Device for bonding flexible PCB to camera module
Disclosed is a device for bonding a flexible PCB (Printed Circuit Board) to a camera module, the device according to an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure comprising a thermo-compression unit configured to bond the camera module to the flexible PCB using an conductive film by applying heat and pressure to the conductive film between the camera module and the flexible PCB, an ultrasonic wave bonding unit configured to directly transmit ultrasonic wave vibration energy to the camera module to remove an oxide film on connection particles intrinsically formed inside the conducive film, and a controller configured to activate the ultrasonic wave bonding unit when a temperature of the conductive film rises to a predetermined temperature.
Cabinet with modules having a thermosiphon cooler arrangement
The present disclosure relates to the cooling of electric and/or electronic components, in particular to an electric and/or electronic system with a cabinet, which includes a cabinet housing including a first aperture for receiving a stream of cooling air. The cabinet housing includes a second aperture for releasing the cooling air thereafter in an operating state of the cabinet. At least two modules, which each include a guiding structure with an inlet and an outlet, are provided in the cabinet. The at least two modules are arranged in the cabinet housing such that a branch of the major portion of cooling air flowing through the first aperture of the cabinet housing is enabled to flow into each module via the inlet guided by the guiding structure through the dedicated module to the outlet and thereafter through the second aperture out of the cabinet housing.
Thermal management of photonics assemblies
A photonics assembly (8-16) is housed within an hermetically sealed container (24) mounted within an outer container (20), and is cooled by a fluidic arrangement comprising a liquid flow path (28) defined between the outer container and the sealed container, the outer container having a liquid inlet and a liquid outlet (30, 32), whereby cooling liquid can flow around the hermetically sealed container to remove heat. The photonics assembly including photonics devices, has a composite thermally conductive substrate (17, 19) contacting a thermally conductive wall (22) of the sealed container, whereby the cooling liquid cools said photonics devices. Liquid flow passageways (48-66) are provided in wall (22) and substrate (17, 19) for improving fluidic cooling.
Electronic component module and method for manufacturing the same
In a bond portion between an electrical conductive land and a connection terminal member, an intermetallic compound producing region in which at least a Cu—Sn-based, an M-Sn-based (M indicates Ni and/or Mn), and a Cu-M-Sn-based intermetallic compound are produced is arranged so as to be present at a connection terminal member side. In this intermetallic compound producing region, when a cross section of the bond portion is equally defined into 10 boxes in a longitudinal direction and a lateral direction to define 100 boxes in total, a ratio of the number of boxes in each of which at least two types of intermetallic compounds having different constituent elements are present to the total number of boxes other than boxes in each of which only a Sn-based metal component is present is about 70% or more.
Planar electronic device having a magnetic component
A planar electronic device includes a dielectric substrate having a recess. A functional electrical component is disposed within the recess of the substrate. A vent opening extends within the substrate such that the vent opening intersects the recess within a thickness of the substrate. The vent opening is open to atmosphere such that the vent opening fluidly connects the recess to the atmosphere.
Electronic device and printed circuit board connection method
An electronic device includes: a casing provided with a first printed circuit board that includes a first connector; a unit inserted into the casing through a housing opening formed in the casing, the unit including a second printed circuit board with a second connector, a pair of guide rails that guide the second connector towards the first connector; a width direction positioning section that is provided to an end portion on the housing opening side of at least one of the guide rails of the pair of guide rails and that positions the second connector in the unit width direction with respect to the first connector; and a top-bottom direction positioning section that is positioned further towards the first connector side than the width direction positioning section and that positions the second connector in the top-bottom direction with respect to the first connector.
There is provided a circuit board including a land provided on a mounting surface for joining a distal end portion of a connection terminal of a lead component by a solder, wherein the land is formed to extend in a predetermined direction such that the predetermined direction is a longitudinal direction and a lateral direction orthogonal to the longitudinal direction is a width direction, wherein the land includes a terminal-facing portion facing the distal end portion of the connection terminal and a distal end side continuous portion continuously extending from the terminal-facing portion in the distal end portion of the connection terminal, and wherein the land includes a narrow portion having a width smaller than a width of the distal end side continuous portion in the terminal-facing portion.
Manufacturing method for printed wiring board
A manufacturing method for a printed wiring board includes forming an electroless plated film on an interlayer resin insulation layer, forming on the electroless plated film a plating resist with an opening to expose a portion of the electroless plated film, forming an electrolytic plated film on the portion of the electroless plated film exposed through the opening, removing the plating resist using a resist-removing solution containing an amine, reducing a thickness of a portion of the electroless plated film existing between adjacent portions of the electrolytic plated film by using the resist-removing solution, and forming a conductive pattern by removing the portion of the electroless plated film existing between the adjacent portions of the electrolytic plated film by using an etchant.
Pressure reconfigured electromagnetic devices
A reconfigurable electromagnetic device includes a first and second planar layer having facing surfaces. One of the surfaces includes one or more micro-trenches. The area between the two surfaces is filled with an electro-fluid, such as a liquid metal and a second immiscible fluid, such as an inert gas. When pressure is applied, forcing the two surfaces together, Laplace pressure causes the electro-fluid to flow into the trench as the inert fluid is evacuated from the area between the two surfaces, forming an electromagnetic device. The shape of the trenches defines the reconfigurable device, such as circuitry, switch, antenna or the like. When the inert fluid is reintroduced into the area between the two surfaces, the electro-fluid withdraws from the trench, which is the off position, in which the device does not function.
Apparatus for differential far-end crosstalk reduction
A method of reducing crosstalk. The method may include forming a first contact over a first vertical conductor. The method may include forming a second contact over a second vertical conductor. The method may include forming a capacitive coupler between the first contact and the second contact, wherein the capacitive coupler is to cancel crosstalk received at the second vertical conductor from the first vertical conductor.
Microphonics suppression in high-speed communications systems
One design aspect in electronic systems, such as communication systems, is noise suppression. More particularly, this relates to microphonics suppression in high-speed communication systems, such as microwave wireless radio systems. The present invention contemplates system design for substantially eliminating microphonic behavior created by mechanical stimulus such as vibrations and the drum effect. A preferred approach includes isolating the motherboard from its mounting harnesses (mechanical interconnection) and adding an echo damping and shock absorption pad to the underside of the enclosure cover to stiffen the enclosure cover while maintaining its light weight. Preferably also, this approach isolates the entire motherboard rather than a particular component. A design using this approach is particularly useful in an outdoor unit (ODU) of a split-mount microwave radio system.
Enclosure for a multi-channel modulator driver
Embodiments of the present disclosure describe techniques and configurations for an enclosure that can be used for channel isolation in a multi-channel modulator driver such as, for example, an optical modulator driver. A system may include a substrate, a multi-channel modulator driver mounted on the substrate, and an enclosure mounted on the substrate to cover the multi-channel modulator driver, the enclosure having a wall that is disposed between first components of the multi-channel modulator driver associated with a first channel and second components of the multi-channel modulator driver associated with a second channel, the wall being composed of an electrically conductive material. Other embodiments may also be described and/or claimed.
Device and method for a signal shield
Disclosed herein is a radio frequency shield device that includes, an outer cover having one or more displacement protrusions extending from an outer cover bottom surface and one or more cover fasteners, an inner cover positioned inside the outer cover, wherein at least a portion of the inner cover is deflected downward by the displacement protrusions, and a plurality of fence walls having one or more fence fasteners for interlocking with the cover fasteners, wherein the inner cover is positioned at least partially over the fence walls to form at least one of a primary seal and secondary seal.
Same layer microelectronic circuit patterning using hybrid laser projection patterning (LPP) and semi-additive patterning(SAP)
In some embodiments, same layer microelectronic circuit patterning using hybrid laser projection patterning (LPP) and semi-additive patterning (SAP) is presented. In this regard, a method is introduced including patterning a first density region of a laminated substrate surface using LPP, patterning a second density region of the laminated substrate surface using SAP, and plating the first and second density regions of the laminated substrate surface, wherein features spanning the first and second density regions are directly coupled. Other embodiments are also disclosed and claimed.
Method for manufacturing electric film body
A method for manufacturing an electric film body is made by forming a film body to have a shape in accordance with a desired electric characteristic and includes a film forming process for forming an electric film body on a board layer, an electric characteristic measuring process for measuring an electric characteristic in a surface of the electric film body formed in the film forming process, an electric film body shape setting process for setting a shape of the electric film body based on the electric characteristic measured in the electric characteristic measuring process, and an electric film body forming process for forming the electric film body formed in the shape set in the electric film body shape setting process.
Tape wiring substrate and chip-on-film package including the same
A tape wiring substrate includes a base film having at least one recess in a first surface of the base film and a chip-mounting region on which a semiconductor chip is included on a second surface of the base film. A wiring pattern is formed on the second surface of the base film and is extended to an edge of the chip-mounting region. A protection film covers the wiring pattern.
A radiation source comprises a reservoir, a nozzle, a laser, and a positive lens. The reservoir is configured to retain a volume of fuel. The nozzle, in fluid connection with the reservoir, is configured to direct a stream of fuel along a trajectory towards a plasma formation location. The laser configured to direct laser radiation at the stream at the plasma formation location to generate, in use, a radiation generating plasma. The positive lens arrangement configured to focus an at least potential spread of trajectories of the stream of fuel toward the plasma formation location, the lens comprising an electric field generating element and/or a magnetic field generating element.
Structure electron beam inspection system for inspecting extreme ultraviolet mask and structure for discharging extreme ultraviolet mask
A structure for discharging an extreme ultraviolet mask (EUV mask) is provided to discharge the EUV mask during the inspection by an electron beam inspection tool. The structure for discharging an EUV mask includes at least one grounding pin to contact conductive areas on the EUV mask, wherein the EUV mask may have further conductive layer on sidewalls or/and bottom. The inspection quality of the EUV mask is enhanced by using the electron beam inspection system because the accumulated charging on the EUU mask is grounded.
Controller and method of controlling a light emitting device
Example embodiments relate to a controller and a method of controlling a light emitting device.
Pulse controlled light emitting diode driver
To avoid clock signals and to separate power wiring from control wiring in a driver, and to avoid three-terminal light emitting diodes with control electrodes, a driver for driving light emitting diode circuits (10, 20, 30) is provided with first and second terminals (1, 2) for receiving a voltage signal from a source (5) and with a first switching circuit (11, 2) coupled to the second terminal (2) and to a third terminal (3). The first and the third 5 terminal (1, 3) are to be coupled to electrodes of a first light emitting diode circuit (10). The first switching circuit (11, 12) comprises a first switch (11) and a first timing circuit (12) for, in response to a first pulse signal as added to the voltage signal, activating the first switch (11) to switch on the first light emitting diode circuit (10). Sequential pulse signals may be used to sequentially switch on light emitting diode circuits (10, 20).
LED driving apparatus and LED lighting apparatus
An LED driving apparatus converts AC input power into predetermined DC output power and supplies the DC output power to an LED load. The LED driving apparatus includes a switching element Q1 to be turned on and off, a ripple current reducer 3a that is connected in series with the LED load and reduces current ripples of the LED load, and a controller CNT that turns on and off the switching element according to a feedback voltage taken from a connection point of the LED load and ripple current reducer, thereby controlling the DC output power to a predetermined value.
Battery powered light source for compartment illumination
A battery powered LED light source is described for illuminating the inside of a dark enclosure when the enclosure is opened in an environment with ambient illumination. Drive circuitry adapted to the LED light source turns on the LEDs when levels of ambient light above a threshold are detected, which may occur if the light source is placed in a dark enclosure that is opened in a lit room. After being opened, the drive circuitry periodically strobes off the LED light source to take ambient light measurements without the contribution of its own LED light for determining if the enclosure has been closed and the LED light source should again be shut off.
Dimmer for sport simulation environment
A light adjusting system for use with sport simulation equipment and a method of adjusting a state of operation of at least one light source used with golf simulation equipment is provided. The light adjusting system comprises a data interface, a light controller, an operations processor, and a storage device. The data interface is in communication with the sport simulation equipment. The light controller is in communication with at least one light source. The operations processor is in communication with the data interface and the light controller. The storage device is in data communication with the operations processor. The storage device includes at least one lighting profile. In response to communication between the sport simulation equipment and the data interface, the operations processor accesses the at least one lighting profile on the storage device and adjusts a state of operation of the at least one light source using the light controller.
Circuit with adjustable phase delay and a feedback voltage and method for adjusting phase delay and a feedback voltage
A circuit with adjustable phase delay and a feedback voltage includes a delay setting unit and a phase delay signal generator. The delay setting unit generates a delay time according to an external resistor. The phase delay signal generator includes a plurality of phase delay units. Each phase delay unit includes an edge trigger subunit and a signal generation subunit. The edge trigger subunit receives an input signal, and generates a positive edge trigger signal and a negative edge trigger signal according to a positive edge and a negative edge of the input signal, respectively. The signal generation subunit generates and outputs a phase delay signal according to the positive edge trigger signal, the negative edge trigger signal, and the delay time. The phase delay signal lags the input signal for the delay time.
Cooking hob with several heating elements and at least one power electronics subassembly
A cooking hob, in particular an induction hob, includes several heating elements, at least one power electronics subassembly for generating a heating current for operating the heating elements, and a switching arrangement for making and breaking a connection between the power electronics assembly and the heating elements. The switching arrangement is constructed as an assembly that is separate from the power electronics assembly.
Cook-top having at least three heating zones
A cook-top or hob includes multiple inductors and at least three heating zones which are operated by the inductors. A single power electronics subassembly supplies the inductors with heating current and includes a common rectifier which is operably connected to the inductors for rectifying an alternating current supplied by a single phase of a household electrical system.
Apparatus and method with routing logic for communications between multiple baseband modems and a universal integrated circuit card
Aspects of the present disclosure are directed to a user equipment having a universal integrated circuit card (UICC), multiple baseband modems, and routing logic for handling communications between the UICC and the baseband modems, and methods for operating the user equipment in which the routing logic arbitrates communication between the UICC and the baseband modems in accordance with arbitration logic. Other aspects, embodiments, and features are also claimed and described.
Short training field (STF) for use within single user, multiple user, multiple access, and/or MIMO wireless communications
Short training field (STF) for use within single user, multiple user, multiple access, and/or MIMO wireless communications. An STF design as is made such that the power associated with the tone indices at the edges of the STF design is relatively less than the power associated with the tone indices more centrally located within the STF design. Also, when multiple respective operational modes are supported (e.g., 1 MHz and 2 MHz), the respective STF designs corresponding to those respective operational modes have a great deal of similarity. For example, the respective STF designs for different respective operational modes may have certain common STF tone indices among those respective STF designs.
Method and apparatus for controlling wireless uplink sessions
A video session scheduling capability is disclosed. The video session scheduling capability enables scheduling of video transmissions by mobile devices of a cellular sector. In response to a request by a mobile device to transmit a video via a wireless uplink of the cellular sector, a scheduler determines scheduling of the video session. The scheduler receives information indicative of an amount of wireless uplink resources available for supporting uplink video sessions within the cellular sector, receives information associated with the request by the mobile device to establish a video session for transmission of video content from the mobile device via a wireless uplink in the cellular sector, and determines, using the information indicative of an amount of wireless uplink resources available within the cellular sector and the information associated with the video session request, scheduling of the video session via the wireless uplink in the cellular sector.
Adaptive non-linear interference cancellation using side-band information
A user equipment (UE) may reduce non-linear interference on a signal received at a receiving RAT by using a determined operating parameter of a transmitting radio access technology (RAT) of the user equipment (UE), which transmits a signal according to the operating parameter. The UE may estimate the non-linear interference in digital baseband to a receiving RAT of the UE from a digital baseband portion of the transmitted signal of the transmitting RAT by applying non-linear transformation based on the determined operating parameter of the transmitting RAT and cancel the estimated non-linear interference in baseband from a signal received by the receiving RAT.
Method for operating a radio station in a mobile network
The present invention relates to a method for operating a secondary station comprising means for communicating with a primary station, the method comprising receiving from the primary station an interference status report, said interference status report comprising an spatial indication being representative of a spatial characteristic of the interference, measuring channel characteristics on reference symbols, and interpreting the measured channel characteristics with help of the interference status report.
Method to perform a wireless communication in a data collection system
A method for performing wireless communication in a data-collection system includes a) listening whether a channel is free or busy and if the channel is free, transmitting; b) if the channel is busy, generating a random number and associating therewith a first interval of time to determine the instant of the start of transmission and further whether said channel is busy, identifying a second variable interval of time, monitoring the data exchanged in said channel with other devices that occupy the channel, queuing a third interval of time obtained from said first interval of time onto said second interval of time and transmitting at the end of said third interval of time. The second interval of time has a duration that is equal to the time wherein the channel remains in busy status.
Method and apparatus for resource allocation
A method and an apparatus for resource allocation are provided. The method includes measuring the temperature of the mobile terminal, sending, when the measured temperature exceeds an upper threshold temperature set in advance, a request for reduced resource allocation to a corresponding base station, receiving a message for reduced resource allocation corresponding to the sent request from the base station, and performing communication according to reduced resource allocation. Hence, the temperature of the mobile terminal can be kept within an appropriate range.
Power efficient wireless RF communication between a base station and a medical device
Specific embodiments of the present invention are for use by a base station (BS) that enables power efficient wireless radio frequency (RF) communication between the BS and a medical device (MD), which may or may not be an implantable medical device (IMD). In an embodiment, once a communication session is established between the BS and the MD, the BS selectively turns a drop link mode on and off. The drop link mode is a communication mode that while turned on (i.e., enabled) reduces and preferably minimizes the length of time that an RF link is maintained between the BS and the MD. In accordance with an embodiment, at any given time during a communication session the drop link mode is either turned on (i.e., enabled) or turned off (i.e., disabled).
Method and apparatus for sequence hopping in single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) communication systems
Methods and apparatus are provided for transmitting a reference-signal and a data signal by a user equipment in a communication system. The data signal is generated. A sequence is determined for the reference-signal. The reference-signal is transmitted based on the sequence and the data signal through at least one resource block. The sequence is determined based on sequence-hopping if the number of resource blocks is equal to or greater than the predetermined value. The sequence is determined without sequence-hopping if the number of resource blocks is less than a predetermined value.
Cell deployment with different channel bandwidth for carrier aggregation
Systems, methods, apparatus, and techniques are provided for transmitting information to user equipment (UE) in a communications network. Data is generated in (i) a first frequency range associated with a first set of carriers and (ii) a second frequency range associated with a second set of carriers, where the first frequency range specifies a first communications cell and the second frequency range specifies a second communications cell. The first cell is assigned as a primary cell to a first set of UEs in the communications network. Control data is transmitted to both the first set of UEs and a second set of UEs using at least a portion of the first set of carriers.
Resource mapping for ePDCCH in LTE
A method of wireless communication includes resource mapping for an enhanced physical downlink control channel (ePDCCH) or a physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH). A set of non-colliding resources and a set of colliding resources are determined. Code symbols are mapped for a channel first to the set of non-colliding resources and then to the set of colliding resources.
Automobile data transmission
An automobile device transmits automobile data to a server in a communication network. The automobile device records the automobile data received from one or more sensors installed in an automobile. The automobile device transmits a random access preamble on an uplink carrier to a base station when a pre-defined condition is met. The automobile device encrypts the automobile data and transmits the encrypted automobile data to a server via a base station.
Method and device for transmitting/receiving uplink control information in wireless communication system
The present invention relates to a method for a terminal to transmit acknowledgement information including: determining a physical uplink control channel (PUCCH) format and resource, in which the acknowledgement information is transmitted in response to a downlink transmission received in a downlink sub-frame set including M(M≧1) downlink sub-frame; and transmitting the acknowledgement information using the PUCCH format and resource in one uplink sub-frame. Here, more than one serving cells are configured to the terminal, and the more than one serving cells can include one PCell and at least one SCell. The acknowledgement information can be transmitted using a PUCCH format 1a/1b when one physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH) without a corresponding physical downlink control channel (PDCCH) detected, exists only on PCell in the downlink sub-frame set, and a semi-persistent scheduling (SPS) release PDCCH does not exist in the downlink sub-frame set.
Method and device relating to replay technique
A method for mapping each radio bearer over Uu interface to a corresponding radio bearer over Un interface of a relay device in a wireless communication network is provided. The method comprises: creating a first context for a User Equipment (UE) with original IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) of the UE at the Uu interface of the relay device, creating a second context for the UE with an allocated relay identity at the Un interface of the relay device, wherein the allocated relay identity is allocated based on the original IMSI of the UE, forming a relationship between the first context and the second context based on the relationship between the original IMSI and the allocated relay identity, and mapping the radio bearer over the Uu interface to the radio bearer over the Un interface based on the relationship between the first context and the second context.
Method of allocating uplink transmission channels in a communication system
A method of allocating channels in a user equipment is disclosed. In particular, a method of allocating a plurality of Dedicated Physical Channels (DPCHs) and Enhanced Dedicated Channels (E-DCHs) in a user equipment of a multicode transmission system. The method includes determining whether a High Speed Downlink Shared Channel (HS-DSCH) is configured for the user equipment (UE) and determining a number of codes used by the DPCH and the E-DCH. The method further includes allocating the DPCH and the E-DCH channels to an I branch or a Q branch based on the number of codes used by the DPCH and the E-DCH and the HS-DSCH configuration.
Methods and arrangements in a radio communication system
An Uplink control channel resource Management Module (120, 130), referred to as “UMM”, and a method in the UMM for assigning, to a radio network node 110, uplink control channel resources, referred to as “UCCHR”, for use in a uplink control channel between the radio network node (110) and a communication device (160) are provided. The UMM obtains (210) resource allocation information, referred to as “RAI”, and generates (220) a resource allocation command, referred to as “RAC”, based on the RAI. The RAC indicates UCCHR to be used by the radio network node. Furthermore, the UMM provides (230) the RAC to the radio network node (110). Related methods and nodes to enable the UMM to assign UCCHR are also provided.
Method and arrangement in a wireless communication network
Method, arrangement and computer program product in a base station for modulating information intended for transmission to a terminal. The base station and the terminal are comprised within a wireless communication network. The information comprises first and second data blocks, where two USF values are to be sent across the first data block and the second data block. The first data block and first parts of the two USF values are modulated with a first modulation technique and the second data block and second parts of the two USF values are modulated with a second modulation technique.Further, a method, an arrangement and a computer program product in a terminal for demodulating information received from a base station are described. In addition, a method, an arrangement and a computer program product in a control node are described.
Method and apparatus for establishing a device-to-device connection
A method, apparatus and computer program product are provided to facilitate the establishment of device-to-device communications, such as non-cellular communications or cellular communications in a licensed exempt band. A method and apparatus receive cellular signals including one or more beacon transmission parameters, such as a beacon transmission interval and an identifier, and a beacon transmission status flag. The method and apparatus may also determine that the beacon transmission status flag is set to authorize beacon transmissions and then cause non-cellular beacon signals to be repeatedly transmitted in accordance with the one or more beacon transmission parameters. The method and apparatus may also cause a device-to-device connection to be established following transmission of the beacon signals. The device-to-device connection may be either a non-cellular device-to-device connection or a cellular device-to-device connection.
Communication control device, communication control method, program, and communication control system
Provided is a communication control device for controlling wireless communication among a plurality of communication apparatuses, including an identification information acquisition unit configured to acquire, from a first object corresponding to a first communication apparatus of the plurality of communication apparatuses, first identification information for identifying the first communication apparatus, and to acquire, from a second object corresponding to a second communication apparatus of the plurality of communication apparatuses, second identification information for identifying the second communication apparatus, an action recognition unit configured to recognize an action of coupling the first object with the second object, and a connection control unit configured to perform communication between the first communication apparatus and the second communication apparatus corresponding to the coupled first object and second object, respectively, based on the acquired first identification information and second identification information to connect the first communication apparatus to the second communication apparatus through wireless communication.
View sharing between in-range devices
A first system may receive a view from a second system. The first system may establish a direct wireless communication link with the second system that does not connect through any intermediate system between the first system and the second system. Through the direct wireless communication link, the first system sends a view sharing request to the second system. The view sharing request may specify a view that is displayed by the second system and not the first system. The first system may receive view information corresponding to the view and display the view according to the received view information.
Method and apparatus for distributing random access in a wireless access system
The present description relates to a method in which a terminal performs network reentry procedures in an idle mode in a wireless access system, wherein the method comprises the following steps: receiving, from a base station, control information indicating an initial ranging back-off window size for machine-to-machine (M2M) terminals during a paging listening period; determining an initial ranging back-off window size for initial ranging using the received control information; and performing initial ranging procedures with the base station based on the determined initial ranging back-off window size.
Uplink power control for dual and multi carrier radio system
In a method and a device a time-varying back-off value is used whereby differences in cell load can be taken into account for a restricted time-period during which the information is believed to be valid. Also, other time-varying variables of interest for the initial DPCCH power setting of the secondary earner can be taken into account when setting the back-off value.
Wireless communication system and method for wireless communication
When a femto cell base station detects an intense uplink interference, the femto cell base station autonomously extends the femto cell so as to raise a probability that a mobile terminal around the original femto cell may be connected to the femto cell base station. If the mobile terminal connects to the femto cell base station, the uplink interference is reduced and total throughput is improved. Additionally, if a resultant effect of interference reduction is low, the femto cell base station returns the mobile terminal, which is connected to the femto cell base station due to the extension of the femto cell, to the original connection destination. If an evaluative criterion meets a predetermined condition, the femto cell base station restores the extended femto cell to the original size. These actions prevent degradation of performance caused by concentration of the connections of mobile terminals to the femto cell base station.
Standby method for handheld mobile terminal, microprocessor, and mobile phone
A standby method for a handheld mobile terminal includes acquiring a physical state parameter of the terminal when it is determined that a handheld mobile terminal is in a no-operation state. It can be judged whether the physical state parameter satisfies a corresponding preset standby condition. The terminal is controlled to immediately enter a standby state when the physical state parameter satisfies the corresponding preset standby condition.
Method of performing cell search in wireless communication system
A method of performing cell search includes receiving a primary synchronization signal (PSS) comprising a primary synchronization code (PSC) and receiving a secondary synchronization signal (SSS) comprising a first secondary synchronization code (SSC) and a second SSC, wherein the SSS includes a first SSS and a second SSS, the first SSC and the second SSC are arranged in that order in the first SSS, and the second SSC and the first SSC are arranged in that order in the second SSS. Detection performance on synchronization signals can be improved, and cell search can be performed more reliably.
Method and apparatus for offloading packet traffic from LTE network to WLAN using DPI
A mobile network configuration is able to offload packet flows based on identification (“ID”) rules to a wireless network using a deep packet inspection (“DPI”) function. After activating DPI function located in a packet data network gateway (“PDN-GW”), every packet flow passing through the PDN-GW is monitored, detected, and analyzed based on a set of predefined ID rules. Upon identifying a packet flow for a predefined network application, the packet flow is offloaded from a long term evolution (“LTE”) network to a wireless local area network (“WLAN”) or Wi-Fi network. To reduce traffic loading on the LTE network, the PDN-GW sends binding updates containing offloading information associated with the packet flow to user equipment (“UE”) for offloading implementation.
Method for searching for a radio cell and mobile terminal
A method for searching for a radio cell is provided comprising determining, for each of a plurality of frequencies, a reception strength value indicating the reception strength within a first bandwidth around the frequency, wherein the first bandwidth is smaller than a second bandwidth with which a radio cell to be searched is operated; determining, based on the determined reception strength values, a spectral position for a radio cell at which a cell search is to be carried out; and carrying out a cell search at the determined spectral position.
Method for indicating CSG ID, method for indicating base station type, and method for obtaining CSG ID indication
There are provided a method for indicating a CSG ID, a method for indicating a base station type and a method for obtaining CSG ID indication. The method for indicating the CSG ID includes: a base station notifying a terminal of whether the base station has a CSG ID. The present solution solves the problem of access delay in the related art resulted from that the terminal cannot obtain the specific base station type and whether the base station has a CSG ID, ensures the easy operation of the accessed base station information needing to be maintained by the terminal, and thus improves the quality of service of the whole system for the terminal.
System, method and apparatus for wireless network connection using near field communication
A system, method, and apparatus are provided for establishing a wireless network connection between a mobile terminal and an electronic apparatus by using a near field communication network. At least one electronic apparatus is connected to the near field communication network. A mobile terminal is connected to the near field communication network, exchanges information with the at least one electronic apparatus for a wireless communication network connection through the connected near field communication network, and establishes the wireless communication network connection with the at least one electronic apparatus based on the exchanged information.
Protecting packet traffic in a network including an adaptive bandwidth link
In one embodiment, a packet switching device receives a notification that a link has a diminished packet transport capacity. In response, the packet switching devices changes forwarding information for a portion of the packet traffic being sent over the diminished packet transport capacity link to traverse one or more reroute paths not including the diminished link, while some packet traffic continues to use the diminished packet transport capacity link. This notification can be received directly from a communications device, or via a routing protocol such as for a remote link that sent packet traffic may traverse. These rerouted paths may be precomputed and installed in forwarding data structures for fast rerouting, or computed and installed in response to receiving the notification. In one embodiment, quality of service (QoS) is adjusted in response to receiving the notification.
Handover signaling for beamforming communications
A first base station receives a first message comprising one or more parameters indicating whether a wireless device supports configuration of a number of channel state information (CSI) processes. The first base station transmits at least one second message comprising configuration parameters of CSI reference signals. The first base station transmits, to a second base station after making a handover decision, at least one third message comprising at least one of the one or more parameters and the configuration parameters of the CSI reference signals.
System and method for providing intelligent cell reselection for delay sensitive data applications
A mobile station for receiving delay-sensitive data from a wireless communications network is provided with a data buffer and cell reselection controller. The data buffer receives data from the network and stores the data for communication to a delay-sensitive data application. The cell reselection controller selectively inhibits cell reselection in order to meet requirements of the delay-sensitive data application. By intelligently controlling cell reselection, delay sensitive data may be received in a more reliable fashion, thereby increasing performance of the data application.
Apparatus and method for performing handover in a communication system
A handover apparatus and method in a communication system having a macro BS and a plurality of micro BSs in one cell are provided. A handover apparatus includes a macro BS for generating a plurality of messages, each messages respectively corresponds to one of a plurality of group areas defined by grouping service areas of the micro BSs and includes information about BSs to which MSs of the group area can perform handover. The macro BS also generates group area information indicating locations of the group areas, broadcasts the plurality of messages and the group area information to the cell, and manages handover of MSs based on the plurality of messages and the group area information.
Mobile communication method and radio base station
A mobile communication method according to the present invention includes a process of transmitting information regarding a PCell#1 and a Scell#1 connected by a mobile station UE in control of a radio base station eNB#2 to a radio base station eNB#3 from the radio base station eNB#2 when the mobile station UE that is performing CA communication executes handover from the control of the radio base station eNB#2 to the control of a radio base station eNB#3 in at least one of an uplink or a downlink.
Partial session transfer method and user equipment for the same
A session transfer procedure not for all ongoing multimedia components but for some media components in a wireless communication system and an apparatus for the same are provided. In a partial session transfer procedure, a user equipment establishing a first session to transmit a plurality of media components transmits a partial attach request message to a mobility control entity of a network core. The partial attach request message may be an attach request message whose attach type is set to ‘partial handover’. Upon receiving an attach accept message containing information regarding a gateway of the network core from the mobility control entity, a second session is established with the gateway by using the gateway information. After the establishing of the second session, the user equipment does not release the previously established first session. The user equipment transmits partial session transfer information indicating a media component to be transmitted using each of the first session and the second session among the plurality of media components to a counterpart user equipment, and thereafter exchanges multimedia data with the counterpart user equipment through both of the first session and the second session on the basis of the partial session transfer information.
Techniques for providing access to cloud services via a plurality of different network interfaces of a client device. In accordance with one example, during establishment of a communication session between the cloud computing system and the client device, an interface-independent identifier is provided to the client device via a first of the plurality of different network interfaces. Following determination to establish the communication session via the second network interface, the cloud computing system is configured to maintain a virtual environment associated with the communication session for a period of time. A message is received, via a second of the plurality of different network interfaces, from the client device that includes the interface-independent identifier. In response to the received interface-independent identifier, the communication session is re-established with the client device via the second network interface, thereby enabling access to the virtual environment maintained by the cloud computing system.
Wireless communication system, base station apparatus, communication apparatus, and communication control program
A CA decision part selects a component carrier to be used for communication with a terminal apparatus from component carriers used for communication by a plurality of base station apparatuses. A CA set notification part notifies a sub-base station apparatus of carrier aggregation information indicating the component carrier selected by the CA decision part. A transmission unit of a main base station apparatus allocates a signal, which is obtained by modulating a part of data to be transmitted to the terminal apparatus, on a first component carrier selected by the CA decision part, and transmits the signal. A transmission unit of the sub-base station apparatus allocates a signal, which is obtained by modulating a part of the data to be transmitted to the terminal apparatus, on a second component carrier indicated by notified carrier aggregation information, and transmits the signal. A reception unit of the terminal apparatus receives the signal from the main base station apparatus using the first component carrier and the signal from the sub-base station apparatus using the second component carrier. A wireless processing part integrates the signals received by the reception unit.
Method, apparatus and system for determining voltage standing wave ratio in a downlink period of radio communication
The present invention discloses a method for determining a Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) in downlink period of a radio communication, comprising: coupling a forward signal into a Transmitter Observation Receiver (TOR) via a Radio Frequency (RF) switch; feeding a reversed signal in a reversed path from a third port of a circulator into the TOR via the RF switch; making down conversion, filtering and converting the forward signal and the reversed signal from an analog signal into digital baseband signal respectively; measuring and storing power levels of the forward signal and the reversed signal in form of digital baseband; and calculating VSWR or Return Loss (RL) value from the stored power levels of the forward signal and the reversed signal. A corresponding apparatus and radio communication system are also provided. This provides an improved VSWR detection method with low complexity and low cost, etc.
Method and apparatus for offloading Internet data in access network
The present disclosure discloses a method and an apparatus for offloading Internet data in an access network, which are used for solving the technical problems that in a Network Address Translation (NAT) offloading networking solution, the information obtained in a monitor mode is incomplete, offloading characteristics for distinguishing users cannot be provided and offloading strategies are separated from Quality of Service (QoS) strategies of a core network. The solution of the present disclosure includes: an offloading device judges whether a Radio Access Bearer (RAB) data flow needs offloading according to a specific value of a specific parameter in an RAB message; if the offloading is needed, NAT is performed and then the offloaded data is transmitted to the Internet; and if the offloading is not needed, the RAB data flow is transparently transmitted to the core network. In the present disclosure, the offloading judgment condition, which the offloading device is in accordance with, directly originates from the core network, and the core network can proactively obtain required user information, thus offloading judgment can be made correctly and completely as much as possible, and offloading judgment can be implemented with QoS strategies of the core network together, and there is no need to add new QoS management points being independent of the core network.
Extended access point
An extended wireless access point may have many distributed radio units connected to associated processing units via a radio transmission network comprising commodity switches controlled by one or more network controllers. The one or more network controllers may use a load balancing algorithm to select a processing unit to process a signal received by a distributed radio unit. The radio units may receive a wireless signal, and generate compressed samples of the wireless signal for transport via the radio transmission network and processing by a selected processing unit. Similarly, a processing unit may generate and transmit via the radio transmission network compressed samples for decompression and transmission by a radio unit.
Home network system and mobility anchor allocation method used in the home network system
Provided is a home network system in which an appropriate mobility anchor is allocated for a mobile node and the number of mobility anchors can be reduced. A subscriber information accumulation server (14) accumulates first communication load prediction data for each time of a mobile node (32). An anchor information accumulation server (15) accumulates second communication load prediction load for each time of each mobility anchor (11). When “a mobility anchor allocation request” is transmitted from the mobile node (32) to an anchor allocation server (13), the anchor allocation server (13) adds the first communication load prediction data and the second communication load prediction load data so as to obtain third communication load prediction data. Among a plurality of mobility anchors (11), a mobility anchor in which the third communication load prediction data is not greater than the load upper limit value at all the times and the maximum value of the second communication load prediction data is minimum is selected and allocated.
Methods and apparatus for improving coverage and capacity in a wireless network
A non-transitory processor-readable medium stores code to cause a processor to receive a performance indicator associated with a first mode. The code causes the processor to calculate, using the performance indicator associated with the first mode, a first metric value associated with a first metric and an objective of the first mode. The code causes the processor to calculate, using the first metric value, a second metric value associated with a second metric and an objective of a second mode. The second metric value partially compensates for a change in a performance indicator associated with the second mode when the first metric value is implemented. The code causes the processor to send a signal associated with the first metric value and a signal associated with the second metric value to an antenna module such that the antenna module implements the first metric value and the second metric value.
Compressed mode measurements for flexible bandwidth carrier systems, devices, and methods
Methods, systems, and devices are provided that may address problems to enabling a user equipment (UE) in connected mode on a normal bandwidth cell to make inter-frequency measurements on another normal bandwidth cell and a flexible bandwidth cell. Some embodiment utilize a set of compressed mode gap configurations for measuring both normal bandwidth and flexible bandwidth inter-frequency cells with the following modification for flexible bandwidth cells: reducing the coherent length used by the UE; using the same cell search parameters at the UE but modifying the compressed mode gap parameters to accommodate both normal bandwidth and flexible bandwidth cell search; and/or maintaining the compressed mode gap parameters but reducing the search window size during cell search coherent accumulation. Some embodiments may configure separate compressed mode measurements configuration for normal bandwidth and flexible bandwidth measurements.
Synchronized channel access in coexisting wireless networks
A system and method for arbitrating channel access in a wireless device including co-located network transceivers are disclosed herein. A wireless device includes a first wireless transceiver and a second wireless transceiver. The first transceiver is configured for operation with a first wireless network. The second transceiver is configured for operation with a second wireless network. The wireless device further includes logic that determines which of the first and second transceivers is enabled to transmit at a given time. The logic causes the first transceiver to transmit a notification signal indicating a time period during which the second transceiver of the wireless device will perform a first wireless transaction, and during which, based on receiving the notification signal, a different wireless device performs a second wireless transaction via the second wireless network without transmitting a notification signal.
Method of controlling applications installed on a security module associated with a mobile terminal, and an associated security module, mobile terminal, and server
The invention relates to a method of controlling applications installed in a security module associated with a mobile terminal and adapted to increment at least one transaction value during a transaction effected by an application and, if that transaction value reaches an associated predetermined value, sending at least one connection command to a management server and blocking at least one application if the command fails. The invention also relates to a method of managing such applications adapted to receive a connection command, verify the user rights and update at least one transaction value and/or block at least one application as a function of the verification result. The invention further relates to a management server, a mobile terminal and a security module that can be used with a mobile terminal.
Software application for intercepting phone call and text messages from specific contacts
A method for a software application is used to intercept unwanted phone calls or text messages for a cellular phone. The software application allows a user to manage their blacklist, which contain contacts that the user does not want to communicate with. When the software application receives an incoming or outgoing communication with a telephone number, the software application will compare that telephone number with the telephone numbers of the contacts on the blacklist. If the telephone number of the incoming or outgoing communication matches one of the telephone numbers in blacklist, the incoming or outgoing communication is blocked from its intended destination. The software application will then send an audio or textual intercept message to the sender of the incoming or outgoing communication.
Validating user identity by cooperation between core network and access controller
An identifier, required by a radio access network controller in order to support resource allocation associated with a predetermined condition, is sent from a core network to the radio access network controller independently of the predetermined condition. The identifier is thus available to the radio access network controller for verification of mobile user identity, regardless of whether it is needed to support resource allocation. A radio access network controller can receive an identifier in a communication sent by a core network according to a communication protocol. The radio access network controller terminates the communication protocol to access the communication, and uses the identifier for verification of mobile user identity.
Wireless authentication using beacon messages
Systems, methods, and other embodiments associated with wireless authentication using beacon messages are described. According to one embodiment, a controller includes logic configured to control a transmitter to wirelessly transmit a beacon message. The beacon message is configured to announce to a remote device that a wireless device is available to communicate. The beacon message includes a security identifier that identifies a public key for the wireless device.
Mobile device learning mode for secure identification
A method for prompting the user to scan a radio token in proximity with a mobile device and detecting, via a radio token compatible mechanism within the mobile device, when the radio token passes within a communications distance from the radio token compatible device. So as to provide future indication of the approximate location of the radio token in relation to the mobile device.
Method and device for requesting almost blank subframes in heterogeneous networks
One embodiment of the invention provides a mechanism to assist the eNodeB of the second cell, for example macrocell eNodeB or femtocell eNodeB to determine the configuration of ABSs. To be specific, the eNodeB of the first cell sends a request signaling to the eNodeB of the second cell to inform of the requirement for ABSs. The eNodeB of the second cell receives the request signaling from the eNodeB of the first cell, and then it determines the pattern of ABSs and sends the pattern of ABSs in the form of bitmap through a signaling to the eNodeB of the first cell. As the requirement for ABSs is determined by the eNodeB of the first cell on the basis of the number of the UEs and/or the traffic load of the UEs which are near the edge of coverage area of the picocell, it can help the eNodeB of the second cell to determine the configuration of ABSs, i.e. the pattern of ABSs, so that the efficient resource utilization is achieved.
Device initiated replenishment procedures for wireless devices
A method, device and system are provided for wireless device-initiated automatic replenishment of internally-stored account parameters associated with an amount of authorization for usage of the wireless device (e.g., prepaid amount of airtime minutes, data usage, messages, etc.). Upon determining within the wireless device that the account parameter(s) should be replenished, the wireless device transmits a message to a control server indicating that the wireless device intends to perform the determined replenishment according to the replenishment parameters stored within the wireless device. The wireless device delays performance of the replenishment for a predetermined period of time to determine whether the control server provides a response containing updated replenishment parameters. Depending upon whether the wireless device receives a response from the control server during the time period, the wireless device then replenishes the internally-stored account parameter(s) using either the previously stored replenishment parameters or the updated replenishment parameters.
Public safety communications incident response
A system and method permit communications of a mobile station of emergency service personnel while blocking communications of mobile stations of other users. In response to an emergency in a region, a mobile switching center may be configured to restrict communications of mobile stations in the region through an identified cell site base station controlled by the mobile switching center during the emergency while the identified cell site base station continues wireless radio frequency transmissions. This configuration may be accomplished with the use of a trigger, such as a Specific_Called_Party_Digit_String trigger. While the mobile switching center is configured for the emergency, a designated trigger condition may be detected with respect to an attempted communication for a mobile station through the identified cell site base station.
Transferring an account between devices
A method for transferring an account associated with a first device to a second device is disclosed. The method includes: initiating, by the second device, a message intersession with a third party device; receiving, at the second device and from a server, an indication that the second device is using a known identity associated with the first device; and providing, by the second device, an instruction for transferring an account from the first device to the second device.
Management of multiple subscriber identity modules
Management of multiple subscriber identity modules by a server is disclosed. The server includes one or more processors, and one or more memories storing instructions, that, when executed by the one or more processors, cause the server, for each subscriber identity module belonging to a set of subscriber identity modules of a user of a mobile terminal, to: cause an analysis on use of the subscriber identity module; cause a prediction of a future activity status change of the subscriber identity module on the basis of the analysis; and cause an action affecting the activity status of the subscriber identity module on the basis of the prediction.
Generating conversation threads for a unified messaging system
In one embodiment, a method includes accessing a communication sent from a first user to one or more second users; searching multiple communication threads for a specific thread associated with both the first and second users; and if the specific communication thread is located, then adding the communication to the thread; and for each second user, sending the communication to the second user using a communication protocol selected determined to be appropriate.
Apparatus and method for transmitting/receiving data in communication system
Disclosed is a method for allowing a terminal to transmit/receive data using a multi user-multi input multi output (MU-MIMO) scheme in a communication system, the method including: receiving group information of terminals capable of transmitting/receiving data using the MU-MIMO scheme from an access point (AP); transmitting the group information of the terminals and group information of candidate terminals capable of transmitting/receiving data using the MU-MIMO based on the group information of the terminals to the candidate terminals, respectively; and transmitting/receiving data to/from the candidate terminals using the MU-MIMO scheme in response to the group information of the candidate terminals.
Multicast/broadcast content delivery based on feedback from a user device
A user device may receive a portion of multicast content and may obtain transmission information associated with the portion of the multicast content. The transmission information may identify parameters or radio conditions under which the portion of the multicast content is being received by the user device. The user device may provide, to a server device, the transmission information, and may receive content that remedies a condition, associated with the portion of the multicast content. The condition may be detected, by the server device, based on the transmission information.
Method of validating cellular carrier records accuracy
A method of validating cellular device location record accuracy is intended to validate and refine cellular carrier records accuracy for investigation and litigation purposes. Records provided by a cellular carrier and other information are analyzed to validate or refine a possible and/or estimated location of a specified cellular device during a specified time frame. More specifically, the location of a specified radio communications transceiver cell site is verified, a nominal cellular wireless signal coverage map is produced, and various pieces of information regarding potential service disruptions during the specified time frame are analyzed in order to produce a more accurate coverage map during the specified time frame for the purpose of quantitatively defining probable or potential locations for the specified cellular device.
An apparatus is provided for gaming or for other purposes where tracking of the relative location of a plurality of individuals can be used which includes for each person a wireless network device connected to a network. Each device detects a current location of the device while being carried for communication to a server arranged to communicate through the network with each of the devices having a downloaded program to obtain repeatedly an indication of the current location of the device. The server detects from the current locations when any two or more of the devices are within a predetermined distance and communicates to at least one of the devices when the location is within said predetermined distance. The signal can be used to trigger various events including actions in a gaming situation.
Method and system for mobile delivery of broadcast content
A satellite dish assembly may comprise a broadcast receive module and a basestation module. The broadcast receive module may be operable to receive a satellite signal, recover media carried in the satellite signal, and output the media. The basestation module may be operable to accept the media output by the broadcast receive module and transmit the media in accordance with one or more wireless protocols. In being conveyed from the broadcast receive module to the basestation, the media content may not traverse any wide area network connection. The one or more wireless protocols may comprise one or more of: a cellular protocol and IEEE 802.11 protocol. The satellite dish assembly may comprise a routing module that may be operable to route data between the broadcast receive module, the basestation, and a gateway.
A proximity fence can be a location-agnostic fence defined by signal sources having no geographic location information. The proximity fence can correspond to a group of signal sources instead of a point location fixed to latitude and longitude coordinates. A signal source can be a radio frequency (RF) transmitter broadcasting a beacon signal. The beacon signal can include a payload that includes an identifier indicating a category to which the signal source belongs, and one or more labels indicating one or more subcategories to which the signal source belongs. The proximity fence defined by the group of signal sources can trigger different functions of application programs associated with the proximity fence on a mobile device, when the mobile device moves within the proximity fence and enters and exits different parts of the proximity fence corresponding to the different subcategories.
Geofence with kalman filter
A least squares geofence method that minimizes trigger misfires caused by data variability and location blunders and minimizes delayed/missed entry triggers generated under urban or indoor conditions. The least squares geofence method uses a weighted least squares (LS) model to compute a location estimate for a target device. A LS location estimate is used to determine if a target device is located inside or outside a predefined geofence. The present invention additionally comprises a Kalman filter geofence method that further improves the accuracy of entry/exit geofence triggers. A Kalman filter geofence method uses a Kalman filter to filter location data retrieved for a target device. Filtered location data is used to determine if a target device is located inside or outside a predefined geofence. A Kalman filter geofence method estimates velocity and heading information for a target device to generate accurate entry/exit geofence triggers for devices in fast moving mode.
Location-based application management methods and systems
An exemplary method includes a location-based application management system 1) determining that a mobile device associated with a user is located within a geographic vicinity associated with an entity, 2) automatically identifying, in response to the determining, an executable application associated with the entity, and 3) facilitating execution by the mobile device of the identified executable application while the mobile device is located within the geographic vicinity associated with the entity. Corresponding methods and systems are also disclosed.
Location detection within identifiable pre-defined geographic areas
Disclosed are systems, apparatus, devices, methods, computer program products, and other implementations, including a method that includes receiving signals at a mobile device from one or more access points, computing one or more positioning quality parameters by analyzing the received signals, and determining based, at least in part, on the computed one or more positioning quality parameters whether the mobile device is inside at least one of one or more areas respectively associated with the one or more access points.
Controlling a short-range wireless connection between a vehicle telematics unit and an in-vehicle audio system
A system and method of communicating using a vehicle telematics unit and an in-vehicle audio system includes detecting a vehicle event at the vehicle telematics unit; terminating any existing short-range wireless connections between the vehicle telematics unit and wireless devices carried by a vehicle occupant; establishing a short-range wireless connection between the vehicle telematics unit and the in-vehicle audio system; and providing communications between the vehicle occupant and a central facility using the short-range wireless connection established between the vehicle telematics unit and the in-vehicle audio system.
Mobile bluetooth device
A wireless communication system comprises a mobile Bluetooth device, first and second Bluetooth terminals, the mobile Bluetooth device comprising a memory and a controller performing a first pairing process with the first Bluetooth terminal as a result of which identical first link keys are stored in the mobile Bluetooth device and in the first Bluetooth terminal, the controller further performing a second pairing process with the second Bluetooth terminal such that identical second link keys are stored in the mobile Bluetooth device and in the second Bluetooth terminal. The controller stores in the memory a first location, a first vicinity and/or a first transmit power indication of the first Bluetooth terminal when performing the first pairing process and to store in the memory a second location, a second vicinity and/or a second transmit power indication of the second Bluetooth terminal when performing the second pairing process.
Centralized control and management systems for digital devices
Technologies for network and device management are disclosed. A described technique includes mapping a local network associated with a user to create a network map of one or more discovered devices that are communicatively coupled with the local network; determining device information about the one or more discovered devices, the device information including one or more device identifications corresponding to the one or more discovered devices; storing the network map and the device information in a profile associated with the user; and providing a centralized management interface for managing the one or more discovered devices. The interface can be configured to present information including the network map, the device information, and one or more notifications. The one or more notifications can be based on an analysis of the device information and the network map.
Method for transmitting/receiving control information for an M2M device, and device for same
The present invention relates to a method for transmitting/receiving control information for an M2M device, and a device for same. A method of transmitting Machine to machine (M2M) device control information from a base station in a wireless communication system according to an embodiment of the present invention includes: transmitting a first message including at least one M2M identifier (ID) field to the at least one M2M device; and transmitting at least one second message including resource allocation information for the at least one M2M device to the at least one M2M device. The first and second messages have different types of formats.
Reconstruction of a recorded sound field
Equipment (10) for reconstructing a recorded sound field includes a sensing arrangement (12) for measuring the sound field to obtain recorded data. A signal processing module (14) is in communication with the sensing arrangement (12) and processes the recorded data for the purposes of at least one of (a) estimating the sparsity of the recorded sound field and (b) obtaining plane-wave signals to enable the recorded sound field to be reconstructed.
Method for adjusting a hearing apparatus via a formal language
A method adjusts a hearing apparatus and thus provides a simplified hearing aid. In the method, a model is created which describes individual hardware components of the hearing apparatus. In addition a formal language is created on the basis of the model. The formal language is used to develop a program. The program is translated into machine executable code. The code is then transferred to the hearing apparatus, the execution of which causes the hearing apparatus to be adjusted automatically in accordance with the program. As an alternative to the transfer to the hearing system, the code is executed by a hearing aid adjustment program and a target parameter set for the hearing apparatus which the adjustment program then transfers into the hearing apparatus is thus calculated.
Method for adjusting a hearing device and a hearing device that is operable according to said method
The present invention is related to the adjusting of a hearing device (1) to the hearing preferences of a user of said hearing (1). The hearing device (1) comprises an input transducer (20) for providing an electrical signal that corresponds to an acoustical input signal, a processing unit (10) for processing the electrical signal according to a set of process parameters (G1, . . . , Gn) to provide an intermediate signal, and an output transducer (30) for providing an output signal to the user of said hearing device (1), wherein the output signal corresponds to the intermediate signal. The method comprises the step of providing a set of adjustment parameters (A1, . . . , Am), which, at least partly, represents an individual hearing characteristic of the user of said hearing device (1) and the further step of adapting the set of process parameters (G1, . . . , Gn) as a function of an adjustment control signal (ACS) and the set of adjustment parameters (A1, . . . , Am).
Audio processing device, audio processing method, audio processing program and audio processing integrated circuit
Provided is an audio processing device comprising: a feature data generation unit which generates, for each unit section of an audio signal, section feature data expressing features of the audio signal in the unit section; a feature variation calculation unit which calculates, for each unit section, a feature variation value quantifying temporal variation of the features in the unit section, by setting the unit section as a target section and using section feature data of unit sections close to the target section; and a section judgment unit which judges, for each unit section, whether the unit section is a feature unit section including a variation point of the features, based on comparison of a threshold value and the feature variation value. Through the above, the audio processing device can detect feature unit sections from an audio signal of an AV content or the like.
Providing a confidence measure for speaker diarization
Method, system and computer product are provided for a computer implemented method for providing a confidence measure for speaker diarization. The method includes: receiving an audio session as unsegmented audio data; computing a spectral ratio of principal component analysis (PCA) of sections of the received audio session by a ratio between the largest eigenvalue and the second largest eigenvalue; using the PCA spectral ratio as a confidence measure for speaker diarization processing.
Speakerphone and/or microphone arrays and methods and systems of the using the same
The present disclosure is directed to devices, methods and systems for microphone arrays wherein enhancing performance of directional microphone arrays is provided. Enhanced performance of speaker phones is also provided. In certain embodiments, the housing of the device is configured to support the at least three microphones and the loudspeaker in a substantially first orientation; and the at least three microphones and the loudspeaker are arranged in a spatial relationship such that appropriate phase and delay characteristics achieve a substantial null response in the at least three microphones and in the loudspeaker in a substantial vertical direction away from the substantially first orientation over a desired audible range of frequencies and the device is able to provide a response to sounds over a range of first oriented elevations.
Waterproof ear-jack connector
A waterproof ear-jack connector includes: an ear-jack connector housing, a contact terminal, and a baffle. The ear-jack connector housing is disposed with a space running through the ear-jack connector housing, the space is used for accommodating an earphone plug; the baffle is located at a tail opening of the ear-jack connector housing, and tightly contacts the tail opening of the ear-jack connector housing, so as to seal the tail opening of the ear-jack connector housing; the contact terminal tightly presses against an inner wall of the space, and passes through from a hole disposed on the baffle; and the shape of the hole matches a cross section of the contact terminal, so that the hole is plugged by the contact terminal. The ear-jack connector itself is equipped with a waterproof function, thereby facilitating the thinning of an electronic product.
Diaphragm arrangement for generating sound
A diaphragm arrangement is disclosed to be fitted to a structural component or fixing ring for the purpose of generating sound. The diaphragm arrangement includes two piezo crystals fitted opposite one another on either side of an electrically conductive diaphragm, which can oscillate, and the piezo crystals are each fastened to the diaphragm. The piezo crystals are each electrically conductively connected to a contact plate on their opposing sides.
Headset and earphone
A headset or earphone is provided, having an electro-acoustic reproduction transducer with an oscillator coil arranged in an axis. An amplifier is coupled to the electro-acoustic reproduction transducer. The headset or earphone also has a magnetic interference sensor for measuring a magnetic interference field. A correction unit, for analyzing an output of the magnetic interference sensor and for producing a compensation signal, is coupled to the magnetic interference sensor. In addition, the headset or earphone also includes an adding unit for adding the compensation signal to an input signal and for outputting the result to the amplifier.
Electronic device and method for selecting microphone by detecting voice signal strength
An electronic device and method thereof for selecting a mic by detecting voice signal strengths at respective microphones. The electronic device has first and second mics and is communicatively connected to a headset having a third mic. Voice signal strengths received at the respective first, second, and third mics are detected. A determination is made as to which one of the first, second, and third mics detects the greatest voice signal strength. All of the mics are disabled for communication except for the mic detecting the greatest voice signal strength.
The present invention provides a unidirectional microphone by adding an output from an omnidirectional condenser microphone unit and an output from a bi-directional ribbon microphone unit together. A condenser microphone unit 10 and a ribbon microphone unit 20 are connected in series via a step-up transformer 30, and the respective sound signals from the microphone units 10 and 20 are added together and are output from a source S of an FET 14.
Physical layer management using RFID modules and common mode signaling
An intelligent network patch field management system is provided that includes active electronic hardware, firmware, mechanical assemblies, cables, and software that guide, monitor, and report on the process of connecting and disconnecting patch cords plugs in an interconnect or cross-connect patching environment. RFID tag integrated chips are used in some embodiments of the system to allow for detection of patch cord insertion and removal at switch ports. RFID tags may also be used to detect users and control access to the network based on the users' levels of authorization. Network access can also be controlled at the outlet jack level. The system is capable of monitoring patch cord connections to detect insertions or removals of patch cords or plugs. In addition, the system can map entire networks.
Device and method for functionality sequencing
A device and method automatically executes a predetermined procedure. The method includes receiving input data by a mobile unit (MU), the input data including a request for output data, the MU including a data capture module. The method includes obtaining external data using the data capture module, the external data being indicative of at least one external condition related to the MU. The method includes selecting one of at least one capture engine of the data capturing module as a function of the external data and the input data, the selected capture engine configured to obtain the output data. The method includes automatically executing a predetermined procedure using the MU as a function of the selected capture engine and the external data, the predetermined procedure including a plurality of steps, one of the steps being obtaining the output data.
System, apparatus, and method for preparing images for integration and combining images into an integrated image
At least a first image, such as a motion video image, is prepared for integration with at least a second image, such as a motion video image and/or a still image. The first image may be a barker, and the second image may be a menu or programming guide. To prepare the first image for integration, a first compressed image is formed, restricted to a first region of a first image area by representing at least one segment of a first image within the first region with a reference to another segment of the first image within the first region. The second image may also be prepared for integration by forming a second compressed image. The second compressed image may be restricted to a second region of a second image area by representing at least one segment of the second image within the second region with a reference to another segment of the second image within the second region. The first and second images are combined by selecting a portion of the first compressed image, selecting a portion of the second compressed image, and combining the selected portions to form an integrated image.
Apparatus and method for providing information in conjunction with media content
An apparatus and method for providing information in conjunction with media content, including a receiver, wherein the receiver receives at least one of a transmission of media content and a broadcast of media content, wherein the media content includes at least one of broadcast media content and entertainment media content, and further wherein the receiver receives information regarding the media content, a processor for processing at least one of the received media content and the received information regarding the media content, a display device for visually displaying the information regarding the media content, and/or a speaker device for audibly announcing the information regarding the media content.
Changeable block list
A method comprises accessing encoded video data; accessing a list of watermarks to the encoded video data; determining syntax elements for current blocks of video data and syntax elements of currents blocks with the watermarks; removing watermarks that cause visible artifacts based on differences in the syntax elements between the current blocks and current blocks with watermarks, thereby creating filtered list of acceptable watermarks. The method can further include determining coding variable ranges for the current block and current block with watermarks from the list; comparing the coding variable ranges for the current blocks and current blocks with watermarks from the list; and filtering out watermarks that yield coding variable ranges outside the coding variable ranges of the current blocks. Additionally, the method can include determining bit lengths of the current blocks and current blocks with watermarks from the list; comparing bit lengths of the current blocks and current blocks with watermarks from the list; and filtering out watermarks that yield bit lengths not equal to the bit lengths of the current blocks.
Automated content ingestion
A method includes receiving, from a content provider, content for processing and information identifying at least one of advertisements or promotional material to include with the content. The method also includes processing the content into a number of different formats, inserting the advertisements or promotional material into the processed content. The method further includes providing an indication to the content provider that the content has been processed and receiving, from the content provider, an approval or disapproval of the processed content.
Reduced complexity transcoding
Efficient transcoding and decoding techniques are widely applicable across multiple different transcoding formats. The techniques find many applications in, as one example, high speed networking. The techniques provide reduced computational and implementation complexity. The techniques may also improve the processing latency compared with other transcoding techniques.
Method and device for providing mosaic channel
A method for providing mosaic channels among multiple client devices is provided. Wherein, the multiple client devices are connected via a data communication network so as to be able to communicate data with each other. At the side of a client device, which is instructed to change to a mosaic channel while the other client device are receiving channel programs from at least one channel program server via a communication for channel programs, the method comprises the steps of receiving channel information of the channel programs from at least one of the other client devices via the communication network for channel programs; and generating a mosaic channel that comprises channel cells for presenting the channel information.
Low-noise block down-converter and satellite television system
An optical low-noise block down-converter for a satellite television system is disclosed. The optical low-noise block down-converter includes a first down-conversion module coupled to a satellite antenna of the satellite television system for converting a vertically polarized signal received by the satellite antenna into a first intermediate frequency signal, a second down-conversion module coupled to the satellite antenna for converting a horizontally polarized signal received by the satellite antenna into a second intermediate frequency signal, and a third down-conversion module having a first input terminal coupled between the satellite antenna and a first down-converter of the first down-conversion module and a second input terminal coupled between the satellite antenna and a second down-converter of the second down-conversion module for draining out part of the vertically polarized signal and the horizontally polarized signal to combine and convert into a legacy electrical signal.
Electronic programming guides combining stored content information and content provider schedule information
A receiver provides an EPG. The EPG includes schedule information for content accessible by the receiver from a content provider presented as slots in a grid arranged by time and source. The receiver may determine recorded content is stored and incorporate content information for the recorded content in the EPG. The content information may include one or more portions of the instance of recorded content. The receiver may automatically incorporate the content information or may incorporate such information in response to user input. The receiver may incorporate additional information and/or access recorded content in response to user selection of content information. In some implementations, the recorded content may be recorded as part of an automatic system for recording multiple instances of content received via a multi-frequency signal from a content provider wherein the instances of content are all included in a same frequency and encoded utilizing the same control word.
Media fingerprinting for social networking
Audio fingerprinting and other media matching technologies can be used to identify media, such as movies, television shows, and radio broadcasts. A user device can record image, audio, and/or video information and upload information to a matching service that is able to use matching technology to identify the media and provide supplemental content or information to the user. The user then can share this information with other users, such as by uploading to a social networking site or passing the information to peers on a peer network as part of a container. Users can have the ability to add tagged content, provide comments and ratings, and otherwise interact based at least in part upon the tagged media content.
Interactive advertising and marketing system
The current invention is an interactive advertising and marketing system that operates to provide users with an opportunity to identify objects within video media and create virtual hotspots with respect to the objects, which allows viewers the ability to select objects within the video media that are associated with one of the hotspots, and transmits their interest in the selected object to one or more users. Preferably, the system operates such that hotspots can be created for previously created video, newly created video media, as well as live broadcasts.
Systems and methods for contextually linking television program information
The present invention provides systems and methods for providing television schedule information to a viewer, and for allowing the viewer to link, search, select and interact with information in a remote database, e.g., a database on the internet. The television schedule information can be displayed on a variety of viewer interfaces, such as televisions screens, computer monitors, PCTV screens and the like. The television schedule information may be stored on the viewer's computer, television, PCTV, or a remote server (e.g., a website), or the television schedule information may be downloaded from a remote database to the viewer's computer, television or PCTV.
Methods and apparatus to monitor media exposure
Methods and apparatus to monitor media exposure are disclosed. An example implementation includes accessing a meter identifier and first audio received from a wearable bracelet meter, the meter identifier uniquely associated with the wearable bracelet meter. Whether the first audio substantially matches second audio received at a second meter is determined. In response to determining that the first audio and the second audio substantially match, the meter identifier associated with the wearable bracelet meter and at least one of the first audio or the second audio are stored.
Broadcast receiving device and method
A broadcast receiving device and method are provided. The broadcast receiving device includes a receiving unit which selects a channel and receives a first broadcast signal that includes a plurality of frames, a signal processing unit which processes the first broadcast signal, a control unit which controls the receiving unit to select another channel when a channel change command is input, a communication unit which receives from an external device at least one reference frame used to decode a frame, which corresponds to a time when the channel change command was input, from among frames of a second broadcast signal received from the another channel, and a storage unit which stores the at least one reference frame. When the channel change command is input, the signal processing unit decodes the frames of the second broadcast signal by using the at least one reference frame.
Live channel switching and return during commercial breaks
A device may detect a commercial break for a channel. The channel may be provided for output to a user. The device may determine another channel to provide based on detecting the commercial break for the channel. The other channel may not be associated with a commercial break. The device may provide the other channel for output to the user. The device may monitor the channel to detect that the commercial break for the channel has ended. The device may provide the channel for output to the user based on detecting that that the commercial break for the channel has ended.
Differentiated PSIP table update interval technology
An apparatus, method and data structure for generating at least one table in a broadcast environment, are provided. The apparatus includes a generator to generate an event information table (EIT) and an extended text table (ETT). The ETT has program guide information for an n-hour span and has a transmission interval. The ETT has a transmission interval and program description information according to the EIT. The transmission interval of the EIT is shorter than the transmission interval of the ETT.
Method and system for auxiliary data detection and delivery
A method and system for auxiliary data detection. Data is received on a hand-held device from a display of a signal on a monitor. The signal is visually displayed on the monitor at a frequency. A modulated video signal is received on the hand-held device from a display device. The modulated video signal contains auxiliary data modulated within a video signal in a substantially invisible way. The modulated video signal is demodulated to obtain the auxiliary data. At least one of the data or the auxiliary data is processed to identify a promotional opportunity available through the hand-held device. The user of the hand-held device is notified of availability of the promotional opportunity through the hand-held device.
Delivering an audio video asset
Delivering an audio video asset in a way that makes best use of different delivery mechanisms available.
System and method for updating user availability for wireless communication applications
Systems and methods for monitoring and updating user availability based upon presence and television viewing behavior are described herein. In one embodiment, a presence system is used to detect a user's presence to update the user's availability status. The availability status is then used to update a contact list, voicemail message, and/or busy message. In further embodiments, user preferences are used in combination with presence data to update the user's availability status. In still further embodiments, a user's television viewing behavior is used in combination with the presence data, user preferences, or both to update the user's availability status. Alternative embodiments provide systems and methods in accordance with the present invention for other interactive devices.
Dynamic channel bonding partial service triggering
A method and computing device for transitioning into and out of partial service mode to make bandwidth available for other resources. A trigger value is set for a channel, where a first and second cable modem have registered to use the channel, and where the first cable modem is a bonded channel modem that utilizes a bonding group that includes the channel and at least one other channel. A modulation mode for the channel is monitored. The channel is transitioned from full service mode to partial service mode when the channel is in full service mode and monitoring detects that the modulation mode is less than or equal to the trigger value. The channel is transitioned from partial service mode to full service mode when the channel is in partial service mode and the modulation mode for the channel is greater than the trigger value.
Network and device aware video scaling system, method, software, and device
A method of communication is provided according to embodiments of the present invention. A request is received for video data for each of a plurality of devices. For each of the wireless devices, performance capability of the device, and optionally network information, is obtained. A video scalability level for the video data for each of the devices is determined based on the obtained performance capability, and optionally the network information. The video data for each of the devices is scaled according to the determined video scalability level, and the scaled video data is delivered to each of the devices.
Predictive coding apparatus, control method thereof, and computer program
A predictive coding apparatus which performs predictive coding for each picture forming a moving picture, comprising: a prediction processing unit configured to perform prediction processing for each predetermined block unit of a picture to be coded, a transformation unit adapted to orthogonally transform and quantize a result of the prediction processing by the prediction processing unit to generate multi-valued data, a binarization unit configured to convert the multi-valued data into binary data, a detection unit configured to detect an amount of the binary data, a coding unit configured to perform arithmetically coding of the binary data to create coded data, and a multiplexing unit configured to multiplex, onto the coded data, information indicating the amount of the binary data detected by the detection unit to generate a coded data stream.
Moving image prediction encoding/decoding system
A moving image encoding/decoding system may include a video predictive encoding device, which may include: an encoding device which encodes each of a plurality of input pictures to generate compressed picture data including a random access picture, and encodes data about display order information of each picture; a restoration device which decodes the compressed picture data to restore a reproduced picture; a picture storage device which stores the reproduced picture as a reference picture; and a memory management device which controls the picture storage device. Following completion of an encoding process of generating the random access picture, the memory management device refreshes the picture storage device by setting every reference picture in the picture storage device, except for the random access picture, as unnecessary immediately before or immediately after encoding a picture with display order information larger than the display order information of the random access picture.
Method and apparatus of processing a video signal
The present invention includes obtaining block type identification information on a partition of the current macroblock when the current macroblock is intra-mixed, specifying a block type of the current macroblock based on the block type identification information, obtaining an intra prediction mode of the current macroblock according to the block type of the partition of the current macroblock, and predicting the current macroblock using the intra prediction mode and a pixel value of a neighboring block.
Constant bit rate control using implicit quantization values
Techniques for controlling constant bit rate for a coded video bitstream using implicitly derived quantization values during coding are presented. A decoder component and an encoder component independently track a first subset of quantization-related parameters in relation to coding video frames. The encoder component encodes a macroblock of a video frame using a quantization value based on the first subset of coding parameters and a second subset of coding parameters. The decoder component calculates the quantization value for the macroblock based on the first subset and second subset of quantization-related parameters, the second subset received in a header with the bitstream. The decoder component uses calculated quantization values to adjust quantization levels in relation to decoding macroblocks of a frame to facilitate maintaining constant bit rate control for the bitstream. The second subset of quantization-related parameters includes parameter information other than explicit quantization change information.
Display device with gray scale data correction
The display device includes: a display unit configured to display a combined image formed by dividing a plurality of different images into divided images and arranging the divided images in a predetermined order; a separating unit configured to separate the plurality of images included in the combined image; and a correcting unit configured to correct the gray scale data of a pixel that displays one of the plurality of images included in the combined image that the viewer is supposed to see, wherein the correcting unit includes: a shift amount generating unit configured to generate a shift amount used to adjust the gray scale data of each pixel that displays one of the plurality of images included in the combined image; and a determining unit configured to determine a correction amount used to correct the gray scale data using the shift amount generated by the shift amount generating unit.
Display device and method for controlling the same
A display device includes: a light source which emits light; a light deflector having a deflection region in which the light from the light source is deflected toward a predetermined position; a liquid crystal panel on which the image is formed by the light from the light deflector; and a control unit which determines a total number of right and left eyes of one or more users and controls operation of the light deflector based on the determined total number of right and left eyes, wherein the control unit segments the deflection region into a plurality of deflection subregions based on the determined total number of right and left eyes and controls light deflection in the deflection subregions to deflect the light from the light source toward different positions at the same time.
Scalability techniques based on content information
Apparatus and methods of using content information for encoding multimedia data are described. A method of processing multimedia data includes classifying content of multimedia data, and encoding the multimedia data in a first data group and in a second data group based on the content classification, wherein the first data group comprises a coefficient and the second data group comprises a first differential refinement associated with the first data group coefficient. An apparatus for using content information for encoding multimedia data includes a content classifying module configured to classify content of multimedia data and provide content classification data, and an encoder configured to encode the multimedia data in a first data group and in a second data group based on the content classification, wherein the first data group comprises a coefficient and the second data group comprises a first differential refinement associated with the first data group coefficient.
Centralised interactive graphical application server
This invention relates to a method of processing a plurality of graphical programs on a centralized computer system whereby the images produced by the programs are compressed and transmitted to remote processing devices where they are decompressed. Compression assistance data (CAD) is produced by inspecting instructions outputted by the programs and the CAD is then used in the compression step.
Contrast matching for stereo image
Apparatus and a method for matching contrast between images of a stereo image pair. A first contrast value corresponding to first pixel information of first image is determined and a second contrast value corresponding to second pixel information of second image is determined. The first and second contrast values are compared and the image having the lower contrast value is selected for compensation. A tone mapping function is generated and applied to the pixel information corresponding to the selected image for generating compensated image pixel information corresponding to the selected image.
Detecting and responding to an out-of-focus camera in a video analytics system
Techniques are disclosed for detecting an out-of-focus camera in a video analytics system. In one embodiment, a preprocessor component performs a pyramid image decomposition on a video frame captured by a camera. The preprocessor further determines sharp edge areas, candidate blurry edge areas, and actual blurry edge areas, in each level of the pyramid image decomposition. Based on the sharp edge areas, the candidate blurry edge areas, and actual blurry edge areas, the preprocessor determines a sharpness value and a blurriness value which indicate the overall sharpness and blurriness of the video frame, respectively. Based on the sharpness value and the blurriness value, the preprocessor further determines whether the video frame is out-of-focus and whether to send the video frame to components of a computer vision engine and/or a machine learning engine.
Stereoscopic image processing device and method for generating interpolated frame with parallax and motion vector
A parallax detector detects a parallax between a left-eye image and a right-eye image of an input stereoscopic image signal. A vector detector detects an inter-frame motion vector in the stereoscopic image signal. An output controller determines whether or not to generate an interpolated frame based on the detected parallax and motion vector, and outputs a control signal indicating a result of the determination. An output image generator generates an interpolated frame having an interpolation phase using the motion vector when the control signal indicates that an interpolated frame is to be generated.
Moving-picture encoding apparatus and moving-picture decoding apparatus
According to one embodiment, an encoding apparatus includes a prediction unit, a classifying unit, a first transformer, a second transformer, an order controller, and an entropy coder. The prediction unit obtains a predictive residual signal to be encoded, by using a mode selected from intra-prediction modes. The first transformer obtains first transformation coefficients by subjecting the signal to an orthogonal transformation by use of a first transformation basis if the selected mode is classified into a mode having a prediction direction. The first transformation basis is preset so that a coefficient density after the orthogonal transformation is higher than a coefficient density.
Image advocacy in portable computing devices
A mechanism is provided for identifying one or more eligible image candidates. Responsive to a determination that the storage of a recently captured image raising an allocated captured images memory space in a storage to a point that storage of a next captured image would raise the allocated captured images memory space in the storage above the predetermined threshold, a criteria group in a set of criteria groups is identified to utilize for identification of one or more images candidates from a set of stored images in the storage. The one or more images candidates from the set of stored images in the storage are identified utilizing one or more image identification criteria in the criteria group. The one or more image candidates are then presented to a user.
Method and system for detecting a vertical cut in a video signal for the purpose of time alteration
A circuit and method for detecting a vertical cut in a sequence of digital video images. Each pixel of a video frame is filtered then compared to a filter threshold. If the threshold is met, a current pixel bit is set as active. A delayed pixel bit is generated from the current pixel bit, and a changed pixel bit is generated if either but not both of the current pixel bit and the delayed pixel bit is active. Active pixels are counted. The count of active pixels in the current image and the count of active pixels in the delayed image are used to weight the active pixel count of the changed image. The counts are used to determine a change value for the current image. The change value may be a large positive value, a large negative value, or neither. A predefined pattern of the change values over a sequence of frames indicates a vertical cut in the sequence.
Head-mounted video recording system
A helmet- or head-mounted video recording system is provided for mounting on a piece of head gear such as a head-protective helmet. The system includes a camera module attachable to the head gear, including a first video camera integrated into the camera module for generating a video signal. A recording module is removably attachable to the head gear and is adapted to receive the video signal and store data representative of the video signal. A power supply module is removably attachable to the head gear and is electrically connectable to the camera module and the recording module.
Timeline interface for video content
Disclosed are various embodiments for presenting a timeline interface in association with video content features. A video content feature may be rendered on a display. A current scene in the video content feature is determined. A user interface is rendered on the display, where the user interface includes a timeline component. The timeline component represents the video content feature and visually segments the video content feature into scenes. The current scene may be visually indicated on the timeline component.
Method for white balance adjustment of images
A white balance adjustment method includes capturing a raw image by an image capturing device where an arrangement format of the raw image is BGb/GrR, color scale values of each color channel are extracted, the color scale values of all pixels in B, Gb, Gr, and R channels are separately scanned, and predetermined number ranges are used to classify the color scale values, then obtaining a cumulative proportion of color scale values in each channel is obtained. The cumulative proportions of each channel are compared with default minimum and maximum values, to obtain a more-than-maximum as a reference white, and a less-than-minimum as a reference black. The color scale values are re-quantized, according to the reference white and black, and a color histogram stretching method is applied to complete the white balance adjustment.
Method and system for color adjustment
A method of adjusting the color of images captured by a plurality of cameras comprises the steps of receiving a first image captured by a first camera from the plurality of cameras, analyzing the first image to separate the pixels in the first image into background pixels and foreground pixels, selecting pixels from the background pixels that have a color that is a shade of gray, determining the amount to adjust the colors of the selected pixels to move their colors towards true gray, and providing information for use in adjusting the color components of images from the plurality of cameras.
Video monitor attachment for a microphone
A video monitor attachment for microphones, the video monitor attachment having a top portion having a first opening, a bottom portion having a second opening, and a plurality of sides, the first opening and the second opening communicating with a channel adapted to receive a handle of the microphone, at least one selectively moveable monitor pivotally mounted on a coupling member positioned on the video monitor attachment, and a plurality of self-adjusting gripping assemblies. Each self-adjusting gripping assembly can include at least one biasing member and a gripping member coupled to at least one biasing member, the plurality of self-adjusting gripping assemblies adapted to secure a handle of the microphone. The at least one selectively moveable monitor can be coupled to a selectively moveable first monitor. The coupling member can include a hinge or a ball joint on which to pivotally mount the at least one selectively moveable monitor.
Color image data compression
Color image data is compressed by determining the number of colors within a cell of an input image, each cell comprising an N×M array of pixels; in response to determining that the number of colors is greater than a first predetermined threshold, compress the cell using lossy compression; and in response to determining that the number of colors is less than the first predetermined threshold, reduce the number of colors.
Apparatus and method for automatically controlling image brightness in image photographing device
A method for automatically controlling image brightness in an image photographing device by calculating a histogram for an image; obtaining a brightness average for the histogram; determining if a number of pixels of a histogram distribution within a first range and a number of pixels of a histogram distribution within a second range are included within a preset range; and when the number of pixels of the histogram distribution within the first range and the number of pixels of the histogram distribution within the second range are included within the preset range, as a result of a determination, adjusting the brightness average to be a reference brightness.
Method of processing of compressed image into a gamut mapped image using spatial frequency analysis
The spatial frequency analysis contained in the compressed image is used not only for decompression of images but also for the selection of an appropriate gamut mapping algorithm. Computation resources are then saved because no specific spatial frequency analysis is required for the selection of an appropriate gamut mapping algorithm.
Systems and methods for navigating program listings simultaneously displayed with a program in a media guidance application
Systems and methods for navigating program listings in a media guidance application are provided. A program listing may be displayed that corresponds to a first time period. A user request to change the first time period may be received. In response to the request to change the time period, a hopscotch display may be provided that gives the user access to a plurality of consecutive time periods from which the user can select to have corresponding program listings displayed. A user selection of one of the displayed time periods may be received and a second program listing corresponding to the selected time period may be displayed.
Solid-state imaging device, driving method, and electronic apparatus
Disclosed is a solid-state imaging device including a pixel array, a pixel signal generation part, and a control part. The pixel signal generation part includes a comparator and a counter. In a case where an enable signal is supplied from the control part, a count value of the counter in a D-phase period where a signal level is detected is set as a limit value regardless of an output of the comparator when a count value of the counter in a P-phase period where a reset level is detected is a limit value.
Imaging device and protection device of solid-state imaging device
Protection of a solid-state imaging device is disclosed. One example of a protection unit includes a capacitor connected between an output terminal of a shutter drive pulse of a pulse drive unit and a substrate voltage terminal of a solid-state imaging device, a diode connected between a predetermined potential point and the substrate voltage terminal, and a clamp circuit configured from a resistor element connected between the substrate voltage terminal and a reference potential point. An anode end of the diode is connected to the predetermined potential point to which a potential corresponding to a rated voltage of the substrate voltage terminal is applied.
Image pickup apparatus and control method thereof, image pickup system, and non-transitory computer-readable storage medium
An image pickup apparatus includes an image pickup unit having an optical black area, a control unit which reads a pixel from a selected area in a part of the image pickup unit, and a dark offset correction unit which sets a correction value acquisition area in the optical black area included in the selected areas. When the control unit performs a reading from a first selected area and a reading from a second selected area which at least partially overlaps with the first selected area, the dark offset correction unit sets a first correction value acquisition area set for the optical black area included in the first selected area and a second correction value acquisition area set for the optical black area included in the second selected area such that the first and second correction value acquisition areas at least partially overlap with each other.
Image capturing apparatus that controls performing of short-term and long-term exposures and corresponding read operations, and control method thereof
An image capturing apparatus is provided. A synchronizing signal generation unit generates a short-term vertical synchronizing signal VDS and a long-term vertical synchronizing signal VDL, one cycle of which is equal to N cycles of VDS. An exposure control unit performs short-term exposure and long-term exposure for the predetermined number of lines of an image sensor according to VDS and VDL. The exposure control unit starts a read operation of pixel signals for a long-term exposure line in synchronism with VDL, and starts a read operation of pixel signals for a short-term exposure line in synchronism with VDS, which does not overlap a read period Fr_L Readout of pixel signals of a long-term exposure line.
Single sensor two-sided camera
A single dual-sided image sensor simultaneously captures discrete images from two different perspectives using both a front-side and a back-side of the image sensor. The two different perspectives are extracted from a composite image for processing. The two cameras, as configured in a device, face in a same direction and are spatially offset.
Method and apparatus for photographing an image using light from multiple light sources
Provided is a photographing apparatus including: first and second light sources that respectively transmit a first light having a first spectral radiant characteristic and a second light having a second spectral radiant characteristic; an image device that captures an image of a subject by using the transmitted lights sources; a storage unit that stores a first reference output ratio corresponding to the first light and a second reference output ratio corresponding to the second light; and a determiner that determines a regular reflection area of the light sources by using a first captured image acquired by capturing an image of the subject by using the first light, a second captured image acquired by capturing an image of the subject by using the second light, the first reference output ratio, and the second reference output ratio.
Solid-state image pickup element with shortened mode change period, method of driving the same, and camera system
Disclosed herein is a solid-state image pickup element, including a pixel portion in which plural pixels each including a photoelectric conversion element for converting an optical signal into an electrical signal and accumulating therein the resulting electrical signal in accordance with an exposure period of time are disposed in a matrix; and a pixel driving portion adapted to control operations of the pixels in rows so as to carry out an electronic shutter operation and a reading operation of the pixel portion.
Generating an image of a seal impression
A method and apparatus for generating an image of a seal impression. N still images of a face of a seal are combined. N is at least 2. The N still images of the face correspond respectively to N beams of light that had previously irradiated the face in succession from N respective different directions respectively corresponding to N different angles of incidence of the light on the face. The combining of the N images include generating in the composite image a common area of pixels that commonly appears on the face of the seal in all still images of the N still images. The common area includes a character area pertaining to where an engraved character is located on the face of the seal.
An imaging device determines an in-focus position by contrast autofocus. The device includes a first optical system including a first lens and a first image sensor, a second optical system including a second lens and a second image sensor, a signal processing unit to read an image signal from at least one of the first image sensor and the second image sensor and generate an image for display, and a display unit to display the generated image. In the contrast autofocus, the signal processing unit reads a part of the image signal from the first image sensor and calculates a contrast value based on the read part of the image signal, and generates the image for display from the image signal read from the second image sensor.
Hand-held electronic device
Included is a flat box shaped housing 1 having, on a main surface 1a thereof, a rectangular image display surface 2. Two images whose vertical directions are different from each other by 90 degrees are displayed on the image display surface 2. An imaging sensor 5 is disposed at a portion surrounding the image display surface 2, at a part away from center lines of the image display surface 2 in the height direction and the width direction. An optical axis of the imaging sensor 5 is tilted toward a reference point located on a perpendicular line that perpendicularly intersects the image display surface 2 at the center of the image display surface 2. With the above described configuration, an image captured from a fine angle is obtained.
Method for generating thumbnail image and electronic device thereof
A method of displaying a thumbnail image and an electronic device thereof are provided. The method of displaying the thumbnail image of the electronic device includes detecting meta data and object information for an image, determining an aspect ratio of the thumbnail image with respect to the image on the basis of the detected meta data and object information, and displaying the thumbnail image with respect to the image according to the determined aspect ratio.
Imaging apparatus and imaging method of the same, and storage medium to store computer-processible tracking program
An imaging apparatus includes a display unit, a touch panel, a frame display controller, an imaging controller. The frame display controller displays a frame for focus on the display unit if an operation portion approaches the touch panel, and moves the frame for focus in accordance with the movement of the operation portion that approaches the touch panel. The imaging controller performs focusing on the subject in the frame for focus and then performs imaging in response to a photography instruction.
Image processing apparatus, image pickup apparatus having the same, and image processing method
An image processing apparatus processes image signals obtained from an image pickup element. A correlation operation unit operates a correlation of the image signals of two images that are obtained from the image pickup element and operates an image shift amount between images that are picked up by photoelectric conversion units, on the basis of the correlation. A saturation detection unit detects whether an image signal, of the two images, reaches a saturation level, and produces a saturation detection result. A controller controls the correlation operation unit such that the controller controls whether the correlation of the image signals from a plurality of photoelectric conversion units, including the photoelectric conversion units, is used for the operation of the image shift amount performed by the correlation operation unit. The control by the controller is made in accordance with the saturation detection result produced by the saturation detection unit.
Imaging device and method with transporting microlens array
Disclosed herein is an imaging device including an imaging lens; a microlens array section; an imaging element; and a transporting section adapted to transport the microlens array section.
Network camera, network camera system and monitoring method
To provide a network camera and a network camera system in which an image can be securely distributed to a designated distribution recipient. A network camera system 100 connected to a communication network 130 and having a network camera 110 and a plurality of PCs 120, the network camera 110 comprising an image pickup section 111 for picking up the image, a sending and receiving section 115 for distributing the picked up image to the PC 120, an image sending monitoring section 116 for monitoring whether or not the picked up image is distributed to the designated PC 120 among the plurality of PCs 120, and an accumulation memory 119 for accumulating the picked up image when the distribution of the image to the designated PC 120 is interrupted, and the PC 120 comprising an image receiving section 121 for receiving the picked up image distributed thereto.
Moving camera with off-axis slip ring assembly
A camera unit includes a housing, a pan stage disposed inside the housing and rotatable relative to the housing about a pan axis, a camera lens assembly coupled to the pan stage, and a slip ring assembly having a slip ring stator fixedly coupled to the pan stage at a location offset from the pan axis.
An imaging apparatus includes a pentaprism and outer covering members. Among the photographing light flux incident from a photographing optical system, light reflected by a rotary mirror is further reflected by the reflection surface of the pentaprism to thereby reach an ocular lens. A wireless substrate on which an antenna section is mounted is arranged between the pentaprism and a front outer cover. The substrate fixing member fixes the wireless substrate and is attached to a pentaprism fixing member so as to be electrically connected to the ground section of the imaging apparatus. The ground section of the wireless substrate is connected to the substrate fixing member at a position facing the antenna section with the optical axis of the eyepiece optical system therebetween. The electrical resistivity of a region facing the antenna section in the front outer cover is set relatively higher than the periphery of the region.
System and method for zoom alignment of clip-on digital electro-optic sight
A clip-on sight that includes a sight housing, a lens, a sensor, a display, a module, and a plurality of buttons positioned on the sight housing is disclosed. The module is designed to display an alignment reticle on the display and move the alignment reticle to an electronic zoom center point in response to the buttons. The electronic zoom center point is stored in memory and serves as the center point when the clip-on sight is zoomed in from an un-zoomed (1.0×) zoom to a 2.0× zoom. A method of aligning a clip-on sight is also disclosed. To align the clip-on sight, a user activates the user menu, activates an alignment reticle on the display of the clip-on sight, sets the electronic zoom center point by moving the alignment reticle to the electronic zoom center point.
Image display device with operation unit excellent in operability and image pickup apparatus having the same
An image display device that improves the operability of its operation unit when operated by a photographer/user in a state that an image display unit of the device has been adjusted to assume an angle where the photographer/user can easily view a displayed image. The image display device is coupled through its mounting unit to an image pickup apparatus main unit and causes the image display unit to display an image captured by the apparatus main unit. The image display device has an operation unit configured to be operated to control the apparatus main unit and the image display unit. The image display unit is coupled through a hinge mechanism to the operation unit for rotation relative thereto and the operation unit is coupled through a rotary mechanism to the mounting unit for rotation relative thereto about a rotation axis perpendicular to an operation face of the operation unit.
Radiometric calibration from noise distributions
Technologies that enable correcting for the non-linear relationship between scene irradiance and digital pixel intensity values of an image of the scene produced by a camera. Imaging noise is used as a signal from which a corrective function is derived. Noise distributions from the image are evaluated to determine the radiometric response function of the camera, from which an inverse response function is computed and used for calibration.
Image capturing apparatus and information processing apparatus
An image capturing apparatus includes a temporary image accumulating unit in which still images are stored, the still images being captured automatically and continuously regardless of an instruction of a user; an image capturing timing data storage unit in which image capturing timing data is stored, the image capturing timing data including speech information based on sound data and delay time information which are associated with each other; an image capturing timing data specifying unit specifying image capturing timing data containing speech information corresponding to the sound data from the plurality of image capturing timing data; a sound event detecting unit detecting a sound event from the sound data; and a temporary image selecting unit selecting the still image captured at a time before the sound event from the temporary image accumulating unit based on the sound event and the delay time of the specified image capturing timing data.
Input apparatus and method for acquiring a scan image
An input apparatus having a scan function according to the disclosure includes a position detecting unit to acquire position information of each unit image of a scan target object; a unit image acquiring unit to acquire each unit image by using the position information of each unit image; and an object image acquiring unit to acquire an object image of the scan target object by merging the acquired unit images.
Augmented collaboration system
A method and apparatus for displaying information. A camera system generates video data for an object from a viewpoint of the camera system at a location of the object. Information is identified about the object. The information is displayed on images in the video data on a display system at a number of locations. The display of the images with the information on the images in the video data at the number of locations is from the viewpoint of the camera system.
Peripheral monitoring device for working machine
This invention includes: an obstacle detection unit 400 that detects obstacles present around the working machine, by use of an image acquired by a camera 13; a position calculating unit 500 that calculates positions of each of the detected obstacles; a hazard zone calculating unit 700 that calculates a hazard zone based upon an attitude and motion of the working machine; a determining unit 800 that determines whether further obstacles are present in the calculated hazard zone; a risk level setting unit 2000 that sets a contact risk level for each of any obstacles present in the hazard zone; an image generating unit 600 that converts the camera image into a bird's-eye image centering upon the working machine, and then generates an image inclusive of all elements of the working machine and hazard zone on the bird's-eye image by further imaging the bird's-eye image diagonally from above an obstacle for which the highest contact risk level has been set by the risk level setting unit; and a display device 1300 that displays the generated image.This configuration makes an operator instantly recognize a position of the most potentially hazardous obstacle relative to the working machine, and thus improves working efficiency of the machine.
Wireless sharing of content between computing devices
A system and method for video content sharing are given. A wireless controller of a first computing device receives a multi-gigabit-per-second transmission of a compressed and encrypted remote frame buffer from a second computing device, and stores the compressed and encrypted remote frame buffer in local memory. An integrated graphics controller of the first computing device decompresses and decrypts the remote frame buffer, and renders a composite frame buffer of the remote frame buffer and a native or local frame buffer of the first computing device.
Video conference virtual endpoints
A method and a device providing one virtual endpoint dedicated to serve one particular real endpoint, and the virtual endpoint is typically installed on a server in the same local network as the associated real endpoint, where an MCU or a fraction of a distributed MCCJ also is installed. In the upstream direction, the virtual endpoint includes at least an upstream decoder, a scaling unit and an upstream encoder. In the downstream direction, the virtual endpoint includes at least a number of decoders, a composing unit and a downstream encoder.
Method and apparatus for processing audio in video communication
Embodiments of the present invention provide a method and an apparatus for processing audio in video communication. The method includes: acquiring audio data and audio source position information corresponding to the audio data in the video communication, and performing longitudinal-depth processing on the audio data according to the audio source position information. According to the embodiments of the present invention, the audio data and the audio source position information corresponding to the audio data in the video communication are acquired first, and then the longitudinal-depth processing is performed on the audio data according to the acquired audio source position information to make it be audio data that provides a longitudinal-depth feeling that matches the audio source position information, so that sounds generated by objects at different front/back positions can be distinguished in the video communication.
Method and apparatus for gain and level correction of multi-tap CCD cameras
According to one aspect, embodiments herein provide a CCD sensor comprising a pixel array having a first segment configured to produce a first tap signal responsive to receipt of electromagnetic radiation from a scene to be imaged, a second segment configured to produce a second tap signal responsive to receipt of the electromagnetic radiation from the scene, a region of interest including a portion of the first segment adjacent the second segment and a portion of the second segment adjacent the first segment, and a processor configured to receive the first and second tap signals, perform level correction on one of the first and second tap signals based on magnitudes of the first and second tap signals, and perform gain correction on one of the first and second tap signals based on a comparison between magnitudes of the first and second tap signals corresponding to the region of interest.
Image signal processor circuits and methods for correcting crosstalk artifacts
Methods and circuits can be provided to correct crosstalk artifacts by generating image data correction matrices for respective pixel locations in an image sensor, based on pre-calibration matrices associated with the respective pixel locations. The image data correction matrices can be applied to the respective pixel locations to reduce imaging crosstalk artifacts associated with at least one of disparity, luminance, and chrominance.
Three-dimensional scanner with spectroscopic energy detector
A laser scanner has a light emitter, a rotary mirror, a light receiver, a first beam splitter to send electromagnetic energy from an electromagnetic energy generator into the environment, a second beam splitter to send reflected electromagnetic energy to a spectroscopic energy detector, and a control and evaluation unit, the spectroscopic energy detector configured to determine wavelengths in the reflected electromagnetic energy.
Video display apparatus, video playback apparatus and method for controlling the same
A video display apparatus adapted to be connected to a video playback apparatus having a first frame rate conversion unit configured to convert a frame rate of video data, includes a second frame rate conversion unit configured to convert a frame rate of the video data which is input from the video playback apparatus, and a control unit configured to control and associate operations in the first frame rate conversion unit and the second frame rate conversion unit in response to a request for performing a trick playback of the video data.
Wide-band multi-format audio/video production system with frame-rate conversion
Wide-band multi-format audio/video production system with frame-rate conversion and methods performed by the audio/video production system. Compressed video content corresponding to an original format of a video program is processed to generate uncompressed video content in an internal format having a frame rate of 24 frames per second (fps) comprising progressive frames of pixel image data having an original pixel resolution. Progressive frames of pixel image data are buffered in a high-capacity memory buffer supporting asynchronous random read and write access. The progressive frames of pixel image data in the buffered progressive frames are processed to perform a frame-rate conversion from 24 fps to a higher output frame rate to produce progressive frames of converted video content having an uncompressed format. The progressive frames of converted video content are the stored in a compressed video format to produce a converted video program having a converted frame rate in accordance with the higher output frame rate.
Apparatus for transmitting video stream, apparatus for receiving video stream, method for transmitting video stream, and method for receiving video stream
The present invention provides an apparatus for transmitting a video stream, an apparatus for receiving a video stream, a method for transmitting a video stream, and a method for receiving a video stream. One embodiment of the present invention, discloses the method for transmitting the video stream, comprising the steps of: down-sampling a UHD (ultra high definition) video stream to divide the UHD video stream into a sub-stream of a viewable HD compatible video, a sub-stream of an HD-sized video, and a sub-stream of a residual signal as a difference between the HD compatible video and the HD-sized video, and encoding the divided sub-streams; multiplexing signaling information for describing the relationship between the UHD video stream and at least one sub-stream and including the sub-stream; and transmitting the multiplexed HD sub-stream and the signaling information.
Image processing device, non-transitory computer readable medium, and image processing method
Provided is an image processing device including a display unit that displays a function setting screen, a recognition unit that recognizes a trail of an operation of a user on the function setting screen displayed on the display unit, a determining unit that determines a function selected by the user based on a position of the trail of the operation recognized by the recognition unit, an identification unit that identifies an operation condition designated by the user with respect to the function determined by the determining unit based on the trail of the operation recognized by the recognition unit, and a setting unit that performs setting for executing image processing of the function determined by the determining unit using the operation condition identified by the identification unit.
The relaying device may receive folder selecting instruction information from the image processing device. The relaying device may receive folder identifying information and image data identifying information from the server. The relaying device may generate first selection screen data, in a case where it is determined that one or more image data and one or more subfolders are stored in the selected folder. The relaying device may send the first selection screen data to the image processing device. The relaying device may generate second selection screen data in a case where accessing image selecting instruction information is received. The relaying device may send the second selection screen data to the image processing device. The relaying device may execute a process for causing the image processing device to acquire selected image data in a case where image data selecting instruction information is received from the image processing device.
Portable hand-held device having quad core image processor
A portable hand-held device is provided having an image sensor for capturing images, and a processor chip for image processing the images captured by the image sensor. The processor chip has an on-chip interface for receiving the captured images and four interconnected processing units configured to process the received images.
System, information processing apparatus and non-transitory computer readable medium
Computer readable instructions, when executed by a processor, may cause an information processing apparatus to receive, from an operation apparatus, a reading instruction for instructing an image reading apparatus to execute a reading operation and specific service identification information. The computer readable instructions may cause the information processing apparatus to acquire the setting information associated with the specific service identification information from the memory, and transmit the acquired setting information to the operation apparatus. The computer readable instructions may cause the information processing apparatus to receive specific setting information from the operation apparatus, and transmit the specific setting information to a particular image reading apparatus for reading image data in the particular image reading apparatus. The computer readable instructions may cause the information processing apparatus to receive image data from the particular image reading apparatus, and transmit the image data to the service providing apparatus.
Image forming apparatus and image forming system for secure transmission of image data
An image transmission apparatus includes an original document reading unit, an operation unit, a receiving unit, and a control unit. The original document reading unit reads an original document, and produce image data. The operation unit receives an input of a first password. The receiving unit receives request information including a second password from an information processing apparatus. The control unit controls the original document reading unit to read the original document based on the request information, and transmit the image data to an external device, the control unit restricts transmission of the image data to the external device if the first password does not correspond to the second password.
Systems, methods, and media for disambiguating call data to determine fraud
Systems, methods, and media for disambiguating call data are provided herein. Some exemplary methods include receiving, via a fraud notification system, notification of a fraud event associated with a customer account, the fraud event comprising a time stamp, determining, via a call selection module, unique voice samples or models from call events obtained within a time frame that is temporally proximate the fraud event, and generating a timeline presentation that includes each unique voice sample or model identified in the call events based upon a time stamp associated with the call events.
Shower transmitter/receiver speaker systems
A shower transmitter/receiver speaker system is an electronic device that is able to be paired to a cell phone, a lap top, or a tablet and is able to receive voice and streaming music transmissions from the cell phone. The shower transmitter/receiver speaker system is also able to place phone calls or transmit voice commands to the cell phone. The shower music receiver assembly is able to receive and amplify the audio to a user preferred volume using the control button volume adjustment.
Method and apparatus for protecting moderator access for a conference call
A method and a communication device are provided for creating a conference call profile from a communication device, wherein the communication device includes a memory for storing an event record. The method includes: identifying from the event record one or more addresses for communicating with a conference call server; generating a conference call profile having one or more address fields and populating the address fields with the addresses; and storing the generated conference call profile in the memory. A communication device can be configured to perform the method.
Method and apparatus for overlaying whispered audio onto a telephone call
Information may be provided to a telephony customer from an overlay service by causing a second stream of audio information to be overlayed on a primary stream of audio information. The overlayed information may be whispered to the user by causing the overlayed information to be compressed into a limited frequency spectrum which is inserted into a manufactured gap in the primary audio stream. This allows the user to continue to hear the main audio stream while also hearing the overlayed information. The overlay service may provide administrative information, advertisements, music, and/or Internet search results via the overlayed audio. Users may issue commands to the overlay service, to have particular information transmitted via overlayed audio. Where the user is also associated with a telephony application running on a computer platform, the overlayed information may be incorporated onto the information being shown to the user on a computer display.
Keyword alerting in conference calls
A conferencing system is disclosed in which a participant to a conference call can program the embodiment to listen for one or more “keywords” in the conference call. The keywords might be a participant's name or words associated with him or her or words associated with his or her area of knowledge. The embodiments uses speech recognition technology to listen for those words. When the embodiments detects that those words have been spoken, the embodiment alerts the participant—using audible, visual, and/or tactile signals—that the participant's attention to the call is warranted. When the keywords are chosen wisely, the benefit can be great.
Parking and routing network calls and sessions
A device may process a call, receive a request to forward the call at a call extension point, obtain information about parked calls from a queue that stores information associated with the parked calls, determine whether the call may be parked or forwarded to a terminating device based on the information, park the call at the call extension point when it is determined that the call may not be forwarded, and forward the call to the terminating device when it is determined that the call may be forwarded.
Checkpoint widget for indicating checkpoint status information to an agent in a contact center
A real-time speech analytics system (“RSTA system”) detects speech in a specific context during a call involving a contact center agent and a remote party. Upon detecting the speech, an event message is generated by the RTSA system and transmitted to a checkpoint and alert reporting module, which is configured update a checkpoint widget. The checkpoint widget provides visual information as to the status of the checkpoints encountered during the call and is displayed using a computer display associated with a workstation used by the agent handling the call. As checkpoints are encountered during the call, the checkpoint indicators in the widget are modified to reflect occurrence of the checkpoint. Each checkpoint indicator may have text associated with it, informing the user of the nature of checkpoint. The checkpoint widget may be displayed to the agent and/or a supervisor, allowing ready determination of the status of the call.
Method and apparatus for data channel augmented auto attended voice response systems
Method of using a computerized smart phone to navigate remote auto attendant telephony systems with a menu structure. The auto attendant's menu structure is put into an online computer database. When the caller uses the smart phone to call and establish a voice channel with remote auto attendant telephony system (using the telephone number of that system), software applications running on the caller's smart phone communication device intercept the telephone number and along with the voice channel, also establish a data channel with the online computer accessible database. The caller's smart phone can then retrieve at least some of the menu structure of the auto attendant telephony system through this data channel. This application software can then display at least some of the menu structure of the remote auto attendant telephony system on the graphical user interface of the user's smart phone synchronized with the audio delivery of the menu structure, facilitating interactions with the auto attendant system.
Anonymous communication system and transmission method of information transmission unit in anonymous communication system
Disclosed are an anonymous communication system and a transmission method of an information transmission unit in the anonymous system. The method includes: after receiving an information transmission unit sent by a sending party, storing the information transmission unit in a storage pool, inserting the information transmission unit into a preset ordering queue, and generating more than one piece of index information according to content of the information transmission unit and information of the sending party; setting more than one index matching information of a receiving party; according to the index matching information of the receiving party, inquiring index information of the storage pool, finding out an information transmission unit set which meets the index matching information, selecting one information transmission unit from the set according to an ordering situation of each information transmission unit in the set in the ordering queue and a preset delivery strategy, delivering the information transmission unit to the receiving party, and adjusting the ordering queue according to a delivery situation. By means of the present disclosure, the degree of association between the receiving party and the content of the information transmission unit as well as the sending party can be improved, and the user response rate and activity can be improved.
System and method for media gateway negotiation
A system and method of negotiating Media Gateways (MGs) between a plurality of call control nodes (CCNs). The system includes a first CCN which builds an original list of identifiers associated with at least one MG capable of being used in a call by the first CCN. The system also includes a second CCN for receiving the original list of identifiers from the first CCN. The second CCN removes from the original list any identifiers associated with any MG in the original list of identifiers which is not capable of being used in the call by the second CCN. The second CCN then forms a modified list of identifiers associated with at least one MG capable of being used in a call by the first CCN and the second CCN. The second CCN also selects a specified MG from the modified list and sends a first backward message from the second CCN to the first CCN identifying the specified MG. The first CCN may then validate that the specified MG is on the original list of identifiers and selects the specified MG for the call.
System and method for assignment and switching of content sources for a streaming content session
Various embodiments of a system and method for assignment and switching of content sources for a streaming content session are described. Embodiments may include the generation and use of content source rankings for improving playback quality of content streams. In embodiments, a merchant system may collect and aggregate multiple quality metrics for different content streams that various content sources provide to various clients. The merchant system may utilize the quality metrics to generate rankings of content sources for clients. The merchant system may provide such rankings to clients to improve the content stream playback experience on the client. For instance, at content acquisition time, a client may request a content stream from a content resource ranked highest on a content source ranking provided by the merchant. If the content stream degrades, the client may source subsequent portions of the content stream from another highly ranked content source of the ranking.
Apparatus and method for transmitting multimedia data in hybrid network
An apparatus and a method for transmitting multimedia data in a hybrid network are provided. The apparatus includes a payload part including at least one of first data synchronized according to a time to be reproduced and second data other than the first data, a first header part including information on the payload part, a packet part for generating a packet, the packet part including a second header part including information on the packet, and a transceiver for generating and transmitting a signal including the payload part, the first header part, and the packet part to the hybrid network.
Automatic address range detection for IP networks
Mechanisms are provided for automatic address range detection for an IP network. Flow data is obtained comprising one of the source and destination IP addresses for the flow and one of (a) the other of the source and destination IP addresses and (b) direction data indicative of the flow direction across the network boundary. A tree data structure is generated representing the IP addresses in the flow data. IP addresses with initial portions in common are represented in the tree with at least one node in common. Weights are assigned to nodes in the tree in dependence on occurrences of the represented IP addresses in at least a subset of the flow data. The IP address range of the network is then detected by identifying, in dependence on the assigned weights, the node associated with the last initial address portion common to all IP addresses in the network. A device is automatically configured with the IP address range to permit distinction between IP addresses inside and outside the network in operation of the device, e.g. for filtering or traffic classification.
System for synchronizing information
A system that incorporates teachings of the present disclosure may include, for example, a non-transitory computer-readable storage medium operating in a mobile device server having computer instructions to execute a web server application at the mobile device server. The web server application can be operable to detect a media resource center while roaming in a communication zone of the media resource center, and to transmit a pairing key to the media resource center. The web server application can be further operable to receive authorization from the media resource center to synchronize differences between content stored in the media resource center and content stored in the mobile device server responsive to the media resource center validating the pairing key. Other embodiments are disclosed.
System and method for retrieving, storing and distributing digital broadcast media in a cloud-computing environment
Systems and methods for retrieving, storing and distributing multimedia content in a cloud computing environment. The multimedia content may be divided into a plurality of segments using a multimedia content receiving device. The method of retrieving, storing and distributing multimedia content may include receiving a first segment of a plurality segments of the multimedia content from a first multimedia content receiving device coupled to a communication network and receiving a second segment of the plurality of segments of the multimedia content from a second multimedia content receiving device coupled to a communication network. The method may further include storing the first and the second segments on a network storage device. The systems and methods permit users to upload multimedia content, store it in the cloud, and watch it back on a variety of different multimedia devices.
Adaptive playback with look-ahead
The disclosure provides for a download agent executing on a computing device to dynamically select between media files when a portion of the media file that is currently being downloaded has a portion average playback rate that is greater than a throughput rate at which the computing device is receiving media files. During the portion where the portion average playback rate is greater than the throughput rate, the download agent may dynamically transition to a different media file where the portion average playback rate for the portion is less than or equal to the throughput rate. The download agent may then transition back to the original media file after downloading the portion form the different media file.
Systems and methods for ephemeral eventing
Embodiments are provided for ephemeral eventing. Ephemeral eventing may involve sending metadata portions associated with content items from a user device to a content management system prior to uploading the content portions of the content items. The content management system may then assign the content items to one or more events. The event assignments may then be sent back to the user device, allowing the content items to be locally displayed according to their events as if the content items had already been uploaded to the content management system.
Remote access of media items
Methods and systems that facilitate the downloading of media items to a first network device from a second network device are disclosed. A plurality of media items are identified Media item metadata associated with the plurality of media items is obtained from the second network device and stored on the first network device. Media item content data associate with a first subset of the plurality of media items is obtained from the second network device and stored on the first network device. In this manner, only media item metadata associate with a second subset of the plurality of media items is stored on the first network device.
Handoff system and method for dual mode terminal
In a handoff system and method for a dual mode terminal, the handoff system includes: a dual mode terminal which receives a message containing location information of a router of a second network while performing handoff from a first network to the second network, and which transmits a registration request message containing the location information of the router; and a home agent which transcodes data transmitted from a content providing server to be adapted for a bandwidth of the second network on the basis of information contained in the registration request message received from the dual mode terminal, and which transmits the transcoded data to the dual mode terminal.
Multi-mode user device and network-based control and monitoring
Methods, devices, and storage media for user devices to operate in multiple modes and provide mode indicators that indicate the mode in which the user device operates, and a network that provides multimode services that include monitoring service events associated with the multiple modes, control modes of operation, and allow users to view, manage, and classify service usage information that includes service event information and correlated mode information.
Systems and methods for construction of and network coding using near-maximum distance separable (MDS) linear network codes
A method for network coding using a near-maximum distance separable linear network code includes generating a message matrix where each column of the message matrix corresponds to one of K message packets and each element in a column of the message matrix corresponds to one of the symbols of the corresponding message packet. The method also includes generating a network code matrix to map the K message packets to N encoded packets, where any combination of K+1 columns of the network code contains at least K columns that are linearly independent. Further, the method includes multiplying the message matrix by the network code matrix to generate a transmission matrix, where each column of the transmission matrix corresponds to an encoded packet for wireless transmission.
Distance-modified security and content sharing
In one aspect of the invention, a system for sharing resources in an ad-hoc peer-to-peer network is presented. The ad-hoc peer-to-peer network includes a host device that is associated with a resource. A security application of the host device allows the user of the host device to share the resource with other devices in the network. The security application also allows the user to establish access policies for certain known devices within the network. An access policy established for a known device specifies what rights the known device has with respect to accessing the resource. The access policy has the characteristics of inheritance. Thus, when a device requests to access the resource, the security application of the host device determines an access policy for the device based on access policies of one or more of the known devices.
Adding firewall security policy dynamically to support group VPN
A server device receives, from a member device, a registration request for a group virtual private network (VPN) and provides an initial firewall security policy for the group VPN. The server device receives instructions for a policy configuration change and sends, to the member device, a push message that includes dynamic policies to implement the policy configuration change. The dynamic policies are implemented as a subset of a template policy. The member device receives the push message with the dynamic policies, associates the dynamic policies with the template policy, and applies the initial security policy data and the dynamic policies to incoming traffic without the need for a reboot of the member device.
Method and system for authentication
A method and system of authenticating communications sessions between two or more parties over one or more simultaneous communications channels using one or more communicating devices is provided including having a first party create a first set of signatures, wherein the first set of signatures includes a signature for each communications channel, communicating with at a second party over at least one communications channel, whereby the second party authenticates the first party's signature associated with the at least one communications channel and accepts communication with the first party.
The invention can be used for enabling service discovery. Service discovery can be enabled by requesting, by a first apparatus from a gateway entity, information on apparatuses capable of providing a predetermined service and being located in proximity of the first apparatus, receiving, by the first apparatus from the gateway entity, a predetermined resource identifier associated with a second apparatus capable of providing the predetermined service and being located in proximity of the first apparatus, the predetermined resource identifier being received as a response to the request, and sending, by the first apparatus, a resource request to the second apparatus using the predetermined resource identifier associated with the second apparatus. Service discovery can also be enabled by receiving, by a first apparatus, a resource request sent by a second apparatus using a predetermined resource identifier associated with a wireless service of the first apparatus, wherein the second apparatus is located in proximity of the first apparatus, determining whether the wireless service of the first apparatus is to be made available to the second apparatus, initiating the wireless service at the first apparatus in case it is determined, that the wireless service is to be made available to the second apparatus, creating a response to the resource request, inserting into the response a parameter required for establishing a connection to the wireless service of the first apparatus, and sending the response to the second apparatus.
Service subscription associated with real time composition of services
Real-time service composition is provided by a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) transport binding for Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) messages. A SOAPAction header and SOAP envelope can be included in a SIP message to identify a requested service. The SIP message recipient can parse out the SOAP envelope and forward same to a corresponding Web Service. An intermediary node, including a SIP Proxy, can evaluate incoming SIP/SOAP messages and provide requested services to which they have access. Service discovery and subscription are facilitated by adding Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI) services requests and responses.
Mobile risk assessment
A query is received from a particular endpoint device identifying a particular wireless access point encountered by the particular endpoint device. Pre-existing risk assessment data is identified for the identified particular wireless access point and query result data is sent to the particular endpoint device characterizing pre-assessed risk associated with the particular wireless access point. In some instances, the query result data is generated based on the pre-existing risk assessment data. In some instances, pre-existing risk assessment data can be the result of an earlier risk assessment carried-out at least in part by an endpoint device interfacing with and testing the particular wireless access point.
Inverse multiplexing over 802.11 wireless interfaces
In accordance with various aspects of the disclosure, a method and apparatus are disclosed that includes aspects of providing one or more data packets at a media access control-service access point of a transmitting device; dividing the one or more data packets into two or more streams of data packets, wherein the two or more streams of data packets are arranged for transmission on a separate wireless interface of the transmitting device; and transmitting the two or more streams of data packets over a wireless medium via their separate wireless interfaces.
Remote firmware management for electronic devices
A method and system for firmware updating for one or more electronic devices connected on a user network. A management gateway may be connected on the network, configured to control all firmware update activity for the one or more electronic devices. In an exemplary application, the electronic devices may be multifunction peripheral devices. An electronically accessible firmware repository for storing firmware updates is maintained. The management gateway may establish a firmware update activity schedule for each electronic device.
Distributed storage over shared multi-queued storage device
A method for data storage includes, in a system that includes one or more storage controllers, multiple servers and multiple multi-queue storage devices, assigning in each storage device server-specific queues for queuing data-path storage commands exchanged with the respective servers. At least some of the data-path storage commands are exchanged directly between the servers and the storage devices, not via the storage controllers, to be queued and executed in accordance with the corresponding server-specific queues.
Data replication network traffic compression
An apparatus and method improving effective system throughput for replication of data over a network in a storage computing environment by using software components to perform data compression is disclosed. Software compression support is determined between applications in a data storage computing environment. If supported, compression parameters are negotiated for a communication session between storage systems over a network. Effective system throughput is improved since the size of a compressed lost data packet is less than the size of an uncompressed data packet when a lost packet needs to be retransmitted in a transmission window.
Mirroring solution in cloud storage environment
A system configured to provide access to shared storage includes a first network node configured to provide access to the shared storage to a first plurality of client stations. The first network node includes a first cache memory module configured to store first data corresponding to the first plurality of client stations, and a first cache control module configured to transfer the first data from the first cache memory module to the shared storage. A second network node is configured to provide access to the shared storage to a second plurality of client stations. The second network node includes a second cache memory module configured to store second data corresponding to the second plurality of client stations and store the first data, and a second cache control module configured to transfer the second data from the second cache memory module to the shared storage.
Method and system for providing centralized data field encryption, and distributed storage and retrieval
An approach is provided for securely storing sensitive data values. A primary facility is provided that directly or indirectly receives requests from a requestor to store an actual data value. The primary facility obtains a replacement value associated with the actual value and encrypts the actual value, and the replacement value is transmitted to the requestor. The replacement and encrypted values are stored in a master copy database at the primary facility, and copies thereof are stored in distributed secondary databases. When the requestor needs an actual data value, the requestor transmits the replacement value either to the primary facility for retrieval of data from the master database, or to the secondary facility for retrieval from the respective secondary database. The chosen facility retrieves the encrypted value from its respective database using the replacement value, decrypts the encrypted value, and transmits the actual value back to the requestor.
Location determined network access
A system and method for network authentication is provided. A network access device is operable to establish a communications with an internal network. A client device is operable to request and establish the communications over the internal network by interfacing with the network access device. A processor is operable to interface with the network access device to establish the communications between the client device and the internal network. The processor is also operable to establish a communications level for the communications based on the location of the client device.
System and method for anonymous addressing of content on network peers and for private peer-to-peer file sharing
A system and method for efficient and private peer-to-peer file sharing consists of ascribing a uniquely identified and anonymous link (an “edgelink”) to any file or set of files on a peer computer. The link is registered with a publishing server along with continuously updated connectivity information about the peer without registering any identifying information about the file. A peer recipient is able to access the link, receive connectivity information about the publishing peer from the server, and then receive the file from the publishing peer without file content passing through the server, mediating any intermediary NAT devices without requiring any manual or automatic device reconfiguration.
Alias hiding in network data repositories
A logical network directory database compliant with the X.500 standard for a directory data system is disclosed. The network directory database provides a source of subscriber and service data accessible by various control and management processes that require subscriber information. The network directory database may be extensible across various communications service providers and IT domain. Further, the disclosed network directory database may be applied to new and existing services, such as, IP Multimedia Subsystem, Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) and other IP services.
System, method, network entity and device for connecting a device to a communications network
The system includes a device of a plurality of devices and a network entity for connecting the device to a communications network. The device is arranged for attempting to access the network while providing an identification of the device to the network entity. The network entity is arranged for receiving the access attempt from the device, and determining the identification of the device. The network entity determines an identification of a subscription associated with the device from a first database of the system. The network determines whether the identified subscription has the device associated therewith in a second database. The network entity allows the device to connect to the network entity or prevents the device from connecting to the communications network depending on the above determinations.
Method and apparatus for mutual authentication
Disclosed is a method for mutual authentication between a station, having a digital rights agent, and a secure removable media device. The digital rights agent is configured to initiate mutual authentication by sending a message to the secure removable media device. The secure removable media device is configured to encrypt at least a first random number using a public key associated with the digital rights agent. The digital rights agent is configured to decrypt the encrypted first random number, and encrypt at least a second random number and a first hash based on at least the first random number. The secure removable media device is configured to decrypt the encrypted second random number and the first hash, verify the first hash to authenticate the digital rights agent, and generate a second hash based on at least the second random number. The digital rights agent is configured to verify the second hash to authenticate the secure removable media device.
System and device for facilitating a wireless transaction by consolidating SIM, personal token, and associated applications
The invention relates generally to a smart card device that is configured to facilitate wireless network access and credential verification. The device combines the features of the SIM with Common Access Card or Personal Identity Verification card features to allow a network subscriber to invoke secure payment transactions over a carrier's network. The system includes data storage for maintaining a plurality of network and transaction instrument profiles and a profile gateway for receiving transaction information from a payment gateway, sending an authorization request to a user's mobile device, receiving a transaction authorization from the mobile device, and sending transaction information to a payment gateway to finalize the payment transaction. The system further includes a protocol element that facilitates communication between the device and a transceiver for wireless communication between a mobile device and a computing system.
Method for identifying pulse optical signal and device thereof
The invention provides a method for identifying pulse optical signal, including: a. receiving first trigger information; b. collecting and identifying pulse optical signal with a predetermined method to obtain a unit of data; c. parsing the unit of data and determining type of it, if the unit of data is a unit of data representing header information, step d is executed; or if the unit of data is other type of unit of data, step b is executed; d. going on collecting and identifying pulse optical signal with the predetermined method to obtain a unit of data; e. determining whether all units of data corresponding to the unit of data representing the header information is received; f. packeting the unit of data representing the header information with all corresponding units of data into a group of data packets. The invention converts the pulse optical signal into bits, packets and converts the bits into a data packet, and receives the photosensitive-transfer information which accelerates the process of obtaining required data by a signal identifying device.
Providing a managed browser
Methods, systems, computer-readable media, and apparatuses for providing a managed browser are presented. In various embodiments, a computing device may load a managed browser. The managed browser may, for instance, be configured to provide a managed mode in which one or more policies are applied to the managed browser, and an unmanaged mode in which such policies might not be applied and/or in which the browser might not be managed by at least one device manager agent running on the computing device. Based on device state information and/or one or more policies, the managed browser may switch between the managed mode and the unmanaged mode, and the managed browser may provide various functionalities, which may include selectively providing access to enterprise resources, based on such state information and/or the one or more policies.
A system and method whereby the identity of a person, entity, device or the like attempting to gain access to a secured resource may be securely authenticated includes a means for receiving from a requester purporting to be an authorized user of a secured resource a request for access by an unauthorized user (such as, for example, a retail store, a service station, an on-line service provider or merchandiser, a healthcare provider, a medical insurer, an information consumer or the like) to the secured resource; a means for generating and communicating to the purported authorized user a challenge string adapted to provide a basis for authenticating the identity of the requester; a means for receiving a response string corresponding to the challenge string; and a means for evaluating the response string to authenticate the identity of the requester.
Method and system for subscriber to log in internet content provider (ICP) website in identity/location separation network and login device thereof
The present invention provides a method and system for a user to log in an Internet Content Provider (ICP) website in an identification location separation network and a login device thereof. The method includes: after receiving an access data packet of a user, the ICP website obtaining an identification code of the user therein, and transmitting the identification code of the user to an Internet Service Provider (ISP) authentication center; the ISP authentication center authenticating the user based on the identification code of the user, and if the authentication is passed, the ISP authentication center returning an authentication passed message, which contains the identification code of the user, to the ICP website; after receiving the authentication passed message, the ICP website obtaining personal information of the user according to the identification code of the user, and then the user logging in the ICP website.
Scalable infrastructure for handling light weight message protocols
A system and method is provided that includes a communication protocol for handling Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) messages is provided. The communication protocol may include a first protocol (e.g., HTTP channel tunneling) for providing a persistent connection based on the utilization of one or more HTTP methods (e.g., GET, POST, etc.). A second protocol (e.g., Blocks Extensible Exchange Protocol) may be provided for multiplexing a plurality of application protocols for communication over a single connection using the first protocol. The plurality of application protocols that are received from the first protocol may be demultiplexed for processing.
System and method for interlocking a host and a gateway
A method is provided in one example embodiment and includes exchanging a session descriptor associated with a network connection and an application on a host, correlating the session descriptor with a network policy, and applying the network policy to the network connection. In alternative embodiments, the session descriptor may be exchanged through an out-of-band communication channel or an in-band communication channel.
Dynamic display using pushed streamed data
A system and method for dynamic updating of display windows using a pushed stream of data.
Method for defending against session hijacking attacks and firewall
The present disclosure provides a method for defending against session hijacking attacks, including: receiving a first access request transmitted from a legal client side and transmitting the first access request to a server; receiving a first response comprising a first authentication token returned from the server; generating a first sequence value according to a network address of the legal client side and an identification code of the legal client side, and recombining the first authentication token and the first sequence value to form a second authentication token; and replacing the first authentication token in the first response with the second authentication token, and transmitting the first response comprising the second authentication token to the legal client side.
Apparatus and method for receiving mobile message
A method and apparatus for receiving a mobile message are provided. The apparatus includes a Short Messaging Service (SMS) client for receiving a short message by using a short message service; a Mobile Message (MM) client for receiving a mobile message; and a push client for, when an arrival notification informing that the mobile message has arrived from a push server is received, informing the MM client that the mobile message has arrived and, when the MM client is turned off, waking the MM client, wherein, when the push client is turned off, the SMS client receives the arrival notification from the push server through a short message.
Wireless handheld device, system, and method of detecting and storing email settings
A method and apparatus for changing settable email parameters in a system supporting email using a wireless device, the system including a wireless electronic device and a wireless network. Provided is a way of changing email settings on the wireless device, and storing those changes on both the device and, as needed or desired, on the wireless network. The wireless network and wireless device are adapted to wirelessly communicate with each other.
Delay queues based on delay remaining
Techniques are provided for performing a delay. A request for a delay may be received. A plurality of delay queues may be provided, with each delay queue spanning a range of delay remaining. The request may be assigned to a delay queue based on the delay remaining. The request may be moved to a different delay queue as the delay remaining decreases.
Enhanced tail dropping in a switch
In a method for processing packets, a storage region for a packet is determined based on a queue with which the packet is associated. The storage region includes a committed area reserved for storage of packets associated with the queue, and an area that is shared by multiple queues for packet storage. A first part of the packet is stored in the committed area, a second part is stored in the shared area, and both parts are accounted for. A network device for processing packets comprises a plurality of queues and a storage area including a committed area and a shared area. The network device further comprises a packet queuing engine configured to store a first part of a packet in the committed area, store a second part of the packet in the shared area, and account for the storage of the first and the second parts of the packet.
Efficient TRILL forwarding
One embodiment of the present invention provides a switch. The switch includes a storage and a lookup mechanism. The storage stores a first table that contains an entry corresponding to a media access control (MAC) address of a device and an identifier of a remote switch associated with the device. The storage also stores a second table that contains an entry indicating a local outgoing interface corresponding to the remote switch. The lookup mechanism identifies the local outgoing interface corresponding to the device based on the first table and the second table.
Three-phase-polarity safe reverse link shutdown
System, methods and apparatus are described that facilitate data link shutdown between two devices within an electronic apparatus, enabling safe entry into a hibernation mode. A host device transmits a command to a client device over a first data link. If the client device is not transmitting over the second data link, the host devices initiates shut down of the first data link and entry to a hibernation state. A delay may be initiated when it is determined that the client device is transmitting on the second data link. The command may comprise an instruction revoking permission to transmit data over a second data link to cause the client device to terminate communication on the second data link.
Device discovery service
A network device receives, from a set-top box within a local network, a discovery request for a server application within the local network. The network device identifies, based on the discovery request, a wide area network (WAN) Internet Protocol (IP) address for a router in the local network and retrieves, from a database of multiple discovery records, a particular discovery record with an IP address that matches the WAN IP address for the local network. The network device sends, to the set-top box, the particular discovery record for use in initiating a communication session with the server application.
Method and apparatus for controlling utilization in a horizontally scaled software application
The present invention comprises an apparatus and method for distributed traffic control in a horizontally scaled application, in which a software-based application is implemented as a number of peer application instances that each provide a portion of the application's overall capability or capacity. An apparatus that includes a distributed traffic controller is instantiated or otherwise implemented at each application instance, and these apparatuses collectively operate to limit the overall utilization of the application by individual clients or affiliated groups of clients according to, e.g., Service Level Agreements or SLAs, and further operate to prevent disproportionate utilization of any one of the application instances. Advantageously, such operations are accomplished according to the teachings herein using efficient information propagation protocols between the distributed traffic controllers.
Devices, systems, and methods for providing data
Certain exemplary embodiments comprise a method, which can comprise, responsive to a request from a client for data services associated with an application, automatically transmitting a notification to the client indicating that a data set will be accessible asynchronously, the notification comprising an address associated with a future asynchronous transmission of the data set.
Broadband cable network utilizing common bit-loading
A broadband cable network (“BCN”) for determining a common bit-loading modulation scheme for communicating between a plurality of nodes in the BCN is disclosed. The BCN may include a transmitting node within the plurality of nodes where the transmitting node is capable of sending a probe signal to the plurality of nodes, and at least one receiving node within the plurality of nodes in signal communication with the transmitting node. The at least one receiving node is capable of transmitting a first response signal in response to receiving the probe signal. The first response signal includes a first bit-loading modulation scheme determined by the at least one receiving node. The transmitting node is further capable of determining the common bit-loading modulation scheme from the first response signal.
Rate agile rate-adaptive digital subscriber line
Methods and apparatus for maintaining the maximum achievable data rate on a DSL line, up to and including a rate to which a user subscribes is described. Performance monitoring is conducted on the DSL line on an ongoing basis to determine noise margins in each direction. Each noise margin is compared against pre-determined decreasing/increasing thresholds to determine whether the line characteristics dictate a data rate change without loss of synchronization. The invention supports dynamic provisioning changes including application driven service level change requests, e.g., new bandwidth-on demand services. In some embodiments, a combination of existing and new embedded operations channel (EOC) messages are used to implement the modem data rate changes. New EOC messages may be implemented using some of the reserved and/or vendor proprietary Opcodes currently permitted. Modem assigned data rate changes are implemented without a disruption of service, e.g., without the need for re-initialization and/or re-synchronization.
Fault-tolerant, frame-based communication system
A packet-switched, fault-tolerant, vehicle communication internetwork (100, 400, 500) comprising port-based VLANs. Two or more VLANs are embodied where a source node (110, 410, 510, 610) comprises two or more network interface circuits (130,140, 415,425, 515,525, 630,640), and where looping is precluded via specific VLAN tagging and switch ports (131-134, 200, 300, 420, 430, 435, 445, 455, 465, 535, 540, 545, 560, 575, 585, associated with at least one specific VLAN. A destination node (120, 440, 450, 460, 570, 580, 590, 620) may feedback packets to the source node via a general VLAN tag along pathways associated with the two or more specific outgoing VLAN tags.
Reactive auto-scaling of capacity
Examples of systems and methods are described for managing computing capacity by a provider of computing resources. The computing resources may include program execution capabilities, data storage or management capabilities, network bandwidth, etc. Multiple user programs can consume a single computing resource, and a single user program can consume multiple computing resources. Changes in usage and other environmental factors can require scaling of the computing resources to reduce or prevent a negative impact on performance. In some implementations, a fuzzy logic engine can be used to determine the appropriate adjustments to make to the computing resources associated with a program in order to keep a system metric within a desired operating range.
Deactivating a packet tunnel based on at least one performance characteristic
Network operating methods provide a first packet switch coupled to a second packet switch via a primary packet tunnel having an active status and one or more inactive backup packet tunnels having an inactive status. The methods access data describing at least one performance characteristic of the primary packet tunnel and, based at least on the data, deactivate the primary packet tunnel while still operational and activate one of the backup packet tunnels. Network operating methods provide a first device coupled to a second device via an active primary packet tunnel and one or more inactive backup packet tunnels, access data describing performance characteristics of the one or more backup packet tunnels, and, based at least on the data, deactivate the primary packet tunnel and activate one of the backup packet tunnels.
Techniques for processing incoming failure detection protocol packets
Techniques that assist in processing of failure detection protocol (FDP) packets. Techniques are provided that assist a CPU of a network device in processing incoming FDP packets. In one embodiment, only a subset of FDP packets received by the network device is forwarded to the CPU for processing, the other FDP packets are dropped and not forwarded to the CPU. In this manner, the amount of processing that a CPU of the network device has to perform for incoming FDP packets is reduced. This enables the network device to support newer FDPs with shorter periodic interval requirements.
Method and apparatus for fast reroute in a connection-oriented network
A method and an apparatus for rapidly resuming, at times of failures, network traffic in a connection-oriented network by using an alternative route pre-computed and stored locally in nodes along an initial route without requiring signaling of upstream nodes or a master server.
Controller driven OAM for openflow
A method is performed by a network element implementing an OpenFlow controller. The method requests that a subset of OpenFlow switches in the network report metrics for an OpenFlow data flow to provide a management module with information for executing a management function. A second method is performed by a network element implementing an OpenFlow switch. The OpenFlow switch reports metrics for an OpenFlow data flow to the OpenFlow controller, wherein the OpenFlow switch forwards a management packet with the OpenFlow data flow and collects the metrics for the OpenFlow data flow.
OLT and frame transfer control method
In a control frame processing unit (14), the number of control frames from a frame demultiplexing unit (13) is counted for each of LLIDs given to the control frames. If the number of frames during a predetermined count period is equal to or smaller than a preset threshold, some or all of the control frames are written in a storage device (30) as processing data. When the number of frames has exceeded the threshold, writing data of the control frames having the LLID in the storage device is stopped. Hence, even when the number of control frames from ONUs increases, software processing can be executed properly.
Method and system for detecting changes in a network using simple network management protocol polling
In an embodiment, methods and systems have been provided for detecting changes in a network using improved Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) polling that reduces network traffic. Examples of changes in the network include, but are not limited to, configuration and behavioral changes in a network device, and response of network device to a network change. A Network Management Station (NMS) periodically polls Management Information Base (MIB) groups instead of periodically polling individual MIB object instances. The NMS receives the Aggregate Change Identifiers (ACIs) of MIB groups in response to polling, from a SNMP agent. The changes in the received ACIs represent the changes in the MIB groups. A change in an MIB group represents changes in the MIB object instances of the MIB group. The ACIs can be checksum, timestamp, and a combination of number of MIB object instances in a group and checksum of the MIB group.
Digital mobile passive leak detection for broadband communication system
Passive detection of a quadrature amplitude modulated (QAM) signal amid noise is achieved by detection of a spectral component of a detected signal that corresponds to a known QAM symbol rate in, for example, a QAM modulated broadband communication system (BCS). Improved authentication can be provided by simultaneously detecting symbol rate components in two or more QAM bands. No modification of a broadband communication system such as by including a marker signal is required and thus there is no requirement for dedication of a portion of the broadband communication system spectrum or problem of marker signal interference with BCS signals.
Adaptive LNA operation for shared LNA receiver for carrier aggregation
A method, an apparatus, and a computer program product for wireless communication are provided. The apparatus determines whether a timing offset between a PCC and an SCC possibly exceeds a threshold. In addition, the apparatus switches an amplifier gain utilizing one of a first set of gain states or a second set of gain states based on the determination that the timing offset possibly exceeds the threshold. The first set of gain states includes a first number of gain states, and the second set of gain states includes a second number of gain states less than the first number of gain states.
System and method for coherent wideband channel generation using multiple received narrowband channels
A system and method involve channelizing a received signal into two or more narrowband channels, each narrowband channel having an overlapping frequency portion, creating matched narrowband channels by matching the unknown amplitude, phase, and delay of at least two of the narrowband channels, coherently summing the matched narrowband channels into a wideband channel, and equalizing the wideband channel using an equalizing filter to generate a coherent wideband channel.
Interleaver design and header structure for ITU G.hnem
Embodiments of the invention provide an interleaver design and header fields for ITU-T G.hnem. The header may comprise two parts that are separately encoded. A common header segment is encoded alone, and an embedded header segment is encoded with payload data. The interleaver operates on blocks having a size based upon a total number of input bits in an FEC codeword block, a total number of bits loaded on symbols that span a half mains cycle, or a maximum fragment size of 3072 bits. The blocks may be repeated before interleaving. Each block and its repetitions may be interleaved together, such as for header data, or each block and repetition may be interleaved separately, such as for payload data. Cyclic padding may be used on each block to create an integer number of symbols for transmission.
Reduction of small spurs in transmitters
An apparatus for reducing spurs is described. The apparatus includes a coarse digital to analog converter (DAC). The apparatus also includes a correction term generator. The correction term generator generates a correction term. The correction term has an amplitude within a dynamic range of the coarse digital to analog converter (DAC). The apparatus also includes a baseband filter. The correction term is selected such that the baseband filter reduces the correction term to an amplitude approximating that of a spur in a transmit signal. The correction term is used to reduce a spur.
Dynamic application integration associated with telephonic communications through hosted VoIP PBX using client-side integration proxy
A system for collecting information associated with a telephonic communication made through it VoIP system by dynamically integrating a plurality of end user software applications including a client side integration proxy in electronic communication with a hosted VoIP PBX. Software executing on the client side integration proxy retrieves data related to a requested previous telephonic communication from a data store, assigns a portion of a memory cache for storing the retrieved data about the previous telephonic communication, enables one or more of the plurality of end user software applications to access the data about the previous telephonic communication, enables one or more of the plurality of end user software applications to update, modify, or add to the data about the previous telephonic communication, and retrieves and presents the supplemented data about the previous telephonic communication to the end user.
Noise whitening in a WLAN receiver
In a method of whitening noise in a signal received by a receiving device from a transmitting device via a multi input multi output (MIMO) communication channel, a data unit is received at the receiving device via the MIMO communication channel. A channel estimate H corresponding to the MIMO communication channel is determined based on the training signals. A noise scaling factor s is determined. The noise scaling factor s is a ratio of variance of noise at the receiving device to a variance of noise at the transmitting device. A noise whitening matrix W is determined using the channel estimate H and the noise scaling factor s. The noise whitening matrix W is applied to (i) the channel estimate H to generate an effective channel matrix Heff and (ii) to the data symbols to generate whitened data symbols.
Methods and circuits for adaptive equalization
An integrated circuit equalizes a data signal expressed as a series of symbols. The symbols form data patterns with different frequency components. By considering these patterns, the integrated circuit can experiment with equalization settings specific to a subset of the frequency components, thereby finding an equalization control setting that optimizes equalization. Optimization can be accomplished by setting the equalizer to maximize symbol amplitude.
Systems and methods for determining a channel variation metric
A method for determining a channel variation metric by an electronic device is described. The method includes receiving a first packet. The method also includes receiving a second packet. The method further includes determining a channel variation metric that approximates a mean square error value based on a first channel estimate corresponding to a first packet and a second channel estimate corresponding to a second packet. The method additionally includes performing an operation based on the channel variation metric.
System and method for generating a graphical user interface representative of network performance
The disclosed embodiments include a system and method for monitoring performance of a packet network. In one embodiment, a method includes collecting network performance information from a plurality of network nodes of a packet network, the network performance information being indicative of a health of the network packet network. The method includes storing the network performance information collected from the plurality of network nodes and generating a graphical user interface including a graphical representation of the network performance information, wherein the graphical representation of a network segment is indicated as a line, and wherein a width of the line widens and narrows in accordance with an amount of traffic flow over the network segment.
Method and apparatus for probabilistic allocation in a switch packet buffer
Systems and methods of writing data to a buffer during a buffer cycle are described. The buffer has a plurality of buffer banks having various fill levels. The buffer determines a first portion of banks from the plurality of buffer banks. The first portion of banks unfilled banks. A rank can be assigned to each of the first portion of banks and a candidate set of banks chosen from the first portion of banks. A target bank is then chosen from the candidate set and the data is written to that bank. The ranking may be random. Furthermore, the target bank can be chosen based on ranking, fill level, or both.
Data transfer system and data transfer method
A data transfer system of this invention includes a plurality of transfer apparatuses (11-14) and a control apparatus (10). On condition that data transfer to a transfer apparatus of a transmission destination is completed before a requested transfer completion time, the control apparatus (10) builds a data transfer tree serving as a data transfer path from a transfer apparatus of a transmission source to the transfer apparatus of the transmission destination. Each of the transfer apparatuses (11-14) transfers data in accordance with the tree. This allows to guarantee to complete transfer to transfer apparatuses of a plurality of transmission destinations up to a requested transfer completion time even when a transfer apparatus of one transmission source transfers a file to the transfer apparatuses of the plurality of transmission destinations by multicast.
Method and system for obtaining access information and charging in multimedia broadcast/multicast service
The present invention discloses a method and system for obtaining access information in a Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS). The method includes the following steps: during an eMBMS session, a broadcast/multicast service center (BM-SC) configures access information in one or more MBMS session signaling, and sends the MBMS session signaling to an MBMS gateway within a service area of the BM-SC; wherein the access information at least includes radio access technology type information. The present invention also discloses a method and system for charging in an MBMS. The methods and systems of the present invention can take the access information including the radio access technology type as the basis of charging, supply communication operators with a charging manner of distinguishing radio access technology types, and adopt different rates corresponding to the MBMS service areas of different radio access technology types, and thus charging can be further detailed.
Method and system for intelligently forwarding multicast packets
A routing system utilizes a layer 2 switch interconnecting several routers to intelligently forward multicast packets throughout an interne exchange carrying multicast content. The layer 2 switch performs protocol snooping to extract a lookup key that is based on network layer protocol information. The lookup key is uniquely formulated to support either shared or explicit source distribution trees. The lookup key is used to query a forwarding memory that returns an outgoing port index. The outgoing port index points to one or more outgoing ports that are eligible to receive the multicast packet. The outgoing ports are also connected to the neighboring device(s) that are designated to receive the multicast packet. The routing system also supports real time maintenance and updating of the forwarding memory based on the periodic exchange of control messages. The routing system is configured to support PIM routers operating in PIM SM or PIM SSM modes. However, the routing system can also support other multicast protocols and/or standards.
Header compression enhancement for broadcast/multicast services
Methods and apparatus for compression of headers in broadcasting BCMCS services in a wireless communication system are described. Techniques used in BCMCS systems without feedback include sending static context information during BCMCS service initialization for use in a decompressor in a mobile station. Techniques used in BCMCS systems with feedback include receiving feedback from distributed mobile station decompressors and adjusting the broadcasting compressor in response to the feedback. Techniques that reduce the number of operating states in both the compressor and the decompressor are described. Techniques to classify flows so that a reduced number of contexts are used to compress/decompress session packet headers in a push-to-talk service are described.
Service subscription method, system and server
A service subscription method is provided. The method includes the following steps. A service subscription request is received from a client. The request carries a service identifier (ID). Service information about a service that the client requests to subscribe to and information about related services of the service that the client requests to subscribe to are obtained according to the service ID. Related-service-set subscription information is obtained according to the information about the service to be subscribed to and the information about its related services. The related-service-set subscription information is returned to the client. Moreover, a service subscription system and server are also provided. Through the technical solutions of the present invention, the interaction process of related-service subscription is simplified and the system resources are saved, and the real-time performance of service subscription and the probability of related-service subscription are also increased.
System and method for providing smart grid communications and management
A method is provided in one example embodiment and includes receiving phasor measurement unit (PMU) data in a first transmission; converting the first transmission into a multicast transmission; and multicasting the PMU data to a multicast group address, which identifies a plurality of subscribers. In more specific implementations, the converting of the first transmission into the multicast transmission occurs at a first-hop router in relation to a PMU source that sent the first transmission. In some cases, the first transmission is a unicast transmission sent from a network element, which includes a PMU sensor.
Ad hoc social work space
In accordance with the teachings of the present invention, an architecture and method is presented for proving an ad hoc work space environment. In accordance with the teachings of the present invention, an end user operates a graphical user interface (GUI) to input requirements defining an ad hoc work space. Software robots are launched and they provision network resources to implement the requirements. The end user may then collaborate with others in the ad hoc work space while activities are logged. When there is no longer a need for the ad hoc work space, the provisioned resources may be returned to the network and the ad hoc work space may be dismantled.
Processing multicast packets in a network device
A network switch device comprises a packet processor configured to: write, to a memory, at least a payload of a multicast packet received via one of a plurality of ports, determine that a plurality of instances of the multicast packet are to be transmitted, generate, using an original header of the multicast packet, one or more additional headers, write, to the memory, a plurality of headers including (i) the original header, and (ii) the one or more additional headers in the memory, link each header in the plurality of headers stored in the memory to a location of the payload in the memory, and transmit a plurality of instances of the multicast packet via one or more ports including, for each instance of the multicast packet, reading (i) a respective one of the headers from the memory and (ii) the payload from the location in the memory.
System and method for providing location based services using collaborative networks
A system and method is provided for providing location based services. The system includes at least one module configured to publish location information of a mobile user using a publish subscribe format based on a user preference mode of notification.
Systems, methods and apparatuses for securing root certificates
The systems, methods and apparatuses described herein provide a computing environment that manages root certificates. An apparatus according to the present disclosure may comprise a non-volatile storage storing a plurality of root certificates and a supervisor. The supervisor may be configured to receive a message identifying one of the plurality of root certificates stored in the non-volatile storage to be revoked, verify the message being signed by at least two private keys corresponding to two root certificates stored in the non-volatile storage and revoke the root certificate identified in the message.
A user may utilize an existing digital identity to authorize the user's access to security-enabled device operations, where the security-enabled device comprises a cryptographic chip. The device can receive a user authentication token from the digital user identification service, which authenticates a user's identity. Further, the security-enabled device can validate the user authentication token, and provide the user access to device security operations on the security-enabled device if the user authentication token is successfully validated, allowing the user to reset their security access information for the device.
Radio communication apparatus and a method of transmitting a retransmission packet
A radio communication apparatus includes a scheduling unit configured to determine a resource block based on an allocation pattern of resource blocks, where frames in which multiple resource blocks are arranged in a frequency direction are repeatedly formed in a time direction, the allocation pattern using a frame number as a variable. The radio communication apparatus also includes a transmitting unit configured to transmit a packet according to the resource block determined by the scheduling unit.
Cooperative transmission in wireless communication system
A method, apparatus, and computer program for cooperative transmission are provided. A re-transmitter for a data packet determined as not having been received at a re-ceiver correctly is selected amongst the potentialre-transmitters in a cooperative transmission mode. In more detail, the re-transmitter is selected amongst an original transmitter of the data packet and assisting transmitters configured to assist transmission of the original transmit-ter. The assisting transmitters receive the data packet in the original transmission, unless errors occur in the reception at a given assisting transmitter, and are candidates for the retransmission in case the original transmission results in erroneous reception at the receiver.
Devices for sending and receiving hybrid automatic repeat request information for carrier aggregation
A User Equipment (UE) for sending Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ) information is described. The UE includes a processor and instructions stored in memory that is in electronic communication with the processor. The UE determines a primary cell (PCell) configuration. The UE also determines a secondary cell (SCell) configuration. The UE further determines whether the PCell configuration specifies uplink (UL) and the SCell configuration specifies downlink (DL) for a subframe or whether the PCell configuration specifies DL and the SCell configuration specifies DL for the subframe. The UE additionally determines a HARQ Acknowledgement (HARQ-ACK) reporting subframe based on the PCell configuration if the PCell configuration specifies DL and the SCell configuration specifies DL for the subframe. The UE also sends SCell Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) HARQ-ACK information in the HARQ-ACK reporting subframe.
ACK/NACK transmission for multi-carrier operation
Techniques for acknowledging data transmissions in a multi-carrier wireless communication network are disclosed. In some aspects, a user equipment (UE) receives a data transmission on at least one component carrier (CC) in a plurality of configured CCs. The UE determines acknowledgement/negative acknowledgement (ACK/NACK) information for the data transmission and determines an uplink channel for sending the ACK/NACK information. When the ACK/NACK information is sent on a physical uplink control channel (PUCCH), the UE may perform power control based on which CCs in the plurality of configured CCs data is received. When the ACK/NACK information is sent on a physical uplink shared channel (PUSCH), the UE may determine a number of resource elements based on its CC configuration.
Method and apparatus for medium access control in-order delivery
Method and apparatus for MAC in-order delivery are disclosed. The MAC in-order delivery may be activated per-connection and may be negotiated at connection setup. The MAC in-order delivery may be activated per data flow. The MAC in-order delivery either for non-ARQ connections or ARQ connections may be performed by using HARQ packet ordering information. Alternatively, the MAC in-order delivery may be performed using a sequence number (SN) field at the MAC PDU level or using an SN field at the MAC SDU level. For a connection that has MAC in-order delivery disabled, the MAC PDU may not include an SN field, and an SN field may be included in a MAC extended header or a MAC sub-header when needed. Data packets may be in order before transmission. For a connection that has MAC in-order delivery enabled, data packets can be reordered after reception based on the original data packet ordering.
Systems and methods for allocating and transmitting uplink data block transmissions with piggy-backed ACK/NACK bitmap
Systems and methods for allocating and transmitting uplink data block transmissions with piggy-backed ACK/NACK bitmap field are provided. In a specific example, a mobile station receives a request for a data block combined with control information (DBCCI). The mobile station responds by transmitting a DBCCI using at least one timeslot corresponding to a timeslot used for the request. At least some of the time, the mobile station sends data blocks in an order different than that would be otherwise used (e.g. block sequence order).
HARQ ACK/NACK for dynamic PDSCH
The aim of the present invention is to provide an efficient and reliable transmission/reception mechanisms for a communication system with multiple component carriers, each of which further includes physical resources such as transmission slot/symbol, subcarrier/frequency subband, code, or radiation pattern. Accordingly, the control signal of a component carrier comprises a scheduling assignment specifying for said component carrier a resource for transmission of a data signal, and an allocation map specifying that a scheduling assignment has been sent for another component carrier. Signalizing the allocation map enables detection of possibly missed scheduling assignments.
Maintaining triggered session state in secure user plane location (SUPL) enabled system
A method is provided for maintaining session state in a Secure User Plane Location (SUPL) enabled system during a triggered session. The method includes modifying at least one parameter of a session message to include state data indicating the session state, and transmitting a request to a SUPL Enabled Terminal (SET) to initiate the triggered session, the request comprising the session message having the at least one modified parameter to be stored at the SET. The method further includes receiving a triggered message from the SET in response to occurrence of a trigger event detected by the SET, the triggered message comprising the stored state data. The triggered session is identified using the state data received in the triggered message.
Distribution of credentials
The invention relates to a method for distribution of a set of credentials from a credential issuer to a credential user. The credential user is provided with a user device. A first channel and a second channel are provided for communication between the user device and the credential issuer. A shared key is distributed between the user device and the credential issuer by means of the second channel. A binary representation of the set of credentials with a predefined maximum level of deviation from a uniform distribution is generated. The binary representation of the set of credentials is encrypted by means of the shared key. The encrypted set of credentials is distributed via the first channel from the credential issuer to the user device. The encrypted set of credentials is decrypted by the user device by means of the shared key.
Information processing apparatus and method
In order to limit use of content, when a source receives a request for transmitting content from a sink, the source performs an authentication process. When the authentication is successful, the source transmits to the sink key information necessary for decrypting the encryption applied to the content. The sink can receive the content by receiving the key information and by decrypting the encryption applied to the content by using the key information.
Communication apparatus, control method thereof, and storage medium
A first communication apparatus that functions as a providing apparatus that provides an encryption key or as a receiving apparatus that receives an encryption key provided by a providing apparatus, and that performs a key sharing process for sharing an encryption key with another apparatus, confirms whether or not the first communication apparatus functioned as the providing apparatus in the key sharing process performed among a plurality of apparatuses present on a network in which the first communication apparatus is joining; compares identification information of a second communication apparatus that has newly joined the network with identification information of the first communication apparatus; and determines whether or not the first communication apparatus is to function as a providing apparatus in the key sharing process performed between the first and the second communication apparatuses based on the result of the confirmation and the comparison.
A communications system comprising a signal transmission arrangement for outputting a first signal for transmission, a first controller operable to control transmission of the first signal such that the transmitted signal takes a pulsed form including a plurality of first periods in which the first signal is transmitted separated by second periods in which the first signal is not transmitted, a radio signal receiver arrangement including or forming a bandpass filter and arranged to receive a second signal, and a second controller operable such that during a plurality of third periods the second signal is processed by at least part of the radio receiver arrangement, the third periods being separated by fourth periods in which the radio receiver arrangement does not process the second signal, wherein the first and second controllers are synchronized such that the second periods are synchronized with the third periods, at the radio signal receiver arrangement, such that the pulsed signal received by the receiver arrangement is reconstituted in the bandpass filter into a continuous signal, free or substantially free of interference from the first signal.
A reception circuit has: a phase detector that detects a phase code based on a phase of data in relation to a first clock signal; a calibration signal generator that, in a calibration mode, adjusts a frequency of the first clock signal or the data so that the phase code detected by the phase detector changes; a calibrator that, in the calibration mode, stores a difference between the phase code and an ideal value of the detected phase, and that, in a normal operation mode, outputs the ideal value in correspondence with the phase code detected by the phase detector; and a phase adjustor that, in the normal operation mode, adjusts a phase of the first clock signal based on the phase code detected by the phase detector and the ideal value, and that outputs to the phase detector.
Apparatus and method for early decoding of TFCI in UMTS
Disclosed are systems, methods, and computer program products for decoding of transport format combination indicator (TFCI) in a universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS). In one aspect, a method includes receiving by a UE coded TFCI bit sequence on a physical channel, determining a range of TFCI bits that contain information, performing early decoding of the received TFCI bit sequence; and limiting the search set of decoded TFCI bits to the determined range of TFCI bits. The range of TFCI bits that contain information may be determined from a code book.
Method and apparatus for dynamic resource allocation
A dynamic resource allocating apparatus of a first base station managing a first cell in a cellular communication system calculates an interference metric of each user terminal received by each user terminal from a plurality of neighboring cells, calculates a coupling factor between the first base station and each neighboring base station of each neighboring cell by using the interference metric and a load of each user terminal, calculates available cell boundary resources of neighboring cells by using the coupling factor with respect to each neighboring base station, and allocates resources by using the cell boundary resources allocated to the first cell and the available cell boundary resources of the neighboring cells.
Current or past physical location of a target device in a communication network, including: (included and excluded) points, surfaces, regions, point- and integrated-probabilities, nearest-(physical)-neighbors, whether the device is properly integrated, and otherwise, and combinations or conjunctions thereof. Countermeasures exist for those targets which are uncooperative with geolocation. Multiple measurements provide a statistical basis for establishing a probability density function, which may be augmented or refined using domain information, intermediate routing pathways, or overlap of multiple such probability density function. Alternatively, a geolocation may be provided by a formula or a table reference, in response to a measured flight-time, a probability, and possibly other network routing parameters, such as hop count.
System for and method of dynamic home agent allocation
A system for and method of dynamic home agent allocation is presented. The system and method may include receiving, via a network, a request for allocation of a Logical Home Agent for a mobile node, selecting a Logical Home Agent for the mobile node based on one or more performance metrics, and communicating Logical Home Agent selection to the selected Logical Home Agent and the mobile node.
Overhead reduction for transmission of acknowledgment signals
A method and apparatus for compressing resources used for transmitting acknowledgment signals from User Equipments (UEs). An acknowledgment signal is in response to detections from a UE of one or more Physical Downlink Control CHannels (PDCCHs) in respective one or more Transmission Time Interval (TTIs) within M TTIs. Each PDCCH is transmitted over Control Channel Elements (CCEs). Resources account for both CCEs in a same TTI and for TTIs within the M TTIs. A Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (HARQ) Acknowledgment Resource Offset (HRO) field in a Downlink Control Information (DCI) format is used to compress resources in both CCE and TTI domains. For the first TTI of the M TTIs, all HRO values compress resources in the CCE domain while for all remaining TTIs, half HRO values compress resources in the CCE domain and half HRO values compress resources in the TTI domain.
Maximum likelihood detection
A method of symbol detection in an electronic device employing multi-user multiple input multiple output (MU-MIMO) communication over a first transmission layer of first and second transmission layers comprises various steps. A receiver comprises processing circuitry for performing these steps. A transmitted signal is received. The transmitted signal is decoded by detecting data symbols within the transmitted signal for the first transmission layer by performing Maximum Likelihood (ML) detection on the first transmission layer. ML detection comprises performing a search across all possible symbol constellation points in a set of constellation points available for the second transmission layer.
Base station, user terminal, and communication method
A base station includes a transmission timing adjustment determination unit that determines whether to adjust a transmission timing of an uplink signal for each of user terminals; a radio resource allocation unit that allocates a radio resource for instruction information to be transmitted to first ones of the user terminals for which it has been determined that the transmission timing of the uplink signal is not to be adjusted; and an instruction information transmission unit that transmits the instruction information to the first ones of the user terminals. The instruction information indicates that the transmission timing is not to be adjusted, and the radio resource allocation unit allocates the instruction information to the radio resource to be shared and used by the first ones of the user terminals.
Method for extracting interference signal information and apparatus for the same
A method and apparatus are provided for extracting interference signal information. The method includes demodulating control channel signals received from serving and adjacent cells; decoding the control channel signals received from the serving cell to extract control information; decoding the control channel signals received from the adjacent cell; extracting, at each subframe, from the decoded control channel signals received from the adjacent cell, a terminal ID of the adjacent cell; accumulating the extracted terminal IDs; filtering only a control channel signal from among the control channel signals received from the adjacent cell corresponding to a terminal ID having an accumulation count that is greater than or equal to a threshold; determining a reliability value of the filtered control channel signal; identifying the filtered control channel signal as a first interference signal, based on the reliability value; and extracting interference signal information based on the first interference signal.
Mobile communication system, base station apparatus, mobile station apparatus and communication method
To provide a mobile communication system and communication method for efficient scheduling to be performed when a base station apparatus notifies a mobile station apparatus of a plurality of downlink control information formats in the same subframe and/or for some particular time period, in a mobile communication system comprised of a base station apparatus and a mobile station apparatus, the base station apparatus notifies the mobile station apparatus of a plurality of downlink control information formats including at least one downlink control information format including instructions for transmission of a sounding reference signal and a parameter in the same subframe, and the mobile station apparatus transmits a sounding reference signal set based on the parameter to the base station apparatus when among the plurality of downlink control information formats, a predetermined downlink control information format includes instructions for transmission of a sounding reference signal and the parameter.
Clock data recovery circuitry with programmable clock phase selection
Integrated circuits with high-speed communications capabilities are provided. Such types of integrated circuits may include clock data recovery (CDR) circuitry. The CDR circuitry may receive incoming data and may generate multiple clock signals that are used to latch the incoming data. The CDR circuitry may include data latching circuitry for separately latching even and odd data bits in alternating clock cycles. In particular, the data latching circuitry may be controlled using first, second, third, and fourth clock signals having different respective phase settings. The first and second clock signals may be used to capture even and odd data bits, respectively. The third and fourth clock signals may be used to sample data near the transition between the even and odd data bits. The phase of the first and second clock signals may be dynamically adjusted. The phase setting that yields the optimal link performance may be selected for normal operation.
Method and system for modulating optical signals as high-dimensional lattice constellation points to increase tolerance to noise
A method modulates data for optical communication by first encoding the data using a forward error correction (FEC) encoder to produce encoded data, which are encoded using a block encoder to produce block encoded data such that Hamming distances between code words that represent the block encoded data are increased. The block encoded data are mapped to produce mapped data such that Euclidian distances between the constellation points are increased. Then, the mapped data are modulated in a transmitter to a modulated signal for an optical channel.
Locking detection circuit for CDR circuits
A locking detection circuit for CDR circuits includes a first frequency divider, a second frequency divider, a first sampler, a second sampler, and a locking detector, with a data signal outputted by a CDR circuit being inputted to the first frequency divider and the first sampler respectively, the first frequency divider being connected with the first sampler, a clock pulse outputted by the CDR circuit being inputted to the second frequency divider and the second sampler respectively, output terminals of the first and second samplers being connected with the locking detector which is for detecting if rising edges of the data signal outputted and the clock pulse outputted are aligned, and then outputting a detection result. The circuit size and power consumption is reduced, and it is applicable to spread spectrum carrier with high data rate over 1 Gbps and with any protocol, whose application scope is broadened.
System and method for transmitting data in a multi-cell network
A communication system and method that receives data from a terminal using a cooperative reception scheme, is provided. Each terminal may generate multi-cell transmission data used for overcoming transmission delay and transmit, to each base station, a data frame including the multi-cell transmission data.
Interpolator-based clock and data recovery with reduced quantization error
One embodiment relates to an interpolator-based clock and data recovery (iCDR) circuit. The iCDR circuit includes an automatic gain control circuit arranged to generate an interpolation jump size signal when a targeted sampling detection signal is asserted. The targeted sampling detection signal may be asserted when sampling by the phase detector of the iCDR circuit is within a targeted range. The interpolation jump size signal may indicate a number of phase steps to shift an interpolation state signal if a jump is indicated by a filtered feedback signal. Other embodiments and features are also disclosed.
Communication method and communication apparatus
The present disclosure provides an orthogonal codes based code division multiplexing method of performing the code division multiplexing of demodulation reference signals in multiple layers of resource blocks by using orthogonal matrices, the method comprising: changing the order of chips in particular rows of a first orthogonal matrix to obtain a second orthogonal matrix with the changed order of chips; and multiplying the chips in respective rows of the second orthogonal matrix by the demodulation reference signals in corresponding layers of resource blocks correspondingly in the time direction to obtain code division multiplexing signals. The technical scheme of the present disclosure can improve the power jitter situation of downlink signals on the time, thereby the usage efficiency of the power amplifier at the base station side can be improved.
Apparatus for transmitting/receiving variable-wavelength optical signal
There is provided an optical transceiver apparatus including an optical transmitter configured to transmit light of variable wavelength, an optical receiver configured to receive light generated from an opposite light source, and a controller configured to perform initialization to a wavelength corresponding to when an intensity of light received by the optical receiver is greater than or equal to a reference power, while varying the wavelength of light output by the optical transmitter.
Methods and apparatus for a passive access subnetwork
An access subnetwork node herein comprises one or more add-drop modules, each module including one or more passive optical filters. The one or more add-drop modules are configured to selectively drop a fixed band of wavelength channels from an access subnetwork, via a passive directional coupler, to each of multiple client nodes that actively select to receive client-specific channels within the fixed band. The one or more add-drop modules are also configured to selectively add the fixed band of wavelength channels to the access subnetwork, as received via a passive directional coupler from the multiple client nodes that actively select to transmit client-specific channels within the fixed band. With an access subnetwork node and a client node configured in this way, embodiments herein reduce the complexity and accompanying cost of nodes in an optical network, while also maintaining flexibility for assigning wavelength channels in the network.
Reducing network acquisition time
A method, an apparatus, and a computer program product for wireless communication are provided in which PAPR for an input of an AGC in a wireless receiver is generated. The AGC may provide a gain-controlled signal to a correlator when the PAPR of the input does not exceed the threshold ratio and may clamp the gain of the gain-controlled signal when PAPR of the input is large. A large PAPR may cause termination of search for a signal of interest in a current channel. The search may be resumed in a non-adjacent channel.
Configuration of synchronisation network having synchronization trails for time sync and frequency sync
Configuring a node (410) of a synchronization network involves identifying (10) possible alternative time synchronization trails arranged to carry time synchronization information for time synchronization at the node, and possible alternative frequency trails, arranged to carry frequency synchronization information for frequency synchronization at the node. Using information about the sources (20), a comparison of the trails (30) is biased to increase a likelihood of choosing time synchronization and frequency trails which share the same source, over a likelihood of choosing trails with different sources. This can help avoid divergence and consequent bit errors arising from phase errors, resulting from trails having different sources. It can encompass for example changing both to a new common source, or changing one or both trails while still using the old common source.
Time division receiver and time division receiving method
Provided are a time division receiver and a time division receiving method capable of mitigating leaks between branches for a time division multiplexed signal for which a plurality of branches have been time-division multiplexed even when processing using a single high-frequency circuit. A time division receiver comprises a mixer that down-converts a time-division multiplexed signal resulting from a plurality of branch signals being time-division multiplexed, a demultiplexer that demultiplexes the time-division multiplexed signal down-converted by the mixer, into respective branch signals; and an initializer that initializes a charge remaining in a parasitic capacitance, the parasitic capacitance being generated on a path between the mixer and the demultiplexer, when a first branch signal has passed through the path, before a second branch signal passes through the path.
Asynchronous interaction at specific points in content
Systems, devices, and methods for allowing comments to be input at specific points in delivered content are provided. The systems, devices and methods may comprise specific content items, at least one request from a device for interacting with the specific content, and a comment provided by at least one user via the device in relation to the interacted one of the specific content. The comment may be recorded and later provided at the point of the comment to a second user while the second user plays back the specific content.
Mixing signal processing apparatus and mixing signal processing integrated circuit
User is allowed to designate a desired mode defining the respective numbers of channels and mixing buses, and processing for mixing input signals of the number of channels corresponding to the designated mode is performed repetitively to generate signals for the individual buses. The time of arrival of the last step in the mixing processing for the number of channels, corresponding to the designated mode, is detected to output an accumulation result obtained at the last step, and new accumulation is started with a digital audio signal inputted at a step following the last step. Digital audio signals processed by a first signal processing circuit are stored into a memory and transmitted to a second signal processing circuit via a cascade-connection. The second signal processing circuit adds the audio signal, processed for each of the steps, to audio signals input via the cascade-connection and writes added signal into the memory.
Deterministic ranking of a property requiring satellite service without actually visiting the property
A service-ability system determines a probability of a proper installation of satellite broadcast reception equipment at a given location. A method for determining service-ability comprises accessing data related to a given location via a computer, assigning a weight and a value to each accessed data point with the computer, compiling the values of each accessed data point, and comparing the compiled values to a predetermined probability threshold.
Method of enabling power savings when no data is being transmitted on a media logical channel
Provided is a method and system for determining sleep periods within a communications device configured to communicate via a network. The method includes analyzing at least one of two or more data fields related to a data unit and determining device sleep periods based upon the analysis. The analysis includes determining whether or not particular MediaFLO Logical Channel data (MLC) is present within an overhead information symbols channel. If MLC data is not present, the device sleeps for a predetermined amount of time.
Coding latency reductions during transmitter quieting
A method comprises encoding and modulating a first set of frames such that a latency associated with demodulating and decoding the first set of frames is less than a first time interval, encoding and modulating a second set of frames such that a required latency associated with demodulating and decoding the first set of frames is less than a second time interval, transmitting the first set of frames and the second set of frames via a transmitter, and blanking the transmitter during a null interval associated with transmitting the second set of frames, wherein the null interval and the second time interval are less than or equal to the first time interval.
Method and device for monitoring a detachable fiber-optic connection, especially in a fiber-optic transmission device or system
The invention relates to a method for monitoring a detachable fiber-optic connection, especially in a fiber-optic transmission device or system, comprising the steps of transmitting a wanted optical transmission signal carrying information data to be transmitted to at least one fiber-optic connection, a predetermined portion of the power of said optical transmission signal being reflected at the at least one fiber-optic connection depending on the status and properties of the at least one fiber-optic connection, creating a detection signal by detecting said reflected predetermined portion of the power of said optical transmission signal, monitoring and evaluating the detection signal as a function of time and creating a “DETECT” signal if the detection signal or a signal derived from the detection signal reveals a characteristic change in its course in time. Further, the invention relates to a corresponding device adapted to realize this method.
Transceiver system on a card for simultaneously transmitting and receiving information at a rate equal to or greater than approximately one terabit per second
An optical transceiver system is provided that comprises multiple parallel transceiver modules that are mounted on a card. The transceiver card is small in terms of spatial dimensions, has very good heat dissipation characteristics, and is capable of simultaneously transmitting and receiving data at a rate equal to or greater than approximately one Tb per second (1 Tb/s). A plurality of the transceiver systems may be interconnected to achieve a communications hub system having even higher bandwidths. In addition, the transceiver system may be configured such that each card has a routing controller mounted thereon for performing router functions. The router functions include, for example: causing signals received by one transceiver module on the card to be routed to and transmitted by another of the transceiver modules; causing signals received by one transceiver module on the card to be retransmitted by the same transceiver module over one of it's optical transmit channels; and causing signals received by one transceiver module on the card to be routed to and transmitted by a transceiver module on a different card.
Low cycle slip phase recovery for coherent receiver
Methods, systems, and devices are described for detecting and correcting a cycle slip occurrence in a coherent receiver. Unique words are used in each received frame to detect phase changes that indicate the occurrence of a cycle slip within a frame. The location of the cycle slip is identified based on measurements made within the frame. Those measurements include phase estimation measurements and reliability measurements. A phase of a portion of the frame subsequent to the identified location of the cycle slip is adjusted to correct for the cycle slip. By combining phase estimates of symbols from both vertical and horizontal polarizations, the location of the cycle slip may be more accurately determined because the measurement windows is less susceptible to thermal noise. The phase estimates are combined by adjusting a phase of the symbols of one polarization to match a phase of the symbols of the other polarization.
Optical network unit registration method
In a network that includes one or a plurality of optical line terminals, a plurality of branches, and an optical routing unit, the optical network unit registration method includes a first process in which the optical line terminals transmit a discovery gate to the optical network units, and a second process in which, in response to the discovery gate, an unregistered optical network unit transmits a register request to a separate optical line terminal from the terminal that transmitted the discovery gate. A discovery window is provided in the optical line terminal that receives the register request. This optical line terminal receives the register request in the discovery window.
Mitigation of polarization dependent loss in optical multi-carrier/super-channel transmission
Methods and systems for mitigating effects of polarization dependent loss (PDL) in an optical network transmitting a multi-carrier optical signal comprising a plurality of subcarriers may involve assigning and modifying a state of polarization to each subcarrier prior to transmission. An assigned state of polarization for each subcarrier may be modified for the subcarrier in the digital domain and/or the optical domain. Various specific assignment methods may be used, including individual subcarrier assignment, subcarrier set assignment, arbitrary subcarrier group assignment, random assignment, and/or combinations thereof. The assigned states of polarization may be selected based on a resulting minimum PDL-induced peak-to-peak power variation over a sum of the subcarriers for all orientations of a principal axis of PDL.
Assessing interference environment for wireless communication devices
Disclosed is a device and method to automate the process of measuring RF noise, correlating measured noise with known sources, and making adjustments to the noise-measuring and reporting process. A wireless communication device is coupled to equipment at a fixed location, and transmits data about the operation of the equipment back to an operator, via a provider's network. Examples include fixed wireless terminals. A management entity aboard the wireless communication device performs the measurements via a transceiver and performs remedial actions when required, without requiring an onsite technician or remote assistance. The management entity may include a spectrum analyzer.
Transmission device, reception device, and radio communication method
A transmitting apparatus includes an OFDM modulator that generates a first modulation symbol by modulating a first information signal using a first modulation scheme, a signal point of the first modulated information signal being at a first position in an in-phase quadrature-phase plane. A second modulation symbol by modulating a second information signal using the first modulation scheme, and by changing a second position at which a signal point of the modulated second information signal is arranged to a third position in the in-phase quadrature-phase plane, and an OFDM modulation signal including the first modulation symbol and the second modulation symbol, wherein the OFDM modulation signal comprises a plurality of subcarriers.
Device for coupling out a common-mode signal in a power line communication network
A device for determining a common-mode signal in a power line communication network. The device includes a first line, a second line, and a third line that are connected to a first terminal, to a second terminal, and to a third terminal, respectively. The first, the second, and the third terminal are configured to be connected to a phase line, a neutral line, and a protective ground line of the power line communication network, respectively. The device further includes a common-mode choke configured to couple out the common signal from the first, second, and third line, and the common-mode choke is connected to a termination impedance which is higher than an impedance of the power line communication network.
Adaptive mode optimizer and mode shifter
A mode shifter connects via an input port to an antenna port of a transceiver. A port signal analyzer monitors the signal at the input port and informs a signal switch whether the signal power exceeds a threshold value. When the signal power does not exceed the threshold value, the signal switch connects the input port (and consequently the antenna port of the transceiver) to a receive path comprising a receive signal processor, an antenna selection processor, and an antenna port. When the signal exceeds the threshold value, the signal switch connects the input port (and consequently the antenna port of the transceiver) to a transmit path comprising a transmit signal processor, the antenna selection processor, and an antenna port.
Wi-fi transceiver having dual-band virtual concurrent connection mode and method of operation thereof
A transceiver, a method of providing multiple-band virtual concurrent wireless communication and a wireless device incorporating the transceiver or the method. In one embodiment, the transceiver includes: (1) first transmit and receive intermediate frequency (IF) strips, (2) second transmit and receive IF strips, (3) first and second local oscillators (LOs) and (4) switches operable to multiplex clock signals from the first and second local oscillators to cause the transceiver to operate in a selectable one of: (4a) a unified, multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) mode in which the first and second transmit and receive IF strips are driven to transmit and receive in a first band and (4b) a concurrent multiple-band connection mode in which the first transmit and receive IF strips are driven in the first band and the second transmit and receive IF strips are concurrently driven in a second band.
External case for redistribution of RF radiation away from wireless communication device user and wireless communication device incorporating RF radiation redistribution elements
A case for a wireless tablet computer device includes a number of RF resonant loop elements and elongated RF director coupling strip elements mounted in the case and configured such that RF radiation is coupled from an internal antenna of the wireless device out of the device to the RF resonant and coupling elements. The case incorporates a cut-out section in a location leaving exposed a strip that covers an area proximate the internal antenna. The RF resonant loops and director coupling strip elements alternatively may be incorporated with the wireless tablet computer device itself.
Network apparatus and method for eliminating interference between transport ports
A network apparatus for eliminating interference between transport ports includes a plurality of transport ports, a plurality of seed comparators, and a control unit. The plurality of seed comparators are coupled to the plurality of transport ports, respectively, wherein a first seed comparator is utilized for comparing a first seed of a first transport port with a second seed of a second transport port and accordingly generating a comparing result. The controlling unit is coupled to the plurality of seed comparators and the plurality of transport ports, for generating a control signal to cancel interference between the plurality of transport ports according to the comparing result.
Method for transmitting and receiving signal in multi-hop relay system
A first transparent relay station (RS) can receive a signal from a base station (BS) corresponding to superordinate node of the first transparent RS or a second RS corresponding to superordinate non-transparent RS the first transparent RS through a downlink receive zone, and the first transparent RS can transmit the signal received through the downlink receive zone to a mobile station (MS) through a downlink transmit zone, wherein a downlink subframes of the first transparent RS is located the downlink receive zone and the downlink transmit zone in order.
System and method for smart relay operation in a wireless communications system
A system and method for smart relay operation in a wireless communications system is provided. A method for smart relay operations includes receiving, at a smart relay, a transmission from a communications device, the transmission destined for a controller, decoding the transmission, computing a response based on the decoding, and transmitting the response to the controller.
Method and apparatus for coding a signal in a relay network
A heterogeneous arrangement of encoder and precoder are provided in a multi-hop communications network. The net effect of the encoder and precoder is to present, to a destination node, a quasi-orthogonal space time block coded transmission.
2 channel switched loop-thru microwave switch
A five port two channel switch, with switched loop-thru inputs. The switch has DC to 5.5 GHz bandwidth, flat frequency response, excellent transient response, high isolation between channels, and 50 ohm input and output impedance when the channel is either ON or OFF. The input to a unused channel may also be used in another circuit given the loop-thru option of the switch.
Femtocell tunable receiver filtering system
A tunable receiver system uses programmable notch filters to identify available channel pairs for transmitting and receiving data via a femtocell base station. In addition, one of the programmable notch filters may be used to suppress infiltration of the transmit path signal into the receiver path of the receiver device. The other programmable notch filter may be used to suppress a blocker signal identified by the receiver device.
Transmission device, transmission method, receiving device and receiving method
A transmission device transmits by performing SISO using a first polarization and by performing MISO and MIMO using the first (V) polarization and a second (H) polarization. For SISO communication, transmission is performed using an antenna having the first (V) polarization. For MISO and MIMO communication, transmission is performed using the antenna having the first (V) polarization and an antenna having the second (H) polarization. Accordingly, a reception device equipped only with a system for the antenna having the first (V) polarization is able to continue receiving the transmit data by SISO.
An apparatus and method suppress unwanted signal components in receiving signals during wireless communication. A first circuitry is arranged to process a first signal, a second circuitry is arranged to apply transferred impedance filtering on a second signal according to a filter clock frequency, a signal branching circuitry is arranged to branch an input signal into the first circuitry and the second circuitry, and a signal combining circuitry is arranged to combine the processed first signal and the filtered second signal such that signal components of the first signal processed in the first circuitry and the filtered second signal are in-phase for signal frequencies equal to the filter clock frequency.
Per-tone TX antenna selection beamforming
A method for per-tone transmit (TX) antenna selection beamforming includes obtaining an estimate of a per-tone channel amplitude information corresponding to each antenna of multiple antennas of a transmitter. A spatial mapping matrix of the transmitter is determined using the obtained estimate of the per-tone channel amplitude information corresponding to the antennas. Each tone includes an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) sub-carrier, and the per-tone channel amplitude information corresponding to each antenna is associated with a propagation channel between that antenna and a receive (RX) antenna of a receiver. The spatial mapping matrix is determined to allow transmission of data corresponding to each tone through one of the antennas, and to allow each of the antennas to be active during a transmission time of the transmitter.
Techniques utilizing adaptive codebooks for beamforming in wireless networks
An embodiment of the present invention provides a method, comprising using an adaptive codebook for beamforming for communications in wireless networks.
Low complexity and accurate cluster of beams selection
A method at user equipment ‘UE’, the method comprising: determining one or more radio channel estimates from received signals; selecting a precoding index fulfilling an optimization criterion based on the one or more radio channel estimates and a reduced precoding matrix, wherein the reduced precoding matrix comprises properties of a single beam for each of one or more polarization planes, and the reduced precoding matrix corresponds to an expanded precoding matrix comprising properties of a plurality of beams for each of one or more polarization planes; and transmitting a precoding matrix indicator ‘PMI’ based on the selected precoding index.
Method and apparatus for generating beamforming feedback
First gain and phase information corresponding to an estimate of a communication channel from a second communication device to a first communication device are determined at the first communication device. First transmit beamforming information are calculated using the first gain and phase information at the first communication device, wherein the first transmit beamforming information corresponds to transmit beamforming by the second communication device via multiple antennas. The first transmit beamforming information are converted, at the first communication device, to second gain and phase information corresponding to the estimate of the communication channel. Feedback is generated at the first communication device using the second gain and phase information, the feedback to be transmitted to the second communication device.
Antenna architecture for maintaining beam shape in a reconfigurable antenna
A node in a wireless communication system comprising an antenna array with at least a first antenna function and a second antenna function. The node further comprises a first radio chain and a second radio chain, where each antenna function is connected to a base band via a corresponding radio chain. Each radio chain comprises an oscillator, a splitter and a multiplexer, each oscillator being arranged to feed a signal with a unique frequency band to the splitter in the same radio chain. The splitter is arranged to divide the signal into at least two signal parts and feed each part to the multiplexer of each radio chain such that each multiplexer in the node receives signal parts from each splitter in the node. The splitter is arranged to weight the division of the signal into the signal parts in dependence of the frequency bands fed by each oscillator.
Multilevel driver for high speed chip-to-chip communications
Transmission line driver systems are described which are comprised of multiple paralleled driver elements. The paralleled structure allows efficient generation of multiple output signal levels with adjustable output amplitude, optionally including Finite Impulse Response signal shaping and skew pre-compensation.
System for and method of configuring distributed antenna communications system
A distributed antenna system comprises a plurality of antennas and a multi-port hub. The multi-port hub comprises an interface to a telecommunications network and a plurality of transceivers. The multi-port hub is configured to operate in a first mode (“normal” mode) in which the multi-port hub receives a downlink communications signal via the interface and distributes the downlink communications signal to the plurality of antennas using a selected downlink transmission frequency within a downlink frequency range and in which the multi-port hub receives uplink communications signals from the plurality of antennas at a selected uplink receive frequency. The multi-port hub is also configured to operate in a second mode (“listening” mode) in which the multi-port hub receives communications signals from the plurality of antennas at one or more frequencies within the downlink frequency range. The transmission frequency for the first mode (“normal” mode) may be selected based on field strength of the signals received in the second mode (“listening” mode).
Communication apparatus and communication system
There is provided a communication apparatus including a magnetic sheet that includes an opening, a non-contract power supply coil that is disposed on the magnetic sheet, a high-frequency coupler that includes a coupling electrode, a ground, and a resonance unit configured to increase an amount of current flowing into the coupling electrode, and is configured such that the coupling electrode appears on the magnetic sheet via the opening, and a communication circuit unit that processes a high-frequency signal transmitted to and received from the coupling electrode.
Systems and methods for iterative data processing using feedback iteration
Systems and methods for data processing. In one case, a data processing system includes a data detector circuit configured to apply a data detection algorithm to a detector input to yield a second detected output, and a data decoder circuit configured to apply a data decoding algorithm to a decoder input to yield a decoded output. The decoder input is derived from an interim data set calculated as a combination of at least a first detected output and the second detected output.
Data transmission utilizing partitioning and dispersed storage error encoding
A method begins by a first device obtaining data for transmission to a second device and partitioning the data to produce a plurality of data portions. The method continues with the first device dispersed storage error encoding the plurality of data portions using a plurality of sets of error coding dispersal storage function parameters to produce a plurality of sets of encoded data slices and transmitting the plurality of sets of encoded data slices to the second device via a network. The method continues with a second device receiving at least a decode threshold number of encoded data slices and dispersed storage error decoding the at least a decode threshold number of encoded data slices to produce a decoded data portion for each set of the plurality of sets of encoded data slices. The method continues with the second device recapturing the data from a plurality of decoded data portions.
Methods, apparatus, and systems for coding with constrained interleaving
Serially-concatenated codes are formed in accordance with the present invention using a constrained interleaver. The constrained interleaver cause the minimum distance of the serial concatenated code to increase above the minimum distance of the inner code alone by adding a constraint that forces some or all of the distance of the outer code onto the serially-concatenated code. This allows the serially-concatenated code to be jointly optimized in terms of both minimum distance and error coefficient to provide significant performance advantages. Constrained interleaving can be summarized in that it: 1) uses an outer code that is a block code or a non-recursive convolutional code, and as such, there are multiple codewords present in the constrained interleaver, 2) selects a desired MHD, 3) selects an interleaver size and a set of predefined interleaver constraints to prevent undesired (low-distance) error events so as to achieve the desired MHD, and 4) performs uniform interleaving among the allowable (non-constrained) positions, to thereby maximize or otherwise improve the interleaver gain subject to the constraints imposed to maintain the desired MHD.
Digital to analog converter with thermometer coding and methods for use therewith
A digital to analog converter (DAC) includes a thermometer coder that processes a digital input based on a thermometer coding, and generates a plurality of micro-current source inputs and a plurality of micro-current source analog controls. A plurality of micro-current sources generate a corresponding plurality of micro-current source outputs in response to the plurality of micro-current source inputs, wherein first selected ones of the plurality of micro-current sources are powered-off in response to the plurality of micro-current source analog controls. A summing circuit generates an analog output based on a sum of the corresponding plurality of micro-current source outputs.
Delta conversion analog to digital converter providing direct and quadrature output
Embodiments of the present invention are directed to an analog to digital converter, comprising a comparator for comparing an analog input signal and an analog feedback signal output from a digital to analog converter to generate a digital direct output signal, a summer, coupled to the comparator, for summing the digital output signal with a digital feedback signal to generate a summed signal, a first integrator, coupled to the summer, for integrating the summed signal to generate a direct output signal and a second integrator, coupled to the first integrator and to the summer, for integrating the direct output signal to generate the digital feedback signal as a quadrature output signal.
Heater substrate, alkali metal cell unit and atomic oscillator
A heater substrate for heating an alkali metal cell including an alkali metal includes a first heater wiring formed in a region surrounding an alkali metal encapsulating part in which the alkali metal is encapsulated; a second heater wiring formed in the region surrounding the alkali metal encapsulating part and inside the first heater wiring; and a third heater wiring formed outside the first heater wiring. A first electric current flowing in the first heater wiring is divided into a second electric current flowing in the second heater wiring and a third electric current flowing in the third heater wiring. A direction of the first electric current is opposite to a direction of the second electric current and a direction of the third electric current.
Low-noise flexible frequency clock generation from two fixed-frequency references
A number of methods and clock generator units are disclosed to produce low Phase Noise clocks for use in Radio Frequency systems. The methods and clock generator units all use two reference clocks: a frequency-accurate reference that has comparatively high Phase Noise, and a frequency-inaccurate reference such as that from a BAW or MEMS clock source that has comparatively low Phase Noise. By combining multiple Phase-Locked Loops and a mixer, it is possible to produce flexible output frequencies whose frequency accuracy is derived from the first reference clock but whose Phase Noise level is derived from the second reference clock, all in a readily-integrated and relatively low-cost system.
A high-precision oscillator includes a voltage reference module which includes multiple measured Field Effect Transistors and arranged for detecting process corners for the measured Field Effect Transistors to generate a reference voltage containing process corner information of the measured Field Effect Transistors, a compensation current generating module which is arranged for receiving the reference voltage, making a temperature compensation for the reference voltage, and generating a compensation current which includes both the process compensation and temperature compensation, and a ring oscillator which is arranged for receiving the compensation current and outputting a clock with stable frequency. The high-precision oscillator designs the process compensation and the temperature compensation separately, which are adjustable due to one of them will not be influenced by the other; and frequency of its outputted clock is not influenced by process and temperature, thereby precision of the outputted clock is improved.
Touch panel having a single-sided sensing pattern
A touch panel has multiple first-axis sensing lines and multiple second-axis sub-sensing sets. Each first-axis sensing line has a second-axis sensing set formed therein with multiple second-axis sensing part of the second-axis sensing set spaced apart along the first axis. The second-axis sub-sensing parts at each identical coordinate of the second axis are connected to constitute a second-axis sensing line, and the first-axis sensing lines and the second-axis sensing lines are mutually crossed. As the second-axis sub-sensing parts constituting each second-axis sensing line are separately enclosed in different first-axis sensing lines, the capacitance values of capacitive coupling between the first-axis sensing lines and the second-axis sensing lines are relatively higher and more stable.
Voltage controlled switching element gate drive circuit
A voltage controlled switching element gate drive circuit makes it possible to suppress an occurrence of a malfunction, while suppressing surge voltage, surge current, and switching noise, when switching in a voltage controlled switching element. A gate drive circuit that supplies a gate voltage to the gate of a voltage controlled switching element, thus driving the voltage controlled switching element, includes a high potential side switching element and low potential side switching element connected in series, first variable resistors interposed between at least the high potential side switching element and a high potential power supply or the low potential side switching element and a low potential power supply, and a control circuit that adjusts the resistance values of the first variable resistors.
Electronic circuit with an electronic switch and a monitoring circuit
An electronic circuit includes an electronic switch having a control terminal and a load path. A monitoring circuit includes a switched-capacitor circuit with a capacitive storage element. The switched-capacitor circuit is coupled to the load path of the electronic switch. The monitoring circuit is operable to evaluate a load voltage of the electronic switch and to generate a failure signal dependent on the evaluation. A drive circuit is operable to provide a drive signal at the control terminal of the electronic switch dependent on the failure signal.
Field programmable gate arrays using resistivity-sensitive memories
Field programmable gate arrays using resistivity-sensitive memories are described, including a programmable cell comprising a configurable logic, a memory connected to the configurable logic to provide functions for the configurable logic, the memory comprises a non-volatile rewriteable memory element including a resistivity-sensitive memory element, an input/output logic connected to the configurable logic and the memory to communicate with other cells. The memory elements may be two-terminal resistivity-sensitive memory elements that store data in the absence of power. The two-terminal memory elements may store data as plurality of conductivity profiles that can be non-destructively read by applying a read voltage across the terminals of the memory element and data can be written to the two-terminal memory elements by applying a write voltage across the terminals. The memory can be vertically configured in one or more memory planes that are vertically stacked upon each other and are positioned above a logic plane.
Circuit arrangement and method for generating a drive signal for a transistor
Disclosed is a circuit arrangement for generating a drive signal for a transistor. In one embodiment, the circuit arrangement includes a control circuit that receives a switching signal, a driver circuit that outputs a drive signal, and at least one transmission channel. The control circuit transmits, depending on the switching signal for each switching operation of the transistor, switching information and switching parameter information via the transmission channel to the driver circuit. The driver circuit generates the drive signal depending on the switching information and depending on the switching parameter information.
Common mode voltage multiplexer
A circuit and a system that uses the circuit for connecting a plurality of input channels to a receiving device. The circuit includes a plurality of DMOS switches, each of which connects a respective one of the input channels to the receiving device in response to a respective control signal. The control signals are referenced to a ground signal. Each input channel includes a common mode voltage that is non-referenced to the ground signal. The circuit also includes a switch driver that generates the control signals such that the input channels are activated one at a time.
Integrated circuit device body bias circuits and methods
A system having an integrated circuit (IC) device can include a die formed on a semiconductor substrate and having a plurality of first wells formed therein, the first wells being doped to at least a first conductivity type; a global network configured to supply a first global body bias voltage to the first wells; and a first bias circuit corresponding to each first well and configured to generate a first local body bias for its well having a smaller setting voltage than the first global body bias voltage; wherein at least one of the first wells is coupled to a transistor having a strong body coefficient formed therein, which transistor may be a transistor having a highly doped region formed below a substantially undoped channel, the highly doped region having a dopant concentration greater than that the corresponding well.
Charge pump driven electronic switch with rapid turn off
An electronic circuit includes an electronic switch with a control terminal and a load path between a first and a second load terminal, and a drive circuit with an output terminal coupled to the control terminal of the electronic switch. The drive circuit includes a first input terminal and a second input terminal, a first drive unit coupled between the first input terminal and the output terminal and including a charge pump and drive unit, and a second drive unit coupled between the second input terminal and the output terminal and including a further electronic switch coupled between the output terminal and a terminal for a reference potential.
Identification circuit and method for generating an identification bit using physical unclonable functions
An embodiment of the present invention is an identification circuit installed on an integrated circuit for generating an identification bit, comprising a first circuit to generate a first output signal that is based on random parametric variations in said first circuit, a second circuit to generate a second output signal that is based on random parametric variations in said second circuit, a third circuit capable to be operated in an amplification mode and in a latch mode, wherein in said amplification mode the difference between the first output signal and the second output signal is amplified to an amplified value and, wherein in said latch mode said amplified value is converted into a digital signal.
Sequential logic circuit and method of providing setup timing violation tolerance therefor
A sequential logic circuit comprising a first latch component comprising a data input arranged to receive an input signal, a data output arranged to output a current logical state of the first latch component and a clock input arranged to receive a clock signal; the first latch component being arranged to comprise a transparent state upon the clock signal received thereby comprising a first logical state, and to comprise a latched state upon the clock signal received thereby comprising a second logical state, and a second latch component comprising a data input arranged to receive an input signal, a data output operably coupled to an output of the sequential logic circuit and arranged to output a current state of the second latch component and a clock input arranged to receive a clock signal; the second latch component being arranged to comprise a transparent state upon the clock signal received thereby comprising a second logical state, and to comprise a latched state upon the clock signal received thereby comprising a first logical state. The sequential logic circuit is arranged to operate in at least a first operating mode in which the data input of the first latch component and the data input of the second latch component are operably coupled to a first input of the sequential logic circuit, and in which the clock signals provided to the first and second latch components are such that a transition of the second latch component from a transparent state to a latched state is delayed relative to a corresponding transition of the first latch component from a transparent state to a latched state for a time period for receiving late data.
Semiconductor memory device with a clock circuit for reducing power consumption in a standby state
A semiconductor device including a logic circuit capable of decreasing a leakage current occurred during a standby state is provided. The semiconductor device includes a power supply portion for supplying a first operation voltage or a second operation voltage smaller than the first operation voltage; a P-type low-threshold transistor Tp for receiving the first or the second operation voltage from the power supply portion; and a N-type transistor Tn connected between the transistor Tp and a base potential. The transistors Tp, Tn construct a logic circuit. The power supply portion supplies the first operation voltage to the source of the transistor Tp in the enable state, and supplies the second operation voltage in a standby state. The second operation voltage is set so that voltage amplitude between gate and source of each transistor Tp, Tn is larger than the threshold value of the transistors Tp, Tn.
A duplexer includes: a transmission filter connected between a common terminal and a transmission terminal; and a reception filter connected between the common terminal and a reception terminal, wherein the reception filter includes resonators located on a piezoelectric substrate, at least one resonator of the resonators is grounded, and a resonator located at a side closest to the common terminal out of the grounded resonator is a divided resonator that is divided into two or more, and a resonance frequency fr of the divided resonator is in a range of fr=2×(fTL to fTH)−(fRL to fRH) when a pass frequency of the transmission filter is fTL to fTH and a pass frequency of the reception filter is fRL to fRH.
EBG structure and circuit board
An EBG (Electromagnetic Band Gap) structure according to an embodiment includes: an electrode that is made of a first conductor; a first insulating layer that is provided on the electrode; a patch unit that is provided in substantially parallel with the electrode on the first insulating layer, the patch unit including a first gap, the patch unit being made of a second conductor; a second insulating layer that is provided on the patch unit; a first via that is provided between the patch unit in the first insulating layer and the electrode and connected to the patch unit and the electrode; and a second via that is provided in the first and second insulating layers, the second via piercing the first gap and being connected to the electrode.
Variable gain low-noise amplifier
A variable-gain low-noise amplifier (VG-LNA) accepts a single-ended input signal at an input port and provides a differential output signal at an output port. The VG-LNA includes amplifier stages that are commonly coupled to the input port, with subtrahend amplifier stages commonly coupled to a negative terminal of the output port and minuend amplifier stages commonly coupled to a positive terminal of the output port. A control circuit activates up to one of the subtrahend amplifier stages and one of the minuend amplifier stages as a differential set of amplifier stages that generates the differential output signal from the single-ended input signal.
Gain control system for wireless communication system
A gain control system for a gain stage of a wireless communication system includes a gain control module and a mode selection module. The gain control module is operable in automatic gain control (AGC) and manual gain control (MGC) modes. The mode selection module checks the presence of first user-data in the first sub-frame based on a received signal strength indication (RSSI) value and/or a decibel amplitude level relative to full scale (dBFS) value, the presence of second user-data in a second sub-frame subsequent to the first sub-frame based on an advance information, calculates an estimated signal power level, and configures the gain control module in one of the AGC and MGC modes. Based on the mode, the gain control module provides a gain value to the gain stage.
Transmission method, transmission device, transmission program, and transmission system
To keep communication even if a distance between transmission devices is farther and a transmission distance therebetween is longer.A transmission device for alternately performing transmission and reception to/from a communication destination transmission device transmits transmit data to the communication destination transmission device. It receives return data transmitted by the communication destination transmission device after the transmit data reaches the communication destination transmission device. A predetermined period of time is assumed as one time unit, one transmission of transmit data and one reception of return data are tried within the one time unit, and when it is determined that one transmission of transmit data and one reception of return data do not fall within the one time unit, the transmission device is controlled such that N number of transmit data are continuously transmitted and then N number of return data are continuously received within N (N is an integer of two or more) time units.
Energy-efficient consumer device audio power output stage
An energy-efficient consumer device audio power output stage with gain control provides improved battery life and reduced power dissipation without clipping the audio output signal. A power supply having a selectable operating mode supplies the power supply rails to the power amplified output stage. The operating mode is controlled in conformity with an input audio signal level, which may be determined from a volume control setting of the device and/or from a signal level detector that determines the amplitude of the signal being amplified. The gain applied to the audio input signal is reduced for a predetermined time period when a higher output voltage of the power supply is selected, to avoid clipping the audio output signal.
Signal processing device
A level shifter converting a binary signal having a first potential and a second potential into a signal having the first potential and a third potential, and a signal processing circuit using the level shifter are provided. The first potential is higher than the second potential. The second potential is higher than the third potential. The potential difference between the first potential and the third potential may be more than or equal to 3 V and less than 4 V. The level shifter includes a current control circuit which generates a second signal for operating an amplifier circuit for a certain period in accordance with the potential change of the first signal which is input to the amplifier circuit. The output of level shifter is input to a gate of an N-channel transistor whose threshold voltage is lower than 0 V.
Transformer power amplifier
The present disclosure relates, according to some embodiments, to a transformer power amplifier that allows for improved Q values and increased efficiency by reducing the capacitance coupling effect between metal layers and/or sidewalls of the same layer through carefully designed conductor structures in primary and secondary loops. A transformer power amplifier comprises a substrate, a conductor, a circular coil, a first amplifier, and a second amplifier, the conductor and the circular coil disposed on the substrate. A circular coil has a first input terminal and a second input terminal, in which the first input terminal and the second input terminal are spaced apart and opposite each other to form an opening. A first amplifier is connected to a first input terminal for receiving a first signal and a second amplifier is connected to a second input terminal for receiving a second signal, wherein the first signal and the second signal are differential signals.
Wideband Doherty amplifier
Embodiments of a low-complexity and potentially physically small wideband impedance transformer that can be used in a combining network of a wideband Doherty amplifier are disclosed. In one embodiment, a wideband Doherty amplifier includes Doherty amplifier circuitry and a wideband combining network. The wideband combining network includes a wideband quarter-wave impedance transformer that includes a quarter-wave impedance transformer and compensation circuitry connected in parallel with the quarter-wave impedance transformer at a low-impedance end of the quarter-wave impedance transformer. The compensation circuitry is configured to reduce a total quality factor of the wideband quarter-wave impedance transformer as compared to a quality factor of the quarter-wave impedance transformer, which in turn increases a bandwidth of the wideband quarter-wave impedance transformer, and thus a bandwidth of the wideband Doherty amplifier.
A non-linear digital filtering process is provided whereby slew rate limitation-like phenomena in analog circuitry are compensated. Particularly, a reduction of the signal amplitude with respect to the theoretical size of the signal if linearity had held is avoided. A correct phase is re-established. Customized linear filtering, up-sampling, and down-sampling before and after the non-linear digital processing minimizes the creation of harmonics. The inventive system and method for non-linear processing has few parameters and it is not limited to a polynomial series. A dedicated calibration method is also provided to adapt the value of the parameter for a precise compensation of the right amount of slew rate limitation or other similar compression. Furthermore, a calibration method is shown to adjust existing DSP filtering to accomplish a precise desired filtering even when non-linear corrections may be arbitrarily large.
Assembly structure of power amplifier
An assembly structure of a power amplifier is provided. The assembly structure comprises at least two power amplifier modules, each power amplifier module comprises a heat-conducting board, an amplifier tube matching circuit board is assembled on the heat-conducting board; at least one radio frequency power amplifier tube is assembled on the amplifier tube matching circuit board, assembly directions of all the radio frequency power amplifier tubes are parallel to each other; the heat-conducting boards of adjacent two power amplifier modules are connected vertically along a transmission direction of the radio frequency signal. Comparing with the existing plane assembly technology, the application has a character of needing small assembly areas, which is adapted in an assembly environment with a certain height and small assembly areas.
Electric machine including a temperature sensing system
An electric machine includes a housing, a stator including stator windings mounted to the housing, a rotor supported in the housing and configured to rotate relative to the stator, a temperature sensing system including one or more resistors mounted to one of the stator and the rotor, and a controller electrically connected to the one or more resistors. The controller is configured and disposed to determine a temperature of the one of the stator and the rotor based on an electrical parameter of the one or more resistors.
Current controlled actuator driver with improved accuracy at low current
Various exemplary embodiments relate to a current driver for controlling a current source controlled by an alternating current (AC) signal, including: a current sensor configured to measure an output current from the current source; a threshold detector configured to detect when the measured current is below a threshold value; and a controller configured to control the current source using a duty cycle of the AC signal when the measured current is below the threshold.
Turbo charger generator
A turbo charger generator (1) generates power with a generator (7) by driving a gas turbine (3) and a compressor (6) with exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine (2). The generated AC power is supplied to an electric power system (12) via a power conversion unit (8). The power conversion unit (8) has a converter (13) for converting AC power into DC power, a unit (18) for estimating a rotor rotation angle θ based on a rotor magnetic flux, and a control unit (15) for coordinate-converting AC current into DC current by using the rotor rotation angle θ as the reference, and controlling the output DC power of the converter (13) such that the magnitude of the DC current is maintained at a target DC current value.
Sensorless dynamic driving method and system for single phase alternating current permanent magnet motor
A sensorless driving method for a single phase alternating current permanent magnet motor is described. The method comprises a starting drive mode and a stable drive mode. The starting drive mode comprises inputting a first current to drive a rotor to rotate to a stable position, the first current comprising a pulse current flowing in a first direction for a first predetermined starting time interval and a constant current flowing in a second direction contrary to the first direction for a second predetermined time interval, terminating the first current, determining generation of a back electromotive force, detecting a first zero crossing point of the back electromotive force, inputting a second current for a first charge time interval, waiting for a first post-charge time interval, detecting a second zero crossing point to define a previous half period between the first zero crossing point and the second crossing point, inputting the second current for a second charge time interval, waiting for a second post-charge time interval, and detecting speed of the rotor to compare the speed to a predetermined value. The second current flows in a direction in which the back electromotive force is generated.
Method and circuit arrangement for detecting motor load without sensors and for controlling motor current according to load for a stepper motor
A method and a circuit arrangement are provided in which a mechanical load applied to the motor shaft or a load angle of the motor can be detected without sensors in a stepper motor. This is achieved substantially based on the fact that the load or the load angle creates a mutually induced voltage (back EMF) in the motor coils and the load or the load angle is detected by determining the phase shift of the motor voltage at at least one of the motor coil relative to the coil current at said motor coil connection, the phase shift being caused by the mutually induced voltage. A method and a circuit arrangement are also provided wherein the motor current of a stepper motor can be controlled according to load angle in such a way that the current consumption of the motor is relatively low.
System for controlling controlled variable of rotary machine
In a system for controlling a controlled variable of a rotary machine having plural-phase input terminals of the rotary machine in which plural-phase AC power is applied from an AC power applying module to the input terminals, a command-voltage setting module sets, based on a request value for the controlled variable, plural-phase AC command voltages for the plural-phase AC power as a feedforward manipulated variable. A current obtaining module obtains plural-phase AC currents flowing in the respective plural-phase input terminals of the rotary machine. An amplitude correcting module corrects the amplitude of at least one of the plural-phase AC command voltages based on the magnitudes of the plural-phase AC currents.
Bidirectional DC-DC converter and power supply system
A bidirectional DC-DC converter comprises: a first low voltage-side input/output terminal and a second low voltage-side input/output terminal; a low voltage-side rectifying circuit connected to the first low voltage-side input/output terminal and the second low voltage-side input/output terminal; a first high voltage-side input/output terminal and a second high voltage-side input/output terminal; a high voltage-side rectifying circuit connected to the first high voltage-side input/output terminal and the second high voltage-side input/output terminal; a transformer connected between the low voltage-side rectifying circuit and the high voltage-side rectifying circuit; and a controlling circuit that controls operations of switching elements in the low voltage-side rectifying circuit and the high voltage-side rectifying circuit. The controlling circuit achieves soft switching of a switching element in the high voltage-side rectifying circuit in a step-down operation.
Control of a half resonant converter for avoiding capacitive mode
This invention relates to improved methods of preventing MOSFET damage in a resonant switched mode power converter (1) by preventing or limiting capacitive mode operation. A combination of response actions (respectively delaying MOSFET switch-on, adjusting switching phase, forcing a switch-on, and increasing frequency) is utilized. In the preferred embodiment, the voltage slope at the half-bridge node (5) is monitored, and in alternative embodiments the same or similar set of response actions is triggered by monitoring different signals, including: the resonant current polarity at switch-off or after the non-overlap time; the voltage of the to-be-switched-on” switch; and the voltage of the “just-switched-off” switch.
Matrix converter having a plurality of bidirectional switches for a commutation operation and control method therefor
Provided is a matrix converter including a power converter, a commutation controller, and a compensator. The power converter includes a plurality of bidirectional switches. The commutation controller performs one of a three-step commutation operation and a four-step commutation operation by the bidirectional switches as a switch source and the bidirectional switches as a switch destination when an input terminal to be connected to an output terminal is switched by on/off control of the bidirectional switches. The compensator compensates for an output voltage error generated when the input terminal to be connected to the output terminal is switched, based on a potential difference before and after the switching of the input terminal to be connected to the output terminal, an output current of the output terminal, and capacitance between input and output terminals of unidirectional switches.
Switched mode assisted linear regulator with AC coupling with capacitive charge control
The disclosed switched mode assisted linear (SMAL) amplifier/regulator architecture may be configured as a SMAL regulator to supply power to a dynamic load, such as an RF power amplifier. Embodiments of a SMAL regulator include configurations in which a linear amplifier and a switched mode converter (switcher) parallel coupled at a supply node, and configured such that the amplifier sets load voltage, while the amplifier and the switched mode converter are cooperatively controlled to supply load current. In one embodiment, the linear amplifier is AC coupled to the supply node, and the switched converter is configured with a capacitive charge control loop that controls the switched converter to effectively control the amplifier to provide capacitive charge control. In another embodiment, the amplifier includes separate feedback loops: an external relatively lower speed feedback loop may be configured for controlling signal path bandwidth, and an internal relatively higher speed feedback loop may be configured for controlling output impedance bandwidth of the linear amplifier.
Provision of an output voltage from a wide range variable and low input voltage
A circuit arrangement for providing an output voltage and/or an output current from an input voltage Vin, comprising: a first switching converter (10) having a storage element (120) and a first switching element (110), adapted to charge the storage element (120) from the input voltage Vin up to a threshold voltage and a second switching converter (20) having a second switching element (210) adapted to start with the threshold voltage at the storage element (120) and to provide the output voltage Vout and/or the output current Iout from the input voltage Vin, wherein the first switching element (110) has a minimum driving voltage, at and above which the first switching element (110) can perform switching operations, the second switching element (210) has a minimum driving voltage, at and above which the second switching element (210) can perform switching operations, and wherein the minimum driving voltage of the first switching element is smaller than the minimum driving voltage of the second switching element.
Voltage converter with step-down converter circuit and method for converting voltage
A voltage converter comprises a step-down converter circuit (DCDC) with an inductive accumulator (LSW) and a first capacitive accumulator (CDC) and a charge pump circuit (CP) with at least one second capacitive accumulator (CFLY, CFLY1,CFLY2). The step-down converter circuit (DCDC) which can be fed a supply voltage (VBAT) on the input side is designed to charge the first capacitive accumulator (CDC) to a first intermediate voltage in switched mode. The charge pump circuit (CP) is designed to charge the at least one second capacitive accumulator (CFLY, CFLY1,CFLY2) to a second intermediate voltage using the supply voltage (VBAT) and to generate an output voltage from the first and second intermediate voltages.
Multiplier-divider circuit and AC-to-DC power converting apparatus incorporating the same
An AC-to-DC power converting apparatus includes a power factor correction circuit generating a DC output voltage based on a rectified voltage obtained through rectifying an AC input voltage and on a PWM signal generated based on an adjustment current and a predetermined ramp signal. A multiplier-divider circuit includes: a ramp generating unit generating a ramp signal based on a clock signal and on a first detection voltage associated with the rectified voltage; a control unit generating a control signal based on the clock signal, the ramp signal, and a detection voltage generated based on the DC output voltage; and an output unit generating an adjustment signal based on an input signal associated with the rectified voltage and the control signal.
Coreless permanent magnet motor with surface charged magnet
A coreless permanent motor has a stator and a rotor rotatably mounted to the stator. One of the stator or the rotor has at least one winding disc (28). The other one of the stator or the rotor has at least one surface charged magnet disc (33). The winding disc (28) or the magnet disc (33) is formed by two or more sector shaped units that are mounted to two or more support members (27) respectively. The winding disc (28) or the magnet disc (33) is formed by closing the support member (27) and the closed support members (27) form a cylindrical housing. Thus, the structure of the coreless motor is simplified.
Method for forming electrodynamic machine insulated coils
A method for manufacturing electrodynamic machine conductive coils, such as alternating current induction motor stator coils. A continuous strand of insulation coated wire is formed into a generally planar elongated closed loop having a circumference and an outer surface. Thereafter a permanent insulation layer is applied to the closed loop outer surface, preferably by spiral wrapping insulating tape about the circumference of the closed loop with a tape wrapping machine. The insulating tape has a catalytic chemical compound including at least one part of a multi-part epoxy resin. The closed loop is shaped into a rigid conductive coil by application pressure, in order to conform the coil to a desired profile. Application of the permanent insulation layer to the closed loop prior to its final shaping enables machine insulation taping over a larger portion of the coil circumference and reduces need for slower and more expensive hand taping.
Nitrogen- and ceramic-surface-treated components for downhole motors and related methods
Downhole motors include a stator, which may be formed from a steel material and comprise a bore. At least one surface of the stator may be treated with a surface treatment. The surface treatment includes a nitrided region comprising nitrogen diffused into the steel material and a ceramic material adjacent to the nitrided region; the ceramic material defining an interior surface of the stator defining the bore. Methods of making downhole motors may include exposing a stator to an elevated temperature to heat the stator in a nitrogen-rich environment. Nitrogen may be diffused into a steel material of the stator and a nitrided region may be formed at one or more surfaces of the stator. The stator may be cooled. The stator may be removed from the nitrogen-rich environment. A ceramic material may be coated on the nitrided region of the stator.
Electromagnetically-countered actuator systems and methods
Various electric motor systems are provided to minimize irradiation of harmful (or first) electromagnetic waves. More particularly, an electric motor system is provided with one or more counter units which minimize irradiation of such harmful (or first) waves by suppressing such waves to (or toward) their sources and/or by emitting counter (or second) electromagnetic waves capable of canceling a desired portion of the harmful (or first) waves. Such counter units may then be incorporated into various locations for opposing magnetic poles of basic rotor units and/or basic stator units of the system. Various methods are also provided to minimize irradiation of such harmful (or first) waves by suppressing the harmful (or first) waves toward their sources and/or by canceling such harmful (or first) waves with the counter (or second) waves.
Motor cooling device having flow rate adjusting means for a coil end cover
A motor cooling device having good cooling performance, which is adapted to promote heat transfer between a coil end and a coil end cover even if the flowing amount of oil is small. A heat of a stator is withdrawn by the oil flowing around the coil end. For this purpose, the motor cooling device comprises a flow path formed between an outer face of the coil end and an inner face of the coil end cover, and a flow rate adjusting unit for changing a cross-sectional area of the flow path by moving the coil end cover toward the coil end or away from the coil end. The flow rate adjusting unit widens the cross-sectional area of the flow path in case a feeding amount of the oil to the flow path is relatively large, and narrows the cross-sectional area of the flow path in case a feeding amount of the oil to the flow path is relatively small.
Dynamo-type lanyard operated event detection and power generators
A generator including: a housing having an opening; a rotatable member having a slot formed for an angular length less than 360 degrees; a cable disposed in the slot and having a free end protruding from the opening in the housing; a cable stop disposed in a predetermined position in the slot; a spring for storing energy as the cable is unwound from the slot by pulling on the free end until the rotatable member rotates relative to the housing and the cable stop aligns with the opening; and an electromagnetic generator operatively connected to the spring such that the stored energy of the spring is transferred to an input side of the electromagnetic generator.
Air-cooled electrical machine with automatic clutch
The disclosure relates to an air-cooled electromechanical system having a rotor, a driver element, and a fan impeller, the rotor comprising a rotor shaft and field winding. Said disclosure proposes that the fan impeller is rotatably mounted on the rotor shaft and can be connected to and/or disconnected from the rotor and/or the rotor shaft by an automatic clutch.
Method and apparatus for managing the distribution of electrical energy in a power distribution grid
A power distribution grid comprising a plurality of cells configured to be electrically connected to each other and a power management system. A cell in the plurality of cells is configured to distribute electrical energy to an area corresponding to the cell. The cell has a plurality of entry nodes configured to allow the electrical energy to flow into the cell. The power management system is configured to manage a distribution of the electrical energy to the area by the cell independently of the distribution of the electrical energy to other areas by other cells in the plurality of cells.
Pairing of components in a direct current distributed power generation system
A method of signaling between a photovoltaic module and an inverter module. The inverter module is connected to the photovoltaic module. In an initial mode of operation an initial code is modulated thereby producing an initial signal. The initial signal is transmitted from the inverter module to the photovoltaic module. The initial signal is received by the photovoltaic module. The operating mode is then changed to a normal mode of power conversion, and during the normal mode of operation a control signal is transmitted from the inverter to the photovoltaic module. A control code is demodulated and received from the control signal. The control code is compared with the initial code producing a comparison. The control command of the control signal is validated as a valid control command from the inverter module with the control command only acted upon when the comparison is a positive comparison.
Flywheel and battery-based power supply system
A power supply system includes a flywheel system electrically coupled to a DC bus for supplying electrical power between a power grid and a load. The flywheel system includes a flywheel coupled to rotate with a rotor of a motor/generator. A battery system is electrically coupled to the DC bus concurrently with the flywheel system.
Control pilot vehicle interface with non-local return to ground
A vehicle interface is contemplated to be operable with an Electronic Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) system and a vehicle charging system to facilitate vehicle charging related operations. The vehicle interface may include one or more switches and a charger controller configured to facilitate communications between the EVSE system and the vehicle charging system. The vehicle interface may be configured to adapted to common mode interference and other influences resulting from connections between the vehicle interface and EVSE being referenced to earth ground and connections between the vehicle interface and other vehicle electronics being reference to a vehicle chassis ground.
Power consumption reduction method for a stored battery
A power consumption reduction method controls a rechargeable battery to enter a sleep mode after the electronic system is shutdown with the output current of the rechargeable battery falling under a first current value or the rechargeable battery is in a non-communication status for over a first delay time. When in the sleep mode, a control unit further controls the rechargeable battery to enter a power saving mode when the output voltage of the rechargeable battery falls under a predefined voltage or the RSOC of the rechargeable battery is lower than a percentage of FCC, and the output current of the rechargeable battery falls under a second current value or the rechargeable battery is in the non-communication status for over a second delay time. The method shuts down all power-consuming circuits and components under long-time idling of the battery, capable of preventing overly discharging and malfunction of the rechargeable battery.
Rechargeable battery module and battery charging method
A rechargeable battery module including a plurality of battery cells connected in series, a charging transistor, a balancing circuit and a control chip. The charging transistor is operative to convey a charging current to charge the battery cells. Based on voltage levels of the battery cells, the control chip disables the charging transistor and controls the balancing circuit to perform a first stage battery balance process. After finishing the first stage battery balance process, the control chip enables the charging transistor to charge the battery cells again. After being switched to a constant voltage charging mode, the control chip controls the balancing circuit based on the voltage levels of the battery cells to perform a second stage battery balance process.
Charger with strap for securing cord
A supplemental, rechargeable battery device has a housing containing a battery and a cord receiving portion circumscribing the housing. A button is coupled directly to and extending directly from a lateral side of the housing. A flexible strap is coupled to the housing and has a fixed end fixedly attached to a distal end of the housing, and an opposite free end removably couplable to the button.
Wireless power transmission system, method and apparatus for tracking resonance frequency in wireless power transmission system
A wireless power transmission system, a method and an apparatus for tracking a resonance frequency in the wireless power transmission system, are provided. A device of the wireless power transmission system includes a resonator configured to receive and output a power from another resonator of another device. The device further includes a power supply unit configured to provide, to a device load, the power output from the resonator. The device further includes a calibration load configured to receive the power output from the resonator in a calibration mode of the device to match resonance frequencies of the resonator and the other resonator. The device further includes a controller configured to selectively connect the resonator to the power supply unit or the calibration load, based on whether the device operates in the calibration mode.
Contactless rotary joint with safety function
Inductive rotary joint system with stationary and rotating sides has a one-phase rectifier for receiving one-phase AC-input to generate low-level DC-voltage, and a three-phase rectifier for receiving three-phase input to generate higher-level DC-voltage. An AC-power generator receives DC-voltage and generates AC-power, which is coupled by an inductive rotary joint to a load at the rotating side. Voltage coupled to the load is comparably higher when the one-phase rectifier is connected and comparably lower when the three-phase rectified is connected. A control unit at the secondary side for controlling at least the load is connected to measure the voltage produced for the secondary side, and to distinguish between a comparatively lower voltage and a comparatively higher voltage. When a presence of a comparatively higher voltage is indicated, an x-ray tube is enabled within the load.
Intelligent charging of multiple electric or electronic devices with a multi-dimensional inductive charger
A system and method for intelligent charging of multiple electric or electronic devices with a multi-dimensional inductive charger. In accordance with an embodiment, the system comprises a base unit having one or more transmitter coils; one or more receiver coils or receivers associated with one or more mobile device; one or more components including a ferromagnetic, ferrite, or other magnetic material or layer, that modify the magnitude and/or phase of an electromagnetic field in one or multiple dimensions; and one or more components within the base unit and/or the mobile device, for intelligent charging of multiple mobile devices. In accordance with various embodiments, the base unit can determine the presence of a mobile device in proximity to the base unit, and wherein a receiver coil or receiver thereby activated performs an initiation process whereby its ID, presence, power, voltage or other requirements are communicated to the base unit.
Anti-surge over-current protection device
An anti-surge over-current protection device comprises a PTC material layer, first and second conductive layers. The PTC material layer has opposite first and second planar surfaces. The first conductive layer is in physical contact with the first planar surface and comprises a plurality of first conductive members isolated from each other. The second conductive layer is in physical contact with the second planar surface, and comprises a plurality of second conductive members isolated from each other. The first conductive layer, the PTC material layer and the second conductive layer form a circuit containing first and second conductive paths. In the first conductive path, the PTC material layer forms a first series connection resistive component having at least two resistors. In the second conductive path, the PTC material layer forms a second series connection resistive component having at least two resistors.
DC grid and a method of limiting the effects of a fault in a DC grid
A DC grid (100) comprising a plurality of AC/DC converters (105) which are interconnected via DC lines (115) is provided, wherein, in order to limit the effects of a fault in the DC grid, the DC grid is divided into at least two zones (200) by means of at least one current limiter (205) in a manner so that a current limiter is connected in each of the DC line(s) (115z) by which two zones are interconnected. A method of limiting the effects of a fault in a DC grid by dividing the DC grid into at least two zones is also provided.
Driver for switching element and control system for rotary machine using the same
In a driver, a dissipating unit dissipates, upon a potential difference between input and output terminals of a switching element being lower than a predetermined potential, electrical charge for overcurrent detection between the input and output terminals. The dissipating unit includes a rectifier having a pair of first and second conductive terminals. The first conductive terminal is connected to the input terminal of the switching element. An overcurrent determiner determines that an overcurrent flows between the input and output terminals of the switching element upon determination that electrical charge has not been dissipated by the dissipating unit despite the change of the switching element from the off state to the on state. A failure determiner determines whether there is a failure in the dissipating unit as a function of a potential at a point on the first electrical path from the failure determiner to the second conductive terminal.
Electrical harness equipped with a device to space its electrical conductors at the level of a partition passage
The object of the invention is an electrical harness having a plurality of electrically conductive elements held one against another in a braided sheath obtained by braiding strands around the electrical conductor elements, the strands being joined and forming a web around the electrical conductor elements when held against each other, wherein it includes a device to space comprising at least one portion with a peripheral surface at the level of which channels are provided wherein an electrical conductor fits, said portion having a section such that it allows to obtain spaced strands at the level of said device to space when the sheath is being braided around the electrical conductor elements.
Spark plug construction
A spark plug is disclosed and comprises: a metal tube which interiorly defines an axis and is externally-threaded for engine block engagement; an insulator having a portion which is disposed inside the tube and extends therebeyond; a positive electrode extending through the insulator and projecting beyond the extending portion of the insulator; and an annular ground electrode coupled to the tube. The electrodes are configured such that a spark gap defined therebetween comprises an elongate channel which opens axially and away from said insulator and is substantially unobstructed in the axial direction. The ground defines a void having: a central portion occupied by the positive electrode in use; an annular channel surrounding the central portion; and a plurality of lobes, each being positioned with respect to the central portion in a manner analogous to the placement of the planet gears with respect to the sun gear in a planetary gear.
Electrical connector with multiple interfaces
An electrical connector having a body, first and second female interfaces, a female connector, one to four side interfaces and a connecting pin. The body has a longitudinal axis with a passage extending between the first and second female interfaces. The side interfaces extend from the body and are substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. The interfaces have a distal end and a bus electrically connected to the female connector. The ends of the connecting pin are adapted to snugly engage louver-type connectors on male interfaces, which are inserted into the first and second female interfaces. The electrical connector is designed to minimize the distance between the first and second ends of the body. The side interfaces of the electrical connector can be designed to accommodate different high voltage connectors.
USB power adapter for AC and DC power
A USB power adapter for AC and DC power has a circuit board, a base and a top cover. The base and the top cover receive the circuit board therein. The circuit board has an AC conversion module, a DC conversion module, and a USB connection port. The base has a cigarette lighter electrically connected to the DC conversion module. The top cover has a pair of blades electrically connected to the AC conversion module. The AC power inputted through the pair of blades is converted by the AC conversion and the DC conversion module into the power outputted through the USB connection port. Accordingly, it is unnecessary to prepare a dedicated AC or DC charger depending upon the type of power source or to prepare a charger requiring many replaceable plugs. The inconvenience caused by carrying and operating those chargers or plugs can be resolved.
A shielded connector adapted to be connected to a terminal of a shielded electrical cable provided with an insulator, an outer conductor and a sheath around an inner conductor in this order includes an inner terminal that is connected to the inner conductor, an insulating member that covers the inner terminal, and an outer terminal that is connected to the outer conductor. The outer terminal includes a cylindrical-shaped shield portion that covers the insulating member, a crimping portion, and a connection portion that connects the shield portion with the crimping portion. The connection portion includes a bottom plate part and side wall parts erected from both sides of the bottom plate part, and the side wall parts have upper ends having a height equal to or larger than a center line of the outer terminal.
A connector capable of achieving a height reduction thereof; dealing with connecting a large number of wires; and easily obtaining a shielding effect against external and internal noises is provided. A receptacle used for the connector includes: a receptacle housing of a plate shape having a width direction, a depth direction, and a thickness direction; a plurality of contacts disposed on respective side surfaces of the receptacle housing in the depth direction so as to be parallel to each other in the width direction; and a conductive shield member having an attachment part. The receptacle housing is provided with a plurality of grooves having the same shape into which the plurality of contacts and the attachment part can be inserted.
Spark gap for high-speed cable connectors
Circuits, methods, and apparatus that may provide low-capacitance protection from electrostatic discharges. One example protects a circuit in a cable connector that is connected to cable connector contacts. This example may include a number of spark gaps that may be used for electrostatic discharge protection. These spark gaps may be formed using traces a printed circuit board. Signal traces to be protected may be routed such that they pass in close proximity to a ground pad, line, plane, area, or connection. When excessive electrostatic energy builds up on the signal trace, the energy may spark across a gap from the signal trace to the ground pad. The gap and parts of the signal traces and ground may be uncovered such that the electrostatic discharge may dissipate through the air.
A connector includes: at least one of a contact 5; a housing 3 accommodating the contact 5; an insertion opening 4 to which a flat cable 2 can be inserted, the insertion opening 4 being provided in front part of the housing 3 and being defined by upper and lower walls 33 and 32 of the housing 3 at the top and bottom; and a lever 6 which is provided in back part of the housing 3 and includes cam portions 61 which bring the contact 5 into pressure contact with the flat cable 2 and establish electrical continuity therebetween when the lever 6 is turned. The contact 5 includes a contact 5A having a placement surface S1 which is located at a substantially same height position in the vertical direction as a contact surface S2 of the corresponding cam portion 61 in the housing 3.
Terminal aligning connector unit
When a male terminal connector (10) and a female terminal connector (50) are engaged with each other, projecting inclined faces (20a) and partition wall inclined faces (59) which are opposed to each other are brought into contact or made opposed to each other, and, fitting projections (61) insert into fitting recesses (21) in such a manner that the fitting projections (61) and the fitting recesses (21) are held with gaps between them.
Magnetic connector for electronic device
An electrical plug and receptacle relying on magnetic force from an electromagnet to maintain contact are disclosed. The plug and receptacle can be used as part of a power adapter for connecting an electronic device, such as a laptop computer, to a power supply. The plug includes electrical contacts, which are preferably biased toward corresponding contacts on the receptacle. The plug and receptacle each have a magnetic element. The magnetic element on one of the plug or receptacle can be a magnet or ferromagnetic material. The magnetic element on the other of the plug or receptacle is an electromagnet. When the plug and receptacle are brought into proximity, the magnetic attraction between the electromagnet magnet and its complement, whether another magnet or a ferromagnetic material, maintains the contacts in an electrically conductive relationship.
Embodiments of magnetic connectors are disclosed. Embodiments show the use of magnetic connectors for power and/or signal bus coupling to electronic devices from support bases, stands, or cables. In some embodiments, spherical contacts, such as ball bearings, are pressed into firm contact with an electronic device by the use of conductive springs, which in turn electrically couple the spherical contacts to the bus lines. Contact arrangements are shown which allow rotation of the electronic device against an embodiment of magnetic connector. Arrangements of multiple magnets having differing polarities are shown when alignment of an electronic device in a particular orientation is required.
Waterproof electrical connector and method for making the same
A waterproof electrical connector (100) includes a number of terminals (2), a metallic shell (1), and an insulating housing (3) molded outside of the metal shell (1) to thereby define a passageway (10). The insulating housing (1) includes a base portion (33) and a tongue portion (31) extending forwardly from the base portion (33). The base portion (33) includes at least one mold cavity (331) for inserting a mold. The mold cavity (331) and the passageway (10) are spaced apart from each other along the insertion/extraction direction for having better waterproof function.
An intermediate housing (10) has a fitting recess (12) in which ends (91) of intermediate terminals (90) are located. An inner housing (30A) is fit into the fitting recess (12) and has first terminal fittings (110A) connectable to the intermediate terminals (90). A retainer (130) is inserted into the inner housing (30A) to retain the terminal fittings (110A). An outer housing (50) is fit externally onto the fitting recess (12) and includes an outer peripheral wall (53) surrounding the inner housing (30A). A mounting portion (21) projects on the outer surface of the fitting recess (12). The outer peripheral wall (53) is recessed to form an escaping portion (61) into which the mounting portion (21). The retainer (130) includes a confirmation surface (133) exposed to the outside of the inner housing (30A) when being inserted into the inner housing (30A) and visually confirmed from outside through the escaping portion (61).
A stackable breadboard includes a plurality of through holes formed therein, including a plurality of first insertion holes that extends through a top surface a bottom surface thereof and a plurality of second insertion holes that extend through the top surface and side surfaces thereof. The first insertion holes extends longitudinally to allow more than one breadboard to connect in a longitudinally stacked arrangement through male and female connection terminals thereby achieving a three-dimensional stacked arrangement that effectively reduce the surface area occupied thereby. Further, the second insertion holes are arranged to extend, at opposite ends thereof, in the longitudinal and transverse directions to allow more than one breadboard to connect to each other sideways by means of the male and female connection terminals to achieve expansion of the functionality thereof.
Ultrasonic welding method for conductors
An ultrasonic welding method for conductors is provided that is capable of suppressing occurrence of insufficient weld strength and a separation which may occur when terminals of a wires are ultrasonically welded. In a wire arranging step, wires are arranged in accordance with a predetermined arrangement. In a conductor moving step, conductors (2) are pressed in a predetermined direction by a grinding jaw (12), and thereby relative positions among the conductors (2) are changed. In a first ultrasonic welding step, ultrasonic welding is performed on the conductors (2) in a state of being pressed by the grinding jaw (12). In a second ultrasonic welding step, the pressing applied by the grinding jaw (12) is released, and ultrasonic welding is performed on the conductors (2).
Dual frequency antenna
A dual frequency antenna comprises: a helix coil, of which the lower end is provided with a first resonant coil with a first pitch and of which the upper end is provided with a second resonant coil with a second pitch, for resonating at a frequency lower than the resonant frequency of the first resonant coil, wherein, the first pitch is larger than the second one; a first coupling unit, which is installed in the first resonant coil and is electrically isolated from the first resonant coil, for stabilizing resonant frequency performance of the first resonant coil; and a second coupling unit, which is installed outside the helix coil and is electrically isolated from the helix coil, for increasing equivalent electrical length of the first resonant coil and raising resonant frequency gain of the first coil. By the improvement of the two coupling units in the high frequency part of parts of the resonant structure in the present invention, better resonant frequency performance of the first resonant coil is obtained, thus centralizing performance of the first resonant coil to the upper hemisphere, increasing the distribution current of the first resonant coil, and at the same time increasing the electrical length of the first resonant coil.
Wireless device capable of multiband MIMO operation
A wireless handheld or portable device includes a communication module with a MIMO system that provides multiband MIMO operation in first and second frequency bands. The MIMO system includes first and second radiating systems, a ground plane common to the two radiating systems, first and second radio frequency systems, and a MIMO module. The first and second radiating systems both operate in the first and second frequency bands and respectively include first and second radiating structures coupled to the ground plane, which respectively have first and second radiation boosters that fit in an imaginary sphere having a diameter smaller than ¼ of a diameter of a radiansphere of a longest wavelength of the first frequency band. The first and second radiofrequency systems respectively modify impedance of the first and second radiating structures to provide impedance matching to the first and second radiating systems within the first and second frequency bands.
Reflector array antenna with crossed polarization compensation and method for producing such an antenna
A reflector array antenna with cross-polarization compensation including at least one radiating element having an etched pattern dissymmetric with respect to at least one direction X and/or Y of the plane XY of the radiating element, the dissymmetry of the pattern of the radiating element being calculated individually on the basis of a radiating element of the same symmetric pattern along the two directions X and Y, so as to engender a reflected wave having a controlled depolarization which opposes a depolarization, engendered in a plane normal to a direction of propagation, by the reflector array illuminated by a primary source.
Adaptive antenna neutralization network
An adaptive antenna neutralization network (AANN) for neutralizing coupling between a first antenna and a second antenna of a mobile terminal is disclosed. The AANN includes an array of reactive branches. Each of the reactive branches includes a reactive element and an electrically controlled switch with a control input for selectively coupling the reactive element between the first antenna and the second antenna. Also included is a switch driver having an output coupled to the control input of each electrically controlled switch, and a controller having an output for sending control signals to the switch driver to turn on or off individual ones of the electrically controlled switches in response to conditions that indicate a coupling state between the first antenna and the second antenna.
Wideband antenna with low passive intermodulation attributes
An antenna assembly with wide bandwidth and low Passive Intermodulation (PIM) characteristics is described for use in Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) and other applications which require low PIM levels. The antenna can be configured to cover multiple cellular frequency bands to provide a single antenna solution for use with multiple transceivers. A single conductor radiator design along with features integrated into the ground plane result in low PIM characteristics during high power transmission. One or multiple parasitic elements can be coupled to the driven antenna to enhance bandwidth while still maintaining low PIM characteristics.
Antenna modules for dual interface smart cards, booster antenna configurations, and methods
Winding a module antenna (MA) for an antenna module (AM) on a tubular support structure (SS) having have a lid structure (LD) or a planar tool (PT) disposed at its free end to constrain the windings. Alternatively, winding wire coils for module antennas (MA) on coil winding forms (CWF, FIG. 26) and transferring them to a module tape (MT). Double-sided and single-sided module tapes (MT) having vias and openings (h) are disclosed. Connection bridges (CBR) formed within, between or surrounding the contact pads (CP) are disclosed. Various configurations for components (CA, CC, EA) of booster antenna (BA) are disclosed. A coupler coil (CC) has an inner winding (iw) and an outer winding (ow). Techniques for embedding wire and for bonding wire are disclosed.
Planar array feed for satellite communications
An apparatus, system, and method are disclosed for wireless communications. A planar antenna element is disposed on a surface of a substrate. The planar antenna element comprises an electrically conductive material. The substrate comprises a dielectric material. The planar antenna element may be arranged in a planar antenna array as a feed for a reflector antenna or as an aperture array. The planar antenna element may comprise a slot patch antenna element with a slot in the electrically conductive material of the planar antenna element circumscribing the planar antenna element. The slot exposes the dielectric material of the substrate. A ground plane may be disposed on the surface of the substrate. The ground plane comprises an electrically conductive material. The slot may be disposed between the ground plane and the patch antenna element. The substrate may include electronic components for beam steering, upconversion, downconversion, amplification, or other functions.
Method of accessing a wireless network and a wireless device
In one embodiment, this method includes sending, from a terminal, a random access request; and receiving, at the terminal, system information from a base station via a unicast transmission in response to the random access request. The system information includes an identifier, uplink bandwidth information and downlink bandwidth information. The identifier identifies the base station, the uplink bandwidth information indicates a bandwidth to use for uplink transmission, and the downlink bandwidth information indicates a bandwidth used for downlink transmission.
Method for manufacturing antenna structure
A method for manufacturing an antenna structure is disclosed. Employing steps of mixing with a catalyst and embedding a metal insert can simplify steps for manufacturing the antenna structure. Further, a non-conductive frame produced by the process disclosed herein can exhibit waterproof effect. The catalyst mentioned above is mixed with a plastic and then injected into a mold to form the non-conductive frame. The metal insert mentioned above is disposed in the mold before the step of injecting the plastic. Alternatively, the metal insert is embedded in the non-conductive frame after the step of injecting the plastic.
Planar array feed for satellite communications
An apparatus, system, and method are disclosed for wireless communications. A planar antenna element is disposed on a surface of a substrate. The planar antenna element comprises an electrically conductive material and has a circular polarization. The substrate comprises a dielectric material. The planar antenna element may be arranged in a planar antenna array as a feed for a reflector antenna or as an aperture array. The planar antenna element may comprise a slot patch antenna element with a slot in the electrically conductive material of the planar antenna element circumscribing the planar antenna element. The slot exposes the dielectric material of the substrate. A ground plane may be disposed on the surface of the substrate. The ground plane comprises an electrically conductive material. The slot may be disposed between the ground plane and the patch antenna element.
Antenna structure and wireless communication device using the same
An antenna structure includes a feed portion, a ground portion, a first radiating body, a second radiating body, and a third radiating body. The feed portion is connected to a first shared portion of the first radiating body. The second radiating body further includes a second shared portion connected to the first shared portion. The first and second shared portions are included in a third radiating body together with a combining portion between the second shared portion and the ground portion. The first radiating body receives and sends wireless signals of a first frequency band, the second radiating body uses a second frequency band, and the third radiating body uses a third frequency band.
The subject matter described herein relates a microstrip antenna. In one implementation, the microstrip antenna comprises a dielectric substrate, a first metallic layer on a first side of the dielectric substrate and a second metallic layer on a second side, opposite to the first side, of the dielectric substrate. The first metallic layer on the dielectric substrate comprises one or more end-to-end slots to divide the first metallic layer into a plurality of microstrip patches. The microstrip antenna also comprises a feed circuit which is electromagnetically coupled to the plurality of microstrip patches and the second metallic layer.
Communication device and method for enhancing impedance bandwidth of antenna thereof
A communication device and a method for enhancing impedance bandwidth of an antenna are provided. The communication device includes at least one ground, at least one antenna, a current-drawing conductor structure, and at least one coupling conductor structure. The antenna is electrically connected to the ground through a source and generates at least one operating frequency band for transmitting or receiving electromagnetic signals of at least one communication band. The current-drawing conductor structure includes a plurality of conductor elements, where there is at least one mutual coupling portion formed between neighboring conductor elements. The coupling conductor structure has a first conductor portion and a second conductor portion. One end of the first conductor portion is electrically connected to the ground, and another end thereof is electrically connected to the second conductor portion. There is at least one coupling portion formed between the second conductor portion and the current-drawing conductor structure.
Differential transmission circuit, optical module, and information processing system
A differential transmission circuit includes a pair of transmission line conductors and a ground conductor layer, wherein the pair of transmission line conductors include a first straight line region where both the pair of transmission line conductors extend in parallel to each other in a first direction with a first width in a first layer, a first cross region where one of the pair of transmission line conductors is formed in the first layer, the other thereof is formed in a second layer, and the pair of transmission line conductors cross the each other in a three-dimensional manner, the first cross region being disposed on the front side of the first straight line region, and wherein each of the widths of the pair of transmission line conductors in the first cross region is smaller than the first width.
Method and system for battery protection
An electrical combination. The combination comprises a hand held power tool, a battery pack and a controller. The battery pack includes a battery pack housing connectable to and supportable by the hand held power tool, a plurality of battery cells supported by the battery pack housing, each of the plurality of battery cells having a lithium-based chemistry, being individually tapped and having an individual state of charge. A communication path is provided by a battery pack sense terminal and a power tool sense terminal. The controller is operable to monitor a state of charge of a number of battery cells less than the plurality of battery cells and to generate a signal based on the monitored state of charge of the number of battery cells less than the plurality of battery cells, the signal being operable to control the operation of the hand held power tool.
Even if requirements for any scale of system constructions occur, a battery system of flexibly responding to the requirements is provided. The battery system comprising a battery module having a plurality of battery cells being connected, a battery pack having a plurality of battery modules being connected either in series or in parallel or both in series and in parallel, and a battery block having a plurality of battery packs being connected either in series or in parallel or both in series and in parallel. They are mutually layered. In the battery system, the battery module, the battery pack, and the battery block are previously prepared as variations of layered basic units. In response to requirements for any scale of system constructions, the basic units are combined accordingly.
Energy storage devices having anodes containing Mg and electrolytes utilized therein
For a metal anode in a battery, the capacity fade is a significant consideration. In energy storage devices having an anode that includes Mg, the cycling stability can be improved by an electrolyte having a first salt, a second salt, and an organic solvent. Examples of the organic solvent include diglyme, triglyme, tetraglyme, or a combination thereof. The first salt can have a magnesium cation and be substantially soluble in the organic solvent. The second salt can enhance the solubility of the first salt and can have a magnesium cation or a lithium cation. The first salt, the second salt, or both have a BH4 anion.
Pyrophosphate compound and production process thereof
To provide a positive electrode active material containing a pyrophosphate compound, ensuring that mixing of impurities is easily prevented to facilitate the synthesis and a high capacity battery is obtained, and a lithium ion battery using the positive electrode material. That is, the present invention relates to a pyrophosphate compound represented by the formula: Li2M1-xFexP2O7 (wherein M represents one or more elements selected from Mn, Zr, Mg, Co, Ni, V and Cu, and 0.3≦x≦0.9).
Method for modifying cathode material and lithium battery employing the cathode material
The invention provides a lithium battery, including: a cathode plate and an anode plate; a separator disposed between the cathode plate and the anode plate to define a reservoir region; and an electrolyte filled in the reservoir region. A thermal protective film is provided to cover a material of the cathode plate or the anode plate. When a battery temperature rises over an onset temperature of the thermal protective film, it undergoes a crosslinking reaction to inhibit thermal runaway. A method for fabricating the lithium ion battery is also provided.
Anode and battery
An anode capable of preventing expansion of an anode active material layer and a battery using it are provided. The anode includes an anode current collector, and an anode active material layer containing silicon (Si) as an element, wherein the anode active material layer therein contains at least one selected from the group consisting of a fluoride of an alkali metal and a fluoride of an alkali earth metal.
Lithium secondary batteries and nonaqueous electrolyte for use in the same
A lithium secondary battery comprising: a positive electrode and a negative electrode which each has a specific composition and specific properties; and a nonaqueous electrolyte which contains a cyclic siloxane compound represented by general formula (1), fluorosilane compound represented by general formula (2), compound represented by general formula (3), compound having an S—F bond in the molecule, nitric acid salt, nitrous acid salt, monofluorophosphoric acid salt, difluorophosphoric acid salt, acetic acid salt, or propionic acid salt in an amount of 10 ppm or more of the whole nonaqueous electrolyte. This lithium secondary battery has a high capacity, long life, and high output. [In general formula (1), R1 and R2 are an organic group having 1-12 carbon atoms and n is an integer of 3-10. In general formula (2), R3 to R5 are an organic group having 1-12 carbon atoms; x is an integer of 1-3; and p, q, and r each are an integer of 0-3, provided that 1≦p+q+r≦3. In general formula (3), R6 to R8 are an organic group having 1-12 carbon atoms and symbol A is a group constituted of H, C, N, O, F, S, Si, and/or P.]
Cylindrical secondary battery of improved safety
Provided is a cylindrical battery in which an electrode assembly fabricated by rolling a cathode/separator/anode and an electrolyte are provided in a cylindrical can, wherein a cap assembly mounted on the opening top of the cylindrical can comprises: a safety vent provided with a predetermined notch, to allow breakage due to high-pressure gas of the battery, a current interruptive device to interrupt current, welded to the bottom of the safety vent, and a gasket for the current interruptive device to surround the periphery of the current interruptive device, wherein the current interruptive device comprises two or more through holes to allow exhaustion of gas, wherein the through holes have a size of 20 to 50% with respect to the total area of the current interruptive device.
Composition, polymer thereof, electrode and electrolyte membrane for fuel cell, and fuel cell including the same
A composition including a compound having a fluorine functional group, a polymer as a polymerization product of the composition, an electrode and an electrolyte membrane for a fuel cell, which include the composition or the polymer thereof, and a fuel cell including at least one of the electrode and the electrolyte membrane.
Ultrapure synthetic carbon materials
The present application is generally directed to ultrapure synthetic carbon materials having both high surface area and high porosity, ultrapure polymer gels and devices containing the same. The disclosed ultrapure synthetic carbon materials find utility in any number of devices, for example, in electric double layer capacitance devices and batteries. Methods for making ultrapure synthetic carbon materials and ultrapure polymer gels are also disclosed.
Cathode active material, cathode electrode, and non-aqueous secondary battery
A cathode active material comprising a composition represented by the following general formula (1): LiaM1xM2yM3zPmSinO4 (1) wherein M1 is at least one kind of element selected from the group of Mn, Fe, Co and Ni; M2 is any one kind of element selected from the group of Ti, V and Nb; M3 is at least one kind of element selected from the group of Zr, Sn, Y and Al; “a” satisfies 0
A battery pack includes unit cells and holders for sandwiching the unit cells. The holder includes a holding portion which holds the unit cell such that an electrode of the unit cell projects from between the holder and another holder sandwiching the unit cell, and a plurality of projecting portions which project in a direction in which the electrode projects from the holding portion and face each other across the electrode projecting from the holding portion. The projecting portion includes a passage which is formed along a direction, in which the unit cell is sandwiched, and is configured to flow fluid, and an opening which communicates with the passage and is open toward the electrode projecting from the holding portion.
Precursor formulation for battery active materials synthesis
Compositions and methods of forming battery active materials are provided. A solution of battery active metal cations and reactive anions may be blended with a fuel to yield a precursor mixture usable for synthesizing a battery active material for deposition onto a substrate. The battery active metal cations include lithium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, iron, vanadium, and the like. Reactive anions include nitrate, acetate, citrate, tartrate, maleate, azide, amide, and other lower carboxylates. Suitable fuels, which may be water miscible, may include amino compounds. Alcohols and sugars may be added to adjust carbon content and fuel combustion characteristics. An exothermic reaction is performed to convert the metals into battery active oxides.
Energy storage device and method for manufacturing the same
Provided are an energy storage device including an electrode in which lithium is introduced into a silicon layer and a method for manufacturing the energy storage device. A silicon layer is formed over a current collector, a solution including lithium is applied on the silicon layer, and heat treatment is performed thereon; thus, at least lithium can be introduced into the silicon layer. By using the solution including lithium, even when the silicon layer includes a plurality of silicon microparticles, the solution including lithium can enter a space between the microparticles and lithium can be introduced into the silicon microparticles which are in contact with the solution including lithium. Moreover, even when the silicon layer is a thin silicon film or includes a plurality of whiskers or whisker groups, the solution can be uniformly applied; accordingly, lithium can be included in silicon easily.
Lithium ion secondary battery active material, lithium ion secondary battery electrode, lithium ion secondary battery, electronic device, electronic power tool, electric vehicle, and power storage system
A lithium ion secondary battery includes: a positive electrode; a negative electrode; and an electrolytic solution, at least one of the positive electrode and the negative electrode being capable of storing and releasing lithium ions, and containing an active material that satisfies predetermined conditions.
Solid oxide fuel cell stack modular structure
The present invention relates to a solid oxide fuel cell stack modular structure, in that, being an integration of a plurality of fuel cell modules, it can determine the amount of fuel cell modules to be stacked in the modular structure according to an actual power output demand while ensuring airtightness in the modular structure, and moreover, with the modularization design, each fuel cell module in the modular structure that is malfunctioning can be detached and removed easily from the stack individually so as to be replaced by another operative fuel cell module.
Reverse electrodialysis supported microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells
Systems and methods for microbial processes of generating products such as electrical power, hydrogen gas and methane, are provided according to aspects of the present invention which include a reaction chamber having a wall defining an interior of the reaction chamber and an exterior of the reaction chamber; an anode at least partially contained within an anode compartment of the reaction chamber; a plurality of exoelectrogenic microorganisms disposed in the anode compartment; a cathode at least partially contained within a cathode compartment of the reaction chamber; a conductive conduit for electrons in electrical communication with the anode and the cathode; and a reverse electrodialysis stack comprising a plurality of plurality of alternating anion selective barriers and cation selective barriers disposed between the anode and the cathode defining one or more saline material compartments and one or more lower-saline material compartments.
Battery separator and method of making same
A battery separator comprises a multi-layered film, individual layers of film having been bonded together by heat and pressure, having a peel strength of greater than or equal to 40 grams per inch (1.6 g/mm) and a thickness of ≦25 microns. A method for making a battery separator comprises the steps of: extruding and winding up a first precursor film, extruding and winding up a second precursor film, unwinding the first and second precursor films, stacking up the first and second precursor films to form a single stacked precursor, laminating the single stacked precursor film, winding up the laminated single stacked precursor film, stacking up a plurality of laminated single stacked precursor films, and making microporous the stacked plurality of laminated single stacked precursor films.
Modular battery structure
A module system is provided that includes at least one module support and at least one module support and at least one energy storage module that is connected to the at least one module support. The module support and the energy storage module have cooling fluid connections, electric contacts, and coupling elements that are adapted to each other.
A battery module includes a first unit cell arranged parallel to a second unit cell and a spacer arranged between the first and second unit cell. Each of the first and second unit cells includes a first electrode terminal and a second electrode terminal having a polarity opposite to that of the first electrode terminal. The spacer includes a main body and a first wall portion extending upward from the main body, and the first wall portion is disposed at and between the first electrode terminal of the first unit cell and the second electrode terminal of the second unit cell. The first electrode terminal of the first unit cell is juxtaposed to the second electrode terminal of the second unit cell.
Anode for a cell of a lithium-ion battery, its manufacturing process and the battery incorporating it
An anode usable in a cell of a lithium-ion battery comprising an electrolyte based on a lithium salt and a non-aqueous solvent, to a process for manufacturing this anode and to a lithium-ion battery having one or more cells incorporating this anode. This anode is based on a polymer composition, obtained by melt processing and without solvent evaporation, that is the product of a hot compounding reaction between an active material and additives having a polymer binder and an electrically conductive filler. The binder is based on at least one crosslinked elastomer and the additives furthermore include at least one non-volatile organic compound usable in the electrolyte solvent, the composition advantageously includes the active material in a mass fraction greater than or equal to 85%.
Fuel, fuel cell system, fuel cell vehicle and operating method for fuel cell system
A direct type fuel cell (1) is supplied with a fuel comprised of hydrocarbon and antioxidant, to have a maintained durability.
Interconnector arrangement for a fuel cell stack
The invention relates to an interconnector arrangement for a fuel cell stack, which can be brought into electrical contact with at least one membrane electrode assembly and which is arranged to separate a cathode flow field of the fuel cell stack from an anode flow field of the fuel cell stack. The invention is characterized in that the interconnector arrangement comprises a hollow space separated from the anode flow field and from the cathode flow field such that a flow of gas through the hollow space may not be more than five percent of flow-off gas through the cathode flow field or the anode flow field. The invention also relates to a fuel cell stack and to a method for manufacturing an interconnector arrangement.
El panel, and illumination device and display device using the same
The present invention provides an EL panel, an EL illumination device, and an EL display device in which irregularity of luminance does not easily occur in the in-plane of the EL element by a protection sheet for suppressing conduction of heat on the outermost surface of the EL element. There is an EL panel including: a light-transmissive substrate; an EL element including a light-emitting medium layer interposed between a cathode and an anode, the EL element being provided on one surface of the light-transmissive substrate; and a protection sheet on the other surface of the light-transmissive substrate of the EL element. The protection sheet has a surface opposite to the light-transmissive substrate, the shape of the surface includes rounded convex shapes and prism shapes. Each of the rounded shapes has an apex that is a center point of a cross-section farthest from a bottom surface where the cross-section is parallel to the bottom surface of the unit convex shape and the area becomes smaller in a direction from the bottom surface of the rounded convex shape to a top portion thereof. Irregularity of luminance in the in-plane of the EL element does not easily occur by optimizing the height of the apex and the distance between the apexes.
Display panel apparatus and manufacturing method of display panel apparatus
A display panel apparatus includes pixels, each including an organic luminescent layer between first and second electrodes. A glass substrate is above the second electrode. A lens sheet is between the pixels and the glass substrate and includes a lens corresponding to each of the pixels and a base from which the lens protrudes. A first partition is between the glass substrate and the lens sheet on a first side of the base from which the lens protrudes for partitioning, between the glass substrate and the lens sheet, a gap between the lens of each of the pixels. A second partition is between the organic electro-luminescence unit and the lens sheet on a second side of the base opposite the first side from which the lens protrudes for partitioning, between the organic electro-luminescence unit and the lens sheet, the gap between the lens of each of the pixels.
Organic light emitting diode display and manufacturing method thereof
An OLED display according to an exemplary embodiment includes: a substrate; an organic light emitting diode formed on the substrate; an overcoat covering the organic light emitting diode; and a patterned metal sheet attached on the overcoat and having a plurality of protrusion and depression portions. A plurality of protrusions may be formed in a bottom surface of the patterned metal sheet where the protrusion and depression portions of the patterned metal sheet and the overcoat face each other.
Organic electroluminescence illuminating device and method for manufacturing the same
An organic electroluminescence illuminating device (L) has a structure in which an organic electroluminescence element (10) is provided and encapsulated between a pair of substrates (20, 21). A light emitting surface of the organic electroluminescence element (10) has a portion which is not parallel to a light extraction surface of the entire illuminating device.
High efficiency organic photovoltaic cells employing hybridized mixed-planar heterojunctions
A device is provided, having a first electrode, a second electrode, and a photoactive region disposed between the first electrode and the second electrode. The photoactive region includes a first photoactive organic layer that is a mixture of an organic acceptor material and an organic donor material, wherein the first photoactive organic layer has a thickness not greater than 0.8 characteristic charge transport lengths; a second photoactive organic layer in direct contact with the first organic layer, wherein the second photoactive organic layer is an unmixed layer of the organic acceptor material of the first photoactive organic layer, and the second photoactive organic layer has a thickness not less than about 0.1 optical absorption lengths; and a third photoactive organic layer disposed between the first electrode and the second electrode and in direct contact with the first photoactive organic layer. The third photoactive organic layer is an unmixed layer of the organic donor layer of the first photoactive organic layer and has a thickness not less than about 0.1 optical absorption lengths.
Electronic device and electronic device manufacturing method
An electronic device including: a substrate; a bank formed on an upper surface of the substrate, surrounding an area of the upper surface of the substrate, and defining an aperture from which the area is exposed; a liquid-philic layer formed on a peripheral portion of the area, and not overlapping a central portion of the area; a semiconductor layer formed within the aperture, and attaching to at least a portion of the central portion and to an upper surface of the liquid-philic layer; and a pair of electrodes that are in contact with an area of the semiconductor layer, the area of the semiconductor layer not overlapping the liquid-philic layer in plan view. The bank has a liquid-phobic lateral surface surrounding the aperture, and the upper surface of the liquid-philic layer has a higher degree of liquid-philicity than the upper surface of the substrate.
Field-effect transistor comprising a leakage-current limiter
A field-effect transistor including at least one lower substrate having two electrodes deposited thereon, respectively a source electrode and a drain electrode, a dielectric layer made of a dielectric material, and a gate electrode deposited on the dielectric layer. It includes an intermediate layer, made of a material comprising molecules having a dipole moment complying with specific direction criteria, deposited between the gate electrode and the dielectric layer, said intermediate layer extending at least under the entire surface area taken up by the gate electrode, the intermediate layer being made of an organic compound comprising at least one binding function for the gate electrode.
Bipolar hosts for light emitting devices
Some embodiments provide a compound represented by Formula 1: wherein R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7 and R8 are independently H, C1-C3 alkyl, or C1-3 perfluoroalkyl; HT is optionally substituted carbazoyl, optionally substituted phenylcarbazolyl, optionally substituted (phenylcarbazolyl)phenyl, optionally substituted phenylnaphthylamine, or optionally substituted diphenylamine; and ET optionally substituted benzimidazol-2-yl, optionally substituted benzothiazol-2-yl, optionally substituted benzoxazol-2-yl, optionally substituted 3,3′-bipyridin-5-yl, optionally substituted quinolin-8-yl, optionally substituted quinolin-5-yl, or optionally substituted quinoxalin-5-yl. Other embodiments provide an organic light-emitting diode device comprising a compound of Formula 1.
Asymmetric styrene derivatives having carbazole and aniline and organic light emitting diode using the same
Asymmetric styrene derivatives having carbazole and aniline are provided with main BCzVBi structure but impair the symmetry of BCzVBi so as to increase the solubility and applicability in OLED solution process. An OLED device using the asymmetric styrene derivatives is also herein disclosed.
A method of modifying a fluorinated polymer surface comprising the steps of depositing a first layer on at least a portion of the fluorinated polymer surface, the first layer comprising a first polymer, the first polymer being a substantially perfluorinated aromatic polymer; and depositing a second layer on at least a portion of the first layer, the second layer comprising a second polymer, the second polymer being an aromatic polymer having a lower degree of fluorination than said first polymer, whereby the second layer provides a surface on to which a substance having a lower degree of fluorination than the first polymer, e.g. a non-fluorinated substance is depositable.
Piezoelectric material, piezoelectric element, and electronic device
There is provided a piezoelectric material not containing any lead component, having stable piezoelectric characteristics in an operating temperature range, a high mechanical quality factor, and satisfactory piezoelectric characteristics. The piezoelectric material according to the present invention includes a main component containing a perovskite-type metal oxide that can be expressed using the following general formula (1), and subcomponents containing Mn, Li, and Bi. When the metal oxide is 100 parts by weight, the content of Mn on a metal basis is not less than 0.04 parts by weight and is not greater than 0.36 parts by weight, content α of Li on a metal basis is equal to or less than 0.0012 parts by weight (including 0 parts by weight), and content β of Bi on a metal basis is not less than 0.042 parts by weight and is not greater than 0.850 parts by weight (Ba1-xCax)a(Ti1-y-zZrySnz)O3 (1) (in the formula (1), 0.09≦x≦0.30, 0.025≦y≦0.085, 0≦z≦0.02, and 0.986≦a≦1.02).
Semiconductor memory device
A semiconductor memory device according to an embodiment comprises a semiconductor layer, a variable resistance layer, a sidewall layer, and a buried layer. The semiconductor layer functions as a rectifying device. The variable resistance layer is provided above or below the semiconductor layer and reversibly changes its resistance. The sidewall layer is in contact with a sidewall of the semiconductor layer. The buried layer is embedded in the sidewall layer and is made of material different from that of the sidewall layer. These configurations may adjust the electrical characteristics of the rectifying device to any value.
Methods of forming resistive memory elements
A method of forming a resistive memory element comprises forming an oxide material over a first electrode. The oxide material is exposed to a plasma process to form a treated oxide material. A second electrode is formed on the treated oxide material. Additional methods of forming a resistive memory element, as well as related resistive memory elements, resistive memory cells, and resistive memory devices are also described.
Light emitting device, method of fabricating the same and lighting system having the same
Disclosed is a light emitting device. The light emitting device includes a substrate including a plurality of lead electrodes; a mold member including a cavity on the substrate; a light emitting chip in the cavity and on at least one of the lead electrodes; a connecting member for electrically connecting at least one of the lead electrodes to the light emitting chip; a resin member in the cavity; a spacer part between the lead electrodes, the spacer part including a material different from materials of the mold member and the resin member; and an adhesive film between the mold member and the substrate.
Light emitting device
With a light emitting device of a package formed by two types of molded resins, entry of water from between the molded resins may cause the light emitting device to be incapable of turning on. A light emitting device of the present invention includes: a package that has an opening at an upper surface thereof; a first molded resin that forms a part of the upper surface of the package; a second molded resin that forms an inner wall surface of the opening of the package; a lead frame that is buried in the package so as to be partially exposed at a bottom surface of the opening of the package, the lead frame having an end portion externally projected outside from a side surface of the package; and a light emitting element that is connected to an upper surface of the lead frame being exposed at the bottom surface of the opening. The second molded resin is higher than the first molded resin in light reflectance to light emitted from the light emitting element. The upper surface of the lead frame buried in the package is disposed so as to be spaced apart from the interface between the first molded resin and the second molded resin.
[Problem] To provide a light-emitting device which does not undergo the deterioration in luminous efficiency associated with the long-term use.[Solution] A light-emitting device (1) comprises a light-emitting element (10) which can emit blue light and a phosphor (2) which is composed of a single kind of single crystal and can emit yellow light upon the irradiation with the light emitted from the light-emitting element (10) which serves as excitation light. Thus, it becomes possible to prevent the deterioration in luminous efficiency associated with the deterioration in a binder or the like compared with a light-emitting device which utilizes multiple kinds of granular phosphors, because any binder for binding phosphors to each other is not required in the light-emitting device (1).
High brightness light emitting diode structure
A light-emitting diode structure comprising: a substrate; a light-emitting semiconductor stack on the substrate, wherein the light-emitting semiconductor stack comprises a first semiconductor layer, a second semiconductor layer with different polarity from the first semiconductor layer, and a light-emitting layer between the first semiconductor layer and the second semiconductor layer; a first electrical pad on the substrate, wherein the first electrical pad is apart from the light-emitting semiconductor stack and electrically connects to the first semiconductor layer; and a second electrical pad on the substrate, wherein the second electrical pad is apart from the light-emitting semiconductor stack and electrically connects to the second semiconductor layer, wherein the first electrical pad and the second electrical pad are not higher than the light-emitting semiconductor stack.
Contacts for an N-type gallium and nitrogen substrate for optical devices
A method for fabricating LED devices. The method includes providing a gallium and nitrogen containing substrate member (e.g., GaN) comprising a backside surface and a front side surface. The method includes subjecting the backside surface to a polishing process, causing a backside surface to be characterized by a surface roughness, subjecting the backside surface to an anisotropic etching process exposing various crystal planes to form a plurality of pyramid-like structures distributed spatially in a non-periodic manner on the backside surface, treating the backside surface comprising the plurality of pyramid-like structures, to a plasma species, and subjecting the backside surface to a surface treatment. The method further includes forming a contact material comprising an aluminum bearing species or a titanium bearing species overlying the surface-treated backside to form a plurality of LED devices with the contact material.
Nitride semiconductor ultraviolet light-emitting element
An active layer including an AlGaN semiconductor layer having a band gap energy of 3.4 eV or higher and a p-type cladding layer configured of a p-type AlGaN semiconductor layer and located above the active layer are formed in a first region on the n-type cladding layer, the first region being in a plane parallel to a surface of the n-cladding layer configured of an n-type AlGaN semiconductor layer. An n-electrode metal layer making Ohmic contact with the n-type cladding layer is formed on an adjacent region to the first region in a second region which is a region other than the first region on the n-type cladding layer. A first reflective metal layer reflecting ultraviolet light emitted from the active layer is formed on a surface of the n-type cladding layer in the second region other than the adjacent region. The n-electrode metal layer is arranged between the first region and a region in which the first reflective metal layer contacts the surface of the n-type cladding layer.
Semiconductor element and manufacturing method thereof
A manufacturing method of a semiconductor element which can improve productivity and reliability, comprises a step of forming a device structure layer including a semiconductor layer on a first substrate; a step of forming a first metal layer on the device structure layer; a step of forming a second metal layer made of the same material as the first metal layer on a second substrate; a first treatment step of heating and compressing together the first metal layer and the second metal layer placed opposite to each other, thereby bonding them with maintaining a junction interface between the first and second metal layers; and a second treatment step of heating the first and second metal layers to make the junction interface disappear. Either one of the first and second metal layers has a coarse surface having multiple pyramid-shaped protrusions formed at its surface.
Semiconductor light emitting device and method for manufacturing semiconductor light emitting device
According to one embodiment, a semiconductor light emitting device includes an n-type semiconductor layer, a p-type semiconductor layer, and a light emitting layer. The p-type semiconductor layer includes a first p-side layer, a second p-side layer, and a third p-side layer. A concentration profile of Mg of a p-side region includes a first portion, a second portion, a third portion, a fourth portion, a fifth portion, a sixth portion and a seventh portion. The p-side region includes the light emitting layer, the second p-side layer, and the third p-side layer. A Mg concentration of the sixth portion is not less than 1×1020 cm−3 and not more than 3×1020 cm−3. The Al concentration is 1/100 of the maximum value at a second position. A Mg concentration at the second position is not less than 2×1018 cm−3.
Semiconductor light emitting element and method for manufacturing the same
A method for manufacturing a semiconductor light emitting element comprises steps of forming a semiconductor layer composed of a Group III nitride based compound semiconductor on a principal surface of a substrate; forming a transparent conductive metal oxide film on the semiconductor layer; forming an electrode above the transparent conductive metal oxide film; forming a mask layer for covering a part of the transparent conductive metal oxide film; and heat treating the transparent conductive metal oxide film having the mask layer formed thereon in an oxygen-containing atmosphere; wherein, in the heat treatment step, an oxygen concentration of a remaining part of the transparent conductive metal oxide film which is not covered by the mask layer is made higher than an oxygen concentration of a part of the transparent conductive metal oxide film which is covered by the mask layer.
Thermoelectric generator assembly and system
A thermoelectric generator assembly may comprise a frame that may include a first frame member and a second frame member. The first frame member and the second frame member are adapted to retain one or more thermoelectric generator devices in position therebetween for transferring heat energy through the one or more thermoelectric generator devices from a heat source to a heat sink to generate electrical energy. The thermoelectric generator assembly may also include a spacer positioned between the first frame member and the second frame member. A power bus may be included to provide the electrical energy generated by the one or more thermoelectric generator devices for powering an electrical device.
A thermogenerator including several thermocouples that are electrically connected together. The thermocouples are arranged between one hot side of the thermogenerator receiving a thermal flow and a cold side that is arranged at a distance from the hot side. The thermoelectric generator that at least temporarily uses the fed thermal energy efficiently. The thermoelectric generator can be designed as a module including a collector for a thermal solar system and the thermal carrier medium flowing through the collector is guided, at least temporarily, to a thermoelectric generator by a heat exchanger.
Precursor composition for YBCO-based superconductors
A premixed powdery precursor composition suitable as precursor material for obtaining a coating solution for the preparation of, for instance, thin film superconductors based on YBCO 1:2:3 via a coating technique, wherein the powdery precursor composition comprises a mixture of suitable salts of the constituent elements, in particular salts of trifluoroacetate and acetate.
Epitaxial growth methods and devices are described that include a textured surface on a substrate. Geometry of the textured surface provides a reduced lattice mismatch between an epitaxial material and the substrate. Devices formed by the methods described exhibit better interfacial adhesion and lower defect density than devices formed without texture. Silicon substrates are shown with gallium nitride epitaxial growth and devices such as LEDs are formed within the gallium nitride.
Backside transparent substrate roughening for UV light emitting diode
In the present invention, a fabrication process for epitaxy onto back-side patterned substrate, where the substrate patterns were defined prior to epitaxy and therefore simplify post growth processing. Specifically, for LED devices, said fabrication process reduces the post growth processing steps required to obtain high LEE due to strong scattering of the back-side features defined on the substrate. The features defined on the back-side patterned substrate scatters strongly with light emitted from the LED devices. Methods of obtaining such features include wet and dry etching.
Minority carrier based HgCdTe infrared detectors and arrays
Disclosed are minority carrier based mercury-cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) infrared detectors and arrays, and methods of making, are disclosed. The constructions provided by the invention enable the detectors to be used at higher temperatures, and/or be implemented on less expensive semiconductor substrates to lower manufacturing costs. An exemplary embodiment a substrate, a bottom contact layer disposed on the substrate, a first mercury-cadmium telluride layer having a first bandgap energy value disposed on the bottom contact layer, a second mercury-cadmium telluride layer having a second bandgap energy value that is greater than the first bandgap energy value disposed on the first mercury-cadmium telluride layer, and a collector layer disposed on the second mercury-cadmium telluride layer, wherein the first and second mercury-cadmium telluride layers are each doped with an n-type dopant.
Light emitting device
A light emitting device is disclosed. The light emitting device includes a first-conductive-type semiconductor layer, a second-conductive-type semiconductor layer, and an active layer interposed between the first-conductive-type semiconductor layer and the second-conductive-type semiconductor layer. The second-conductive-type semiconductor layer includes an electron blocking region closely disposed to the active layer and having a pattern with a plurality of elements spaced apart from each other.
UV radiation recovery of image sensor
A method of an embodiment comprises forming a dielectric layer on a first side of an image sensor substrate, and exposing the dielectric layer to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The image sensor substrate comprises a photo diode. A structure of an embodiment comprises a substrate and a charge-less dielectric. The substrate comprises a photo diode. The charge-less dielectric layer is on a first side of the substrate, and a total charge of the charge-less dielectric results in an average voltage drop of less than 0.2 V across the charge-less dielectric layer.
Waveguide-based energy converters, and energy conversion cells using same
A layered waveguide stack radiant energy converter array having a plurality of superposed waveguides, each waveguide having a core layer having a radiant energy converter disposed therein, and two cladding layers disposed on opposing sides of the core. In some embodiments the conductive layers are electrically coupled to the converter and act as charge carriers for it, and in other wires are provided for individual converters. Each waveguide has at least one inlet for passage of radiant energy therethrough, the inlet extending between the cladding layers, such that radiant energy entering the waveguide impinges on at least two layers of the waveguide, the inlet further defining a minimum cutoff frequency for the energy to propagate in the waveguide. In some embodiments such as solar panels, energy is harvested. In other embodiments energy is detected such as for example is done in a camera focal plane sensor. In some embodiments the stack is used to emit light.
Electrically driven single photon source
The present invention relates to a single photon source 1800 comprising a tapered nanowire 1802, where the nanowire 1802 is made of a semiconductor material, a first electrode 1828 and second electrode 1814, where the electrodes are electrically coupled to a photon emitter 1804 embedded in the nanowire 1802 and wherein the photon emitter 1804 is capable of emitting a single photon when an activation voltage is applied between the electrodes. In advantageous embodiments of the invention, the nanowire is encircled by air or vacuum, such that advantage can be taken of the resultant large ratio between a refractive index of the nanowire and the encircling material, air. Another advantageous feature might be that the first and second electrodes are optically transparent, such that they can be used as part of a reflective element or anti-reflective element.
Glass substrate manufacturing method and glass thereof
A glass substrate manufacturing method of the present invention comprises forming a multi-porous structure layer which comprises nano-size pores at a surface of a glass substrate by etching the surface of the glass substrate with hydrofluoric (HF) acid or an etchant substituting for fluoride. Unlike related art methods, the glass substrate forms no additional coating layer, uses no harmful chemical material, and is given anti-reflection, anti-fogging, and super-hydrophilic characteristics through a simple process at a relatively low temperature. The glass substrate is effectively applied to various applications requiring high light transmission such as a protective filter for a display device, a solar cell, a mobile communication device, glass of a building structure, and an optical element lens.
Solar cell and method of manufacturing the same
A solar cell and a method of manufacturing the same are disclosed.The solar cell includes a semiconductor substrate doped with a first conductive type impurity through which a via hole passing from a first surface of the semiconductor substrate to a second surface thereof facing the first surface is formed, wherein the first surface is a light receiving surface, upper and lower emitter layers respectively formed on upper and lower surfaces of the semiconductor substrate and doped with a second conductive type impurity that is different from the first conductive type impurity, current collecting layers formed on sidewalls of the via hole and doped with a higher concentration of the first conductive type impurity than that of the semiconductor substrate, a contact electrode extending from the first surface of the semiconductor substrate to the second surface thereof so as to fill the via hole, and upper and lower electrodes respectively contacting the upper and lower emitter layers.
Solar cell comprising a p-doped silicon wafer and an aluminum electrode
A solar cell comprising a p-doped silicon wafer, wherein the p-doped silicon wafer comprises a light-receiving side and a back side; and an aluminum electrode formed on the back side of the silicon wafer; wherein the aluminum electrode comprises an aluminum base layer formed adjacently on the back side of the silicon wafer and an aluminum cover layer formed on the aluminum base layer, and wherein the aluminum cover layer comprises aluminum and boron oxide (B2O3).
Laser doping of crystalline semiconductors using a dopant-containing amorphous silicon stack for dopant source and passivation
Techniques and structures for laser doping of crystalline semiconductors using a dopant-containing amorphous silicon stack for dopant source and passivation. A structure includes a crystalline semiconductor having at least one surface, a doped crystalline region disposed in at least one selected area of the semiconductor surface, and a dopant-containing amorphous silicon layer stack containing a same dopant as present in the doped crystalline region on at least a portion of the semiconductor surface outside the selected area, wherein the dopant-containing amorphous silicon layer stack passivates the portion of the semiconductor surface on which it is disposed.
Floating sheet production apparatus and method
This sheet production apparatus comprises a vessel defining a channel configured to hold a melt. The melt is configured to flow from a first point to a second point of the channel. A cooling plate is disposed proximate the melt and is configured to form a sheet on the melt. A spillway is disposed at the second point of the channel. This spillway is configured to separate the sheet from the melt.
Semiconductor device and method of forming the same
A semiconductor device includes an insulating substrate, a semiconductor chip, an insulating layer, and a sealing layer. The insulating substrate has an opening. A semiconductor chip is disposed in the opening. An insulating layer is disposed on a first surface of the insulating substrate. The insulating layer covers the opening. The sealing layer is disposed on a second surface of the insulating substrate. The sealing layer seals the semiconductor chip and the opening.
Method for forming a split-gate device
A method of forming a semiconductor device in an NVM region and in a logic region uses a semiconductor substrate and includes forming a first layer of a material that can be used as a gate or a dummy gate. An opening is formed in the first layer in the NVM region. The opening is filled with a charge storage layer and a control gate. A select gate, which may be formed from the first layer or from a metal layer, is formed adjacent to the control gate. If it is a metal from a metal layer, the first layer is used to form a dummy gate. A metal logic gate is formed in the logic region by replacing a dummy gate.
Semiconductor device and method of fabricating the same
A method of fabricating a semiconductor device includes performing pre-halo ion implantation on a semiconductor substrate, forming a first epitaxial layer over the entire upper surface of the semiconductor substrate, forming a second epitaxial layer over the entire surface of the first epitaxial layer, and forming a transistor at an active region of the second epitaxial layer. The first epitaxial layer prevents the ions implanted in the semiconductor substrate in the pre-halo implantation process from diffused into the second epitaxial layer under the effects of a process used to form the transistor.
Split gate non-volatile memory (NVM) cell and method therefor
A split gate memory structure includes a pillar of active region having a first source/drain region disposed at a first end of the pillar, a second source/drain region disposed at a second end of the pillar, opposite the first end, and a channel region between the first and second source/drain regions. The pillar has a major surface extending between first and the second ends which exposes the first source/drain region, the channel region, and the second source/drain region. A select gate is adjacent the first source/drain region and a first portion of the channel region, wherein the select gate encircles the major surface the pillar. A charge storage layer is adjacent the second source/drain region and a second portion of the channel region, wherein the charge storage layer encircles the major surface the pillar. A control gate is adjacent the charge storage layer, wherein the control gate encircles the pillar.
Memory cells and methods of storing information
Memory cells which have channel-supporting material, dielectric material over the channel-supporting material, carrier-trapping material over the dielectric material and an electrically conductive electrode material over and directly against the carrier-trapping material. The carrier-trapping material includes gallium, indium, zinc and oxygen. Methods of storing utilizing a memory cell which has a channel-supporting material, a dielectric material over the channel-supporting material, a carrier-trapping material over the dielectric material, and an electrically conductive electrode material over and directly against the carrier-trapping material. The carrier-trapping material includes gallium, indium, zinc and oxygen. It is determined if carriers are trapped in the carrier-trapping material to thereby ascertain a memory state of the memory cell.
Display device and manufacturing method thereof
A display device includes a first wiring functioning as a gate electrode formed over a substrate, a gate insulating film formed over the first wiring, a second wiring and an electrode layer provided over the gate insulating film, and a high-resistance oxide semiconductor layer formed between the second wiring and the electrode layer are included. In the structure, the second wiring is formed using a stack of a low-resistance oxide semiconductor layer and a conductive layer over the low-resistance oxide semiconductor layer, and the electrode layer is formed using a stack of the low-resistance oxide semiconductor layer and the conductive layer which is stacked so that a region functioning as a pixel electrode of the low-resistance oxide semiconductor layer is exposed.
Thin film transistor
A thin film transistor suitable for being disposed on a substrate is provided. The thin film transistor includes a gate electrode, an organic gate dielectric layer, a metal oxide semiconductor layer, a source electrode and a drain electrode. The gate electrode is disposed on the substrate. The organic gate dielectric layer is disposed on the substrate to cover the gate electrode. The source electrode, the drain electrode and the metal oxide semiconductor layer are disposed above the organic gate dielectric layer, and the metal oxide semiconductor layer contacts with the source electrode and the drain electrode. Because the channel layer of the thin film transistor is a layer of metal oxide semiconductor formed at a lower temperature, thus the thin film transistor can be widely applied into various display applications such as flexible display devices.