plane on a same single face of the original document at plural times at plural positions in the circulating transport path, and for generating plural image data sets for the single image plane; and an image processing section for processing the plural image data sets generated by the plural reading sections, and creating one image data set for the single image plane.
Electrical appliance equipped with liquid crystal display
An electrical appliance includes an upper and lower main bodies, in which the upper main body is pivotally movable about a side edge of the lower main body to selectively be in an open state in which the top surface of the lower main body is exposed and a closed state in which the upper main body is disposed above the lower main body. A liquid crystal display panel is disposed on the top surface of the lower main body in the vicinity of a side edge near the front surface thereof. A notched opening is formed in the upper main body so that the display surface of the liquid crystal display panel is visible when the upper main body is in the closed state.
Methods and systems for fax routing
In an illustrative embodiment, methods and systems are provided for processing facsimiles. A call processing system receives a first message transmitted from a first carrier system regarding a facsimile call to a phone address. The first message includes an identifier associated with the user. The identifier is used to determine if the user is authorized to receive call processing system services. If the user is authorized, a second message is transmitted to the first carrier system, the second message indicating that the first carrier system is to connect the call to the call processing system. The call processing system is connected to the call. A facsimile is received via the call at the call processing system. Information regarding the facsimile call is provided over a network, wherein some or all of the information is displayed in a call log visually accessible by the user.
Print media tray assembly with ink transfer arrangement
A print media tray assembly includes a print media tray for storing a stack of print media. A feed mechanism is configured to feed said print media to a print engine mounted relative to the print media tray. The print engine includes a chassis and an ink cartridge mounted to the chassis. The print engine defines a plurality of ink reservoirs for storing respective types of ink. A printhead assembly is coupled in fluid communication with the ink cartridge and is configured to eject the ink. A transfer roller is rotationally mounted to the chassis, and is configured to receive the ejected ink and engage the fed print media to transfer the ink on to the print media.
Duplex printer with a pair of ink transfer rollers
A duplex printer includes a body defining one or more spaces in which respective ink cartridges can be placed. A pair of print engines is mounted within the body and a print media path is defined there-between. Each print engine includes at least one printhead coupled in fluid communication to the ink cartridges and configured to eject ink supplied from the ink cartridges. Each print engine also includes a transfer roller rotationally mounted relative to the body to receive ink ejected from said printhead. Each transfer roller engages with the print media fed along the print media path so that the received ink is transferred to the fed print media.
Image forming system, user interface device and image forming apparatus
An image forming system includes an image forming apparatus and a user interface device. The image forming apparatus forms an image on a recording material. The user interface device is connected to the image forming apparatus. The user interface device accepts a user's input, outputs the input to the image forming apparatus and displays information based on data input from the image forming apparatus. The image forming apparatus sends a notification to the user interface device before the image forming apparatus executes a process of changing one operation mode to another operation mode. The process of changing includes disconnecting communication between the image forming apparatus and the user interface device. The user interface device displays information corresponding to the notification received from the image forming apparatus.
Removing print job from printing queue for image-forming device and temporarily holding print job
An image-forming device includes a printing element for successively printing jobs in a printing queue, a holding element for removing at least one printing job from the printing queue and holding the at least one printing job, and a holding release element for returning the at least one printing job on hold to the printing queue.
Quick edit and speed print capability for a stand-alone ink jet printer
Printer (1) is provided with a mode to edit and print forms without reference to or interruption of a host computer and with immediate printing of one or more of the forms. Page data for the forms is preferably stored in flash memory (21) in a high level printer language. Preferably, at initiation of the forms mode at least the first listed document is immediately prepared by the control data processor (17) of the printer in bit mapped form for printing. Documents can be listed on the control panel by name for ready selection for printing.
Printing system and printing apparatus
A printing system that includes: a printing condition command receiving unit that receives a primary printing condition command, the primary condition command being included together with printing image data in printing control data; printing condition command converting unit that converts the primary printing condition command to a secondary printing condition command corresponding to a printing apparatus; and a printing apparatus that carries out processing related to printing the printing image data based on the secondary printing condition command.
Automated system for determining physical characteristics of a shaft
A computer-controlled system automatically measures and records various physical characteristics of an elongated shaft or tube, such as a golf club shaft or other structural member. The characteristics measured include the principal planar oscillation plane, oscillation frequency, stiffness asymmetry, relative stiffness, torsional stiffness, shaft length, shaft straightness and tip angle.
High resolution three dimensional topography using a flatbed scanner
An optical measuring apparatus for measuring 3D surface profiles of an object comprising, in combination: a linear detector array; an imaging system including a light source to image the object onto the detector array; and machine readable software for producing a 3D topology map from a 2D image, wherein the apparatus is calibrated by changing the optical focus distance between the detector array and the object for the purpose of 3D measurement calibration, and changing the relative lateral positions between the detector array and the object for the purpose of scanning the object's surface.
Method and device for optical determination of physical properties of features, not much larger than the optical wavelength used, on a test sample
A method and device for optical determination of physical properties of features, not much larger than the optical wavelength used, on a test sample are described. A beam is split into reference and illuminating beams having known polarization. The test sample is exposed to the illuminating beam and recombined to form an image. The image is detected using at least one sensor, which may be cameras. A point-to-point map of polarization, phase and power is extracted from data representing the image. Optionally, the sensor may be a camera. The sensor may detect at least three optical parameters, such as a Stokes vector, a Jones vector, a Jones matrix, a Mueller matrix or a coherency matrix.
Interferometer for optically measuring an object
An interferometer for optically measuring an object (10), including a light source (1), at least one beam splitter (2) and at least one detector (12a, 12b), with the beam splitter being arranged in the beam path of the light source such that a light beam created by the light source is split into a working beam (3) and a reference beam (4). The interferometer is embodied such that the working beam impinges on the object (10) to be measured and the working beam is at least partially reflected by the object and interfered with the reference beam on the detector (12a, 12b). Here it is essential that the interferometer is provided with a spatial light modulator, which comprises a hologram control unit (9) and a hologram reconstruction unit (8) connected thereto, with the hologram reconstruction unit being arranged in the beam path of the working beam between the beam splitter (2) and the object (10) and the hologram control unit (9) controlling the hologram reconstruction unit (8) such that the hologram reconstruction unit creates an optionally predetermined hologram such that the working beam is deflected and/or split by the hologram reconstruction unit.
Determining overlay error using an in-chip overlay target
Overlay error between two layers on a substrate is measured using an image of an overlay target in an active area of a substrate. The overlay target may be active features, e.g., structures that cause the device to function as desired when manufacturing is complete. The active features may be permanent structures or non-permanent structures, such as photoresist, that are used define the permanent structures during manufacturing. The image of the overlay target is analyzed by measuring the light intensity along one or more scan lines and calculating a symmetry values for the scan lines. Using the symmetry values, the overlay error can be determined.
Turbidimeter with ultrasonically cleaned components
An ultrasonic optical cleaning system is provided for cleaning and deterring the buildup of organic and inorganic particulates from the surface of glassware used in water testing instrumentation. The ultrasonic optical cleaning system includes a transducer that is attached to the surface of the glassware. A connector cap carrying a plurality of spring contacts interconnecting the transducer with an ultrasonic transducer control circuit. The control circuit operates continuously to provide an electrical signal to the transducer that vibrates the transducer and the glassware so that the glassware is cleaned of contaminates.
Color measurement instrument
A color measurement instrument and color measurement method for measuring a color of a surface are provided. The instrument includes a plurality of independently switchable light sources characterized by differing spectral ranges, and a plurality of light guides configured to receive light from the light sources and to direct the received light to a light emitting portion of the instrument for illuminating the surface. The instrument further includes a first light detector configured to receive a portion of the light reflected from the surface. The first light detector is a wideband light detector.
Method and apparatus for determining liquid crystal cell parameters from full mueller matrix measurements
Method and apparatus for testing of LCD cells is disclosed. An LCD cell under test (14, 30) may be mounted to translatable table (40) between polarization state generator (10) and polarization state analyzer (16). For each location on cell (14, 30) to be tested, a variety of known polarization states (22) are launched through LCD cell (14, 30) and detected by polarization state analyzer (16). Electrical signals representative of polarization states are acquired by computer (18). Within computer (18), a model (58, 60) of polarization properties of LCD cell (14, 30) is developed based on estimations of what physical parameters of LCD cell (14, 30) are believed to be. RMS differences between simulated polarization properties and measured polarization properties are minimized by iteratively refining (60) modeled physical cell properties, at which point cell thickness and other physical parameters of the LCD cell may be deduced.
Nanocomposite material for direct spectroscopic detection of chemical vapors
Method and material for spectroscopic detection of organic chemicals. The material is a substantially optically transparent solid, such as ZnS, having a high surface area for adsorption of an analyte, such as organic chemical vapors. The solid material preferably has metal nanoparticles, such as gold, silver or copper nanoparticles, deposited on the surface for signal enhancement. A template compound, such as cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and alkoxylate block polymers, may be used during the material synthesis, such as reacting zinc chloride and sodium sulfide in the presence of the template compound, and later removed through calcination and washing to achieve the high surface area. The method of use includes collecting an analyte on the material and detecting the spectroscopic response of the analyte while it is collected on the surface. The mechanism of collection may include adsorbing, absorbing, and preconcentrating. Preferably, the spectroscopic response is selected from infrared spectra or ultraviolet-visible spectra.
Inspection apparatus for liquid crystal display device and inspection method using same
An inspection apparatus and inspection method for liquid crystal display devices are disclosed, wherein a final inspection for completely manufactured liquid crystal display devices is performed using a visual-light inspection apparatus, whereby high productivity due to improved inspection accuracy and reduced inspection time can be accomplished. With the inspection apparatus and inspection method, defects of a plurality of glass panels can be automatically inspected based on analyzed information of an entire screen of each glass panel using a plurality of vision cameras, whereby improved inspection accuracy and improved product quality can be accomplished and reduced inspection time can result in improved productivity of liquid crystal display devices. Further, by quantifying screen defects of the plurality of glass panels, defects of glass panels due to failures of manufacturing processes or design failures and other problems attendant on the defects can be prevented.
Method for nanoscale spatial registration of scanning probes with substrates and surfaces
Embodiments in accordance with the present invention relate to methods and apparatuses for aligning a scanning probe used to pattern a substrate, by comparing the position of the probe to a reference location or spot on the substrate. A first light beam is focused on a surface of the substrate as a spatial reference point. A second light beam then illuminates the scanning probe being used for patterning. An optical microscope images both the focused light beam, and a diffraction pattern, shadow, or light backscattered by the illuminated scanning probe tip of a scanning probe microscope (SPM), which is typically the tip of the scanning probe on an atomic force microscope (AFM). Alignment of the scanning probe tip relative to the mark is then determined by visual observation of the microscope image. This alignment process may be repeated to allow for modification or changing of the scanning probe microscope tip.
Aperture variable inspection optical system and color filter evaluation process
Disclosed is an aperture variable inspection optical system including a variable aperture unit 13 having a polygonal light transparent section and light collecting systems 12a, 12b for forming an irradiation spot U of light passing through the variable aperture unit 13 at the position of a sample S. The variable aperture unit 13 is capable of changing the shape/size of the polygon. The size of the irradiation spot U can be changed without rearranging the aperture unit.
Projection exposure apparatus and method for operating the same
The invention concerns a method for operating a projection exposure apparatus to project the image of a structure of an object (5) arranged in an object plane (6) onto a substrate (10) arranged in an image plane (8). The object (5) is illuminated with light of an operating wavelength of the projection exposure apparatus according to one of several adjustable exposure modes. The light produces changes in at least one optical element (9) of the projection exposure apparatus, by which the optical properties of the projection exposure apparatus are influenced. The operation of the projection exposure apparatus makes allowance for the influencing of the optical properties of the projection exposure apparatus or a quantity dependent on the former, being calculated approximately on the basis of the exposure mode used and the structure of the object (5).