Method and device for protection of an mram device against tampering
Data, stored in MRAM-cells (12) should be protected against misuse or read-out by unauthorised persons. The present invention provides an array (10) of MRAM-cells (12) provided with a security device (14) for destroying data stored in the MRAM-cells (12) when they are tampered with. This is achieved by placing a permanent magnet (16) adjacent the MRAM-array (10) in combination with a soft-magnetic flux-closing layer (18). As long as the soft-magnetic layer (18) is present, the magnetic field lines (20) from the permanent magnet (16) are deviated and flow through this soft-magnetic layer (18). When somebody is tampering with the MRAM-array (10), e.g. by means of reverse engineering, and the flux-closing layer (18) is removed, the flux is no longer deviated and affects the nearby MRAM-array (10), thus destroying the data stored in the MRAM-cells (12).
Trusted enclave for a computer system
A trusted enclave for a software system of a computer node provides relatively high assurance protection of a section of the software system. The trusted enclave attempts to stop malware from compromising parts of the software system within the trusted enclave. If a software system process outside the trusted enclave becomes compromised, the compromised process may be prevented from compromising software system resources within the trusted enclave. Compromise of a process or resource of the software system refers to, for example, malware access, alteration or control of the process or resource.
Determining advertising activity
A system may obtain a first group of information when an advertising link is requested and a second group of information when the advertising link is selected. The system may further detect illegitimate advertising-related activity based on the first group of information and the second group of information.
3-prong security/reliability/real-time distributed architecture of information handling system
The present invention is directed to a distributed architecture of an information handling system, including a buried nucleus inaccessible for inspection without heroic means while the buried nucleus is in operation, and a trusted authority for generating a secure protocol. The secure protocol controls the operation of the buried nucleus.
Configuring and organizing server security information
A server security schema that can incorporate server security-related expertise into an information model is provided. The novel server security schema component can be applied to an application server, a web server and/or a database server to converge knowledge into securing the server by identifying categories, vulnerabilities, threats, attacks and countermeasures. The novel schema can create a common framework that converges knowledge with respect to any server type. More particularly, the novel server security schema can address server categories including a share, a service, an account, an audit and log, a file and directory, a registry, a protocol, a port, and a patch and update category.
Detecting surreptitious spyware
Tools and techniques are provided for detecting a particular type of spyware. Network activities and user update activities are monitored automatically, and the results are analyzed to identify related processes which perform network transmissions without performing substantive user updates. These processes are identified to a user and/or an administrator as potential spyware, and are then quarantined or otherwise handled based on instructions received from the user or administrator. In some cases, the monitoring and analysis begins with selection of a group of processes to monitor, while in other cases it begins with monitoring of network and/or user update activities in order to narrow the group of suspect processes. Devices, configured media, and method products are also described.
Multiconfigurable device masking shunt and method of use
A multiconfigurable device masking shunt for a network device, preferably, on a secure network having a first mode and a second mode. In the first mode, the shunt cloaks the network device by rendering the network device invisible to upstream and downstream relay devices. During cloaking, the network device's media access control address is substituted with the upstream or downstream relay devices media access control address. In a second mode, the shunt passes inbound and outbound traffic through one of two alternate paths to the secure network from an unsecure network and can monitor such traffic.
Method and apparatus for providing dynamic security management
Methods and devices provide dynamic security management in an apparatus, such as a mobile telephone terminal. The apparatus includes a platform for running an application; a security manager for handling access of the application to functions existing in the apparatus; an application interface (API) between the platform and the application; a set of access permissions stored in the apparatus and used by the security manager for controlling access of the application to functions through the application interface. Methods can include downloading into the apparatus an object containing access permissions applicable to at least one function; verifying the object; and installing the access permissions together with the existing permissions.
VSB communication system
A VSB communication system comprises a VSB transmission system and a VSB reception system. The VSB transmission system multiplexes a coded MPEG data and a coded supplemental data having a null sequence inserted therein, with required multiplexing information included in a field synchronization signal or in a supplemental data according to a number of the supplemental data packets being transmitted. The VSB reception system detects the required multiplexing information from the field synchronization signal or the supplemental data and decodes the multiplexed data by using the null sequence and the detected multiplexing information, as well as demultiplexes the multiplexed data into the MPEG data and the supplemental data.
Multimedia communication terminal
The invention relates to a multimedia communication terminal that enables error resilience control according to a situation of a communication channel and the preference of a user based upon a multimedia communication terminal using a communication channel where a transmission error occurs, means for directly receiving a request of a user in relation to error resilience is provided to a receiving terminal, the information is transmitted to a transmitting terminal and the level of error resilience of a coded bit stream is changed.
Multiple channel presenter
An implementation of a technology, described herein, for multiple channel display on a multimedia presentation system. One implementation, described herein, simultaneously presents video content, audio-based content, and/or electronic program guide (EPG) data of multiple television channels. With this implementation, a user may greatly increase his speed and efficiency when channel surfing. This abstract itself is not intended to limit the scope of this patent. The scope of the present invention is pointed out in the appending claims.
Program-display control apparatus and program-display control method
A program-display control apparatus can display information on each of a plurality of programs in a state that can be recognized by the user with ease without regard to the display configuration of the display data of the program. A display-configuration modification unit changes the display configurations of the program table of a BS digital broadcast, the program table of a ground wave broadcast, and a WEB program table into a new display configuration which increases the amount of information on the programs without regard to the display configuration of each of the programs. Furthermore, a program-table creation unit creates display data according to the new display configuration and outputs the display data.
Handling of program ratings for digital television
When a digital data transmission such as a digital television transmission is received by a receiver (100), the receiver attempts to locate parental rating data for a program in the transmission for a home country or jurisdiction (105, 220) in which the receiver is located. If the home jurisdiction rating data is available, it is used to control blocking of the program (270). If the home jurisdiction rating data is not available, rating data is obtained from the transmission for a foreign jurisdiction to control blocking of the program (270). If ratings for multiple foreign jurisdictions are available, the highest, most strict rating (240), may be used to control blocking of the program.
Multimedia service system based on user history
Disclosed is a user history based multimedia service system, wherein user history data include a multimedia consumption type and/or consumption behavior of the user. The consumption type data includes a start time or end time of the multimedia content consumption (i.e., simple view data), content recording time and format, content backup time and format, and content transfer time and format. The consumption behavior data includes a content access/play data such as a normal finish, skimmed, skipped, slowed, or replay, and a stopped data of the content access/play. The consumption type or consumption behavior data include information on program identification and information on access to the consumption type/consumption behavior data. The respective data is provided for each user and program.
Optical disk device having motor with spacer assembly
An optical disk drive includes a spindle motor for rotating an optical disk, and an optical pickup head. On a base plate, a pickup moving motor moves the optical pickup head in a disk radial direction. A motor plate supports the spindle motor. A spacer holder has a small thickness, and is secured to the base plate. A spacer boss is disposed to project from the spacer holder toward the motor plate. A first hole is formed through the spacer boss. A retaining screw has first and second shaft portions. A screw hole is formed in the base plate, for engagement with the first shaft portion inserted through the first hole, to retain the retaining screw. A great diameter peripheral surface is positioned at the second shaft portion, for applying pressure to fit the spacer boss tightly on the motor plate. Further, the spacer is formed from plastic material.
System and methods for generating and managing filter strings in a filter graph
A method comprising generating a source chain for use in a development project, generating an identifier which is uniquely assigned to the source chain, and caching the source chain when it is not currently required in the development project. As execution of the development project continues, or during a subsequent project, if the source processing chain is required, it is retrieved from cache.
Multi OS configuration method and computer system
A computer system of a multi-operation-system (multi-OS) has a main memory having a memory area for a first OS and a memory area for a second OS, both the areas being independent from each other, and a plurality of I/O devices divisionally allocated to the first OS and the second OS. The first OS is loaded in the first OS memory area, and thereafter when the first OS is operated, the second OS is loaded in the second OS memory area and initialized. When the first OS is operated, the first OS hardware resources and the second OS hardware resources are registered by the first OS. Thereafter when the first OS is operated, the first OS inhibits the registration of an interrupt number already allocated to the second OS I/O device. In response to an interrupt request from a second OS I/O device, the second OS starts operating.
Method for predicate promotion in a software loop
A method and system for optimizing the execution of a software loop is provided. The method involves the determination of an edge in a critical recurrence cycle in the software loop. The edge is a dependency link between two instructions and contains a dependee and a dependent. The dependee is an instruction that produces a result, and the dependent is an instruction that uses the result. The method further involves performing predicate promotion of at least one of the dependee and the dependent if one or more pre-determined conditions are met.
Method and system for a batch parser
A method of generating commands for a database server includes accessing a script having parser-specific commands, a first set of database-specific commands and optional shell commands. A componentized batch parser splits out the different command types and converts the parser-specific commands into a second set of database-specific commands. The first set and second set of database-specific commands may be sent to a target database for execution. The optional shell commands may be executed by a user tool at a local console. The batch parser offers features including separation of parsing functions using batch separators, performing automatic substitution of tokens in the script with defined values or substitution of tokens by requesting token values via a client tool, stripping off comments and blanks spaces from processed commands, referencing and editing files outside the script, and the ability to connect to different servers.
Methods and systems for identifying intermittent errors in a distributed code development environment
A distributed code development environment includes baseline code that is logically divided into a plurality of labels, each including a plurality of transactions authored by respective developers. A computer-implemented method for identifying intermittent errors in the baseline and determining whether errors generated by a test of transactions are intermittent or consistent may include steps of providing the baseline code and providing the plurality of transactions, each of the plurality of transactions including code authored by a developer. A selected test may be carried out on a selected one of the plurality of transactions, the selected test generating an error that represents an unsuccessful completion of the selected test. The generated error may then be compared against errors generated by the selected test on other transactions or labels. The generated error may be identified as intermittent with respect to the transaction and spurious in the baseline if a selected number of errors generated by the selected test on the other transactions or labels are identical or similar to the generated error, according to a selected metric.
Use of attribution to describe management information
Architecture that facilitates management of an application or service of a system. A catalog is provided that stores management information which is accessible to determine the status of the application of service. Code of the application or service to be installed on the system is attributed with management information. When installed, the application or service is processed to copy the management information into a manifest, which manifest is further stored in the catalog along with other manifests associated with different applications or services. The management information in a manifest is uniquely identified by a URI, which access to the management information is via the URI, and which leads to the associated application or service.
Method for monitoring a program execution using a debug logic
A method for monitoring the execution of a program executable on at least one microprocessor of a micro controller using a debug logic of the micro controller, with an exception, particularly an interrupt of the program execution, being triggered by the debug logic upon access to a specific address range during the program execution time. In order to provide monitoring of the execution of a program, executable on a microprocessor, for faults, which is particularly reliable yet conserves resources as much as possible, it is suggested that the debug logic be configured by the microprocessor and that an exception routine be executed by the debug logic after an exception has been triggered during the program execution time. The debug logic is advantageously configured during the startup of the micro controller. Preferably, the micro controller is reset and started up again and the monitored program is initialized during the execution of the exception routine.
Visualization of stereotype element instances within a unified modeling language model
An UML model can be visually rendered upon a canvas of a graphical user interface of a software modeling application. The UML model can include at least one stereotype that extends an UML modeling element. A stereotype application can include values of attributes that are part of the stereotype that is applied on the UML modeling element. The visual rendering can include a stereotype application object which is able to be edited. Editing of the stereotype application object can result in changes to values of attributes of the stereotype application.
Automating interactions with software user interfaces
A method and apparatus applies an action to a software application by determining a target object for the input action. The determination of the target object is performed by identifying the target object through socially identifying object information relative to a reference object. Then, the input action is applied to the target object.
Method and apparatus for facilitating effective and efficient optimization of short-path timing constraints
A method for connecting a first and second component in a logic device is disclosed. A path is generated between the first and second components with an appropriate amount of delay to satisfy short-path timing constraints that define a minimum delay on the path. A first interconnect line from a plurality of interconnect lines and a second interconnect line to connect with the first interconnect line sub-optimally from a delay minimization perspective are selected in order to satisfy the short-path timing constraints.
Area-efficient power switching cell
A power switching circuit is provided for use in an integrated circuit including at least a first voltage rail and a second voltage rail. The power switching circuit includes at least one MOS device having a first source/drain adapted for connection to the first voltage rail, a second source/drain adapted for connection to the second voltage rail, and a gate adapted for receiving a control signal. The MOS device selectively connects the first voltage rail to the second voltage rail in response to the control signal. The first and second voltage rails form a grid overlying the power switching circuit, the first and second voltage rails being formed in different planes relative to one another. The connection between the power switching circuit and the first voltage rail is made at an interface between the first and voltage rails.
Automatic layout method and automatic layout device
An automatic layout method for performing an automatic layout of components on a diagram, the automatic layout method includes: generating a layout engine control object based on an operation of an application program; selecting at least one layout engine object from a plurality of layout engine objects for calculating coordinates of the components by different algorithms, at least one layout engine object being selected based on an instruction of the application program by the layout engine control object; and creating the diagram by the application program based on the coordinates calculated by the selected layout engine object.
Manufacturing aware design of integrated circuit layouts
Some embodiments of the invention provide a manufacturing aware process for designing an integrated circuit (“IC”) layout. The process receives a manufacturing configuration that specifies a set of manufacturing settings for a set of machines to be used to manufacture an IC based on the IC layout. The process defines a set of design rules based on the specified manufacturing configuration. The process uses the set of design rules to design the IC layout. Some embodiments of the invention provide a design aware process for manufacturing an integrated circuit (“IC”). The process receives an IC design with an associated set of design properties. The process specifies a manufacturing configuration that specifies a set of manufacturing settings for a set of machines to be used to manufacture the IC, where the specified set of manufacturing settings are based on the set of design properties. The process manufactures the IC based on the manufacturing settings.
Apparatus for analyzing post-layout timing critical paths
A critical path detecting unit for detecting critical paths for a design in which cells are placed on an integrated circuit and information concerning timing constraints. A representative-critical-path extracting unit extracts a representative critical path by having one critical path represent critical paths which share more intervals than a certain number, and which are similar to one another, out of critical paths which have been detected by the critical path detecting unit. A path-image generating unit renders the representative critical path, which has been extracted by the representative-critical-path extracting unit and reflects information concerning other critical paths, which are similar to the representative critical path, on the representative critical path.
Metastability effects simulation for a circuit description
A circuit design that contains at least two clock domains is simulated using a novel system and method for injecting the effects of metastability. The system includes detectors for detecting, during simulation, when a clock in a transmit clock domain and a clock in a receive clock domain are aligned and when the input of a register receiving a clock-domain-crossing signal is changing. The system includes coverage monitors for measuring, during simulation, statistics related to metastability injection. The system accurately models the effects of metastability by, at appropriate times during simulation, pseudo-randomly inverting outputs of registers receiving clock-domain-crossing signals. By accurately modeling the effects of metastability, errors in the circuit design can be detected while simulating a pre-existing simulation test. The simulation with metastability effects injection is repeatable and requires no modification of pre-existing RTL design files or simulation test files.
Method and system for handling assertion libraries in functional verification
A method and system for handling assertion libraries in verification of a design are disclosed. The method and system include structuring and implementing at least one verification component in at least one of the assertion libraries with at least one standard assertion language supported by at least one verification tool, creating an assertion library element for a specific requirement for verification of the design without dependence on the at least one verification tool for the assertion library element, and resolving assertion status. With the disclosed method and system, visualization of assertion status at various levels of design hierarchy and at verification component level may be achieved, and implementing verification techniques may include optimization techniques during and/or after verification.
System and method for design, procurement and manufacturing collaboration
A method for designing an electronic component includes receiving a device criteria (e.g., a parametric value, procurement value, etc.) from a designer, querying a database for devices corresponding to the device criteria, querying the database for procurement data and/or engineering data associated with the corresponding devices, presenting the devices to the designer based on the procurement data, and receiving input from the designer identifying one of the presented devices as a selected device. In a particular method, the returned devices are sorted based on one or more procurement values (e.g., manufacturer, price, availability, manufacturer status, etc.), and presented to the designer in a ranked list. Objects representative of the selected devices are then entered into a design file, and the objects are associated with the device's engineering and/or procurement data. In a particular embodiment, the objects are associated with the engineering data by embedding the engineering data in the file object. Optionally, data can be associated with the objects via links to the database. Types of engineering data that can be associated with design file objects include, but are not limited to, device footprint data, device pinout data, device physical dimension data, parametric data, and packaging data. Additionally, connection data and annotation data can be entered into the design file objects by the designer.
Keyboard navigation in hierarchical user interfaces
Methods and apparatus, including computer program products, for navigating user interface elements of a computer program application. In one aspect, a method includes grouping user interface elements of an application into groups based on a hierarchical arrangement of the elements, detecting a navigation key press of a sibling or a parent navigation key, and if it is a sibling navigation key, shifting input focus to a next sibling group in the hierarchy, and if it is a parent navigation key, shifting input focus to a parent group in the hierarchy. In another aspect, a method for navigating editable cells of a table includes detecting a forward or a backward navigation key; if it is a forward navigation key, shifting input focus to a next editable cell of the table; and if it is a backward navigation key, shifting input focus to a previous editable cell of the table.
Hierarchical presentation techniques for a design tool
A design tool hierarchically presents information about a design with nested blocks. For example, the design tool presents scheduling information for the design in a hierarchical Gantt chart. The scheduling information includes hierarchical design schedule blocks which accurately depict the timing and scheduling of the nested blocks of the design. Each of the hierarchical design schedule blocks includes control steps numbered relative to the block. The scheduling information also includes a hierarchical list of scheduled operations for the design. The hierarchical list emphasizes which operations are associated with which nested blocks. The scheduling information further includes pseudo-operation icons that are easily differentiated from real operation icons in the hierarchical Gantt chart.
Task-sensitive methods and systems for displaying command sets
Methods and systems present commands to a user within a software application program by determining the user's context within the application program and automatically presenting in a user interface commands that pertain to the user's current context. When the user's context changes, the context-sensitive commands are automatically removed from the user interface. In one implementation context blocks and context panes are employed to present the commands.
Virtual magnifying glass with intuitive use enhancements
A display screen magnifier is controllable by a user to magnify selected portions of a desktop including windows open on the screen. A moveable magnifier frame is provided, within which a magnified image is presented. The magnified image corresponds to screen content located within a magnification region underlying the magnifier frame, magnified to a set level of magnification. In one embodiment, the magnification region is moveable relative to the magnifier frame, in relation to movement of the magnifier frame on the display screen. Such relative movement can be used to avoid a potentially disorienting edge condition that arises when a magnifier frame reaches an edge of the display screen and stops, while its associated magnification region continues to pan. In another embodiment, the cursor of a user input device is moveable across the screen display into and out of the magnification region. When the position of the cursor falls within the magnification region, the cursor appears within the magnified image presented within the magnifier frame. A related feature avoids the potentially disconcerting effect of cursor disappearance as a pointing device cursor passes into a “lens shadow” defined between the magnification region and the magnifier frame.
Displaying content for various aspect ratios
A resource manager can vary content for various display aspect ratios used to display information in a computing environment. This allows providing content that is more suitable and/or especially designed for display on a particular aspect ratio. It will be appreciated that resource manager can facilitate execution of the same computer program code for various aspect ratio as content displayed can be effectively adjusted by the resource manager. In order to support multiple aspect ratios, the resource manager can use an Aspect Ratio Adaptable Data Set (ARADS) that effectively supports displaying graphical content for various aspect ratios. The (ARADS) can include “base data” and “aspect-ratio-specific data” that can complement and/or replace the base data. The base data can be used as an initial basis for displaying graphics on any one of a plurality of different aspect ratios while the aspect-ratio-specific data can be specifically designed for and/or accommodate a particular aspect ratio.
Multi-user multi-input desktop workspaces and applications
Multi-user multi-input desktop workspaces and applications are described. In one aspect, a single computing device presents multiple workspaces on a desktop area. The desktop area is designed for multiple users to provide in parallel inputs. Each workspace is configured for use by a particular set of users. Responsive to user direction, user access restrictions to a particular workspace of the multiple workspaces is suspended to allow a new user to interface within context of a particular workspace.
Method for transmitting reserved mail and information terminal device
When reserved mail fails to be transmitted, an error message is promptly displayed in a partial field of a display unit for a predetermined period of time. A user operates a specific key in the predetermined period of time, thereby allowing the user to return to a screen for editing the failed mail. The user can promptly take an appropriate action on the failed reserved mail.
Setting control using edges of a user interface
A setting control may be mapped to an edge of a user interface to facilitate control of various settings and access thereto. The mapping may be implemented based on a number of setting values associated with the setting control and a size of a specified edge of the user interface. Additionally, multiple edges of a user interface may be mapped to a variety of setting controls. The edge-mapped setting controls may also be automatically reconfigured according to user preferences and interaction with the interface. Indicators are also generated to provide visual indications about the setting controls and/or a current setting. The appearance of indicators may be altered to convey a variety of information such as the current setting of a control or the type of setting control.
Computer system with graphical user interface including spring-loaded enclosures
A new behavior in a graphical user interface allows the user to open and close enclosures, while dragging an object. When the user pauses, gestures, or rolls over a hot spot on top of an icon or text representing a closed enclosure, a temporary window for the closed enclosure is “sprung open” to allow the user to browse inside the enclosure and possible open another enclosure contained within the temporary window. This process can be carried on throughout a hierarchy of windows as the user browses for a destination window for the drag operation. All of the temporary windows except the destination are closed when the mouse button is released, signaling the end of a drag. The user may close sprung open windows by simply moving the cursor out of the sprung open window, or by making some other gesture. If an enclosure to be sprung open was previously open on the desktop, the previously opened window may zoom over to the current mouse position, and then return to its original position when the user mouse is out of the window.
Range condition managing system and user interface thereof
A range manager system has a range definition controller, a range label handler, and a range definition indicator controller. The range definition controller controls setting of one or more boundary values defining one or more ranges. The range label handler handles labels of the ranges. The range definition indicator controller controls presentation of a range definition indicator representing definition of the ranges. The range definition indicator controller presents the ranges in vertical arrangement so as to provide an intuitive representation of the definition of the ranges.
Mutually exclusive options in electronic forms
Systems and methods enabling creation and/or use of an electronic form capable of allowing a user to select from mutually exclusive options without the electronic form being in an invalid state are described. One of the described electronic forms remains valid to its schema by atomic swapping of data substructures corresponding to the form's mutually exclusive options. A method and a user interface for creating some of these electronic forms are also described.
System and method for conveying information
A system for conveying information includes a signal transport device. The signal transport device includes a set of links operable to convey a first set of information signals from a first computer module to a second computer module and a link operable to convey a transaction request credit signal associated with the first set of information signals, the signal indicating whether at least a portion of a transaction request message may be sent using the first set of information signals. The device also includes a set of links operable to convey a second set of information signals in the opposite direction of the first set of information signals and a link operable to convey a transaction request credit signal associated with the second set of information signals, the signal indicating whether at least a portion of a transaction request message may be sent using the second set of information signals.
Semiconductor integrated circuit and method of testing semiconductor integrated circuit
A semiconductor integrated circuit having an internal circuit which is tested based on a scanning method is provided. The internal circuit has: memory elements including a first memory element and a second memory element; combinational circuits including a first combinational circuit receiving an external input data, a second combinational circuit outputting an external output data and a third combinational circuit; a first selection circuit; and a second selection circuit. The first selection circuit receives the external input data and a stored data held by the first memory element, and outputs any of them to the first combinational circuit. The second selection circuit receives the external output data output from the second combinational circuit and an operation result data output from the third combinational circuit, and outputs any of them to the second memory element.
ATE architecture and method for DFT oriented testing
An ATE system is described for testing one or more DFT testing blocks contained in one or more DUTs when coupled to the ATE system. The ATE system includes hardware resources and software processes under the control of a DPK (Distributed Processing Kernel). The DPK couples the hardware resources and software processes as needed for a first DFT testing block to be enabled for testing only when such resources and processes are available and locked for the first DFT testing block. The DPK is coupled to the first DFT testing blocks via data channels and control channels that are selected as needed for having the first DFT testing block enabled for testing. The channels are under the control of an DUTs-ATE interface which is directed by the DPK for connecting the first DFT testing block to the locked hardware resource and the locked software processes. Each set up process corresponding to any subsequent DFT testing block requesting any hardware resource and any software processes that are already locked for use is paused until such locked resource and locked software processes are unlocked and assigned for having that subsequent DFT testing block enabled for testing.
Diagnostics of cable and link performance for a high-speed communication system
A method and system for performing diagnostic tests on a real-time system controlled by a state machine. A sequence of states recorded as the state machine operates is used to determine error conditions. The sequence of states is compared to expected sequences of states to determine what, if any, errors have occurred. If the real-time system, such as a transceiver in a communication system, has adaptive components, the status of the adaptive components is used to estimate the condition of any external systems coupled to the real-time system.
Method of controlling a transceiver module
A method of controlling a transceiver module which includes a physical-layer integrated circuit having a physical-layer register unit, and a control integrated circuit having a control-side register unit. In the method, the physical-layer register unit is emulated by the control-side register unit and the physical-layer integrated circuit is prohibited from generating a first error signal giving notice of detection of a specific error directly to a higher-layer device. A second error signal is output from the physical-layer integrated circuit to the control integrated circuit, giving notice of a high-speed error associated with communication processing and that is detected by the physical-layer integrated circuit. The high-speed error is specified in response to the outputting of the second error signal. A bit is set in the control-side register unit in response to the specifying of a high speed error and the control integrated circuit delivers to the higher-layer device the second error signal.
Error monitoring of partitions in a computer system using partition status indicators
A computer program product and computer system for error monitoring partitions in a computer system. Provided to each partition is a partition status indicator (PSI) denoting a RUNNING or FAIL status of the partition, and an error log area (ELA) for storing partition error entries. The ELA includes a partition identifier, an entry status indicator (ESI) indicating READ/UNREAD status for the error entry, and an error identifier. An error procedure performed for each first partition whose partition status indicator indicates the FAIL status includes: copying each error entry in the ELA of the first partition whose ESI indicates the UNREAD status into the ELA of a second (running) partition; setting the ESI to the READ status for each copied error entry in the ELA of the first partition; and having the ESI set to the UNREAD status for each copied error entry in the ELA of the second partition.
Apparatus and method for debugging a graphics processing unit in response to a debug instruction
A system includes a graphics processing unit with a processor responsive to a debug instruction that initiates the storage of execution state information. A memory stores the execution state information. A central processing unit executes a debugging program to analyze the execution state information.
Fault recovery for transaction server
A primary server transmits a write transaction to N backup devices. Each backup device records the write transaction to a local redo log stored at a high-performance storage and then transmits a notification to the primary device. When the primary device receives notifications from M of the N backup devices, it commits the write transaction, recording it to a low-performance storage. Once the write transaction has been recorded to the low-performance storage, the primary device requests that the backup devices delete their logs. If the primary device incurs a fault, one of the backup devices becomes the new primary device and determines which backup device has the newest local redo log. The backup device having the newest log sends it to the other backup devices, which update their local redo logs to the same state as the newest log. Thereafter, the new primary device is ready to resume transaction processing.
Method and apparatus for flexible access to storage facilities
A method and apparatus for providing flexible access to storage resources in a storage area network is provided. One aspect of the invention relates to managing hosts and storage resources on a storage area network. At least one logical relationship among the storage resources is associated with each of a plurality of virtual identifiers. At least one of the plurality of virtual identifiers is then associated to an interface of each of the hosts.
Pre-emptive power supply control system and method
A control system for controlling a power supply having an operating function. The power supply to supply an output current to an integrated circuit having at least one circuit block that is controllable by an enable signal or a clock signal. A receiver to receive the enable signal. A controller to determine a loading status of the at least one circuit block as a function of the enable signal or the clock signal and to control the output current of the power supply as a function of the loading status of the at least one circuit block such that the power supply preemptively changes the output current.
Apparatus and method for controlling active cycle of semiconductor memory apparatus
An apparatus for controlling an active cycle of semiconductor memory that supports a synchronous mode and an asynchronous mode is provided. The apparatus includes an operational mode control unit that determines the operational mode of the semiconductor memory on the basis of a clock signal for a predetermined time and outputs an operational mode determination signal, and an active control unit that controls the output of an active signal for executing an active cycle of the corresponding operational mode on the basis of the operational mode determination signal.
Instruction set with thermal opcode for high-performance microprocessor, microprocessor, and method therefor
A method (and system) of managing heat in an electrical circuit, includes using a thermal instruction appended to an instruction to be processed to determine a heat load associated with the instruction.
Data transmission system, data transmission method, and device
An apparatus (1) on a sending side sends a first signal (S1) containing encrypted data that was encrypted using conversion constants (Y, Zy′), and a conversion constant (X) to an apparatus (1) on the receiving side; the apparatus (1) on the sending side sends a second signal (S2) containing encrypted data that was encrypted using conversion constants (X, Zy′), and a conversion constant (Y), and pattern-conversion constants (Zy) that correspond to conversion constant (Zy′) to a relay apparatus (2). The relay apparatus (2) transfers a second′ signal (S2′) in which a pattern-conversion constant (Zy) in the second signal (S2) has been converted to a conversion constant (Zy′) to the apparatus (1) on the receiving side. The apparatus (1) on the receiving side reads the encrypted data and conversion constants (X, Y, Zy′) from the first signal (S1) and second′ signal (S2′), then decodes and authenticates the encrypted data.
Granting access to a computer-based object
Disclosed is a memory card comprising a program code processor for granting access to a computer-based object, at least one public and private key that is allocated to the memory card as well as a public key of a trustworthy entity being stored on said memory card. Furthermore, a piece of license information comprising at least one license code which is encoded by means of the public key allocated to the memory card is provided on an arithmetic unit that controls access to the computer-based object.
Information processing apparatus, information system, proxy processing method, and program and recording medium therefor
Efficient access processing is performed when the service level of a server apparatus is low. There is provided a proxy apparatus including: a request sending unit for sending a first server request message based on a first client request message received from an information terminal to a destination server apparatus; a server status information storage unit for storing timeout information of the destination if a timeout of a first server request message is detected; a request monitoring unit for deciding to time out a second client request message received from an information terminal if timeout information of the destination of the second client request message is stored; and a proxy timeout response unit for sending a timeout response message corresponding to the second client request message that is decided to be timed out to the requesting information terminal.
Apparatus and method for cryptographic key expansion
An apparatus and method for cryptographic key expansion. According to a first embodiment, a cryptographic unit may include key storage configured to store an expanded set of cipher keys for a cipher algorithm, and a key expansion pipeline comprising a plurality of pipeline stages. During a key expansion mode of operation, each pipeline stage may be configured to perform a corresponding step of generating a member of the expanded set of cipher keys according to a key expansion algorithm. During a cipher mode of operation, a portion of the key expansion pipeline may be configured to perform a step of the cipher algorithm.
Method and system for license management
System and method are disclosed for securing and managing individual end-user platforms as part of an enterprise network. The method/system of the invention has three main components: a security module, a manager appliance, and a console appliance. The security module enforces the enterprise licenses and security policies for the end-user platforms while the manager appliance provides secure, centralized communication with, and oversight of, the security module. The console appliance allows an administrator to access the manager appliance for purposes of monitoring and changing the licenses. Security is established and maintained through an innovative use of data encryption and authentication procedures. The use of these procedures allows the appliances to be uniquely identified to one another, which in turn provides a way to dynamically create unique identifiers for the security modules. These various components together form an infrastructure over the enterprise network to securely manage the end-user platforms.
Methods and systems for establishing an electronic account for a customer
Registration information is sent form a customer to a registration system over a network. The registration system creates an electronic account for the customer and facilitates the validation of the customer's identity. When the customer's identity is validated, the registration system activates the electronic account. The electronic account includes a unique electronic account number, a physical address of the customer, and an electronic address of the customer.
Method and apparatus of communicating security/encryption information to a physical layer transceiver
An apparatus for providing link layer security in a Physical Layer Transceiver (PHY) is disclosed. In one embodiment, the apparatus may comprise analog circuitry configured to interface with a data transmission medium, digital circuitry configured to interface with a Media Access Controller (MAC); and a crypto engine coupled to the digital circuitry. Single interface and multiple interface schemes are provided to control both PHY and crypto functions. Embodiments are disclosed where the PHY controls the crypto device, and where the crypto device controls the PHY.
Method and apparatus for using filesystem operations to initiate device naming
One embodiment of the present invention provides a system that uses filesystem operations to initiate device naming and/or device discovery. The system operates by receiving a command to boot a computer system. In response to the command, the system loads a portion of a filesystem hierarchy that includes a device namespace into a memory of the computer system, wherein the portion of the filesystem hierarchy contains at least one entity which represents a device coupled to the computer system. The system can then perform a read-directory operation on the portion of the filesystem hierarchy or a lookup operation of a specific well-known device or directory to obtain a list of filesystem entities that correspond to devices attached to the computer system.
Method and apparatus for booting independent operating systems in a multi-processor core integrated circuit
A multiple-processor system and boot procedure are provided. The system includes an integrated circuit having first and second embedded processors. A volatile memory and a non-volatile memory are shared by the first and second processors. The non-volatile memory includes a set of boot load instructions executable by the first and second processors.
Circuit block and circuit system having skew compensation, and skew compensation method
A method and apparatus for compensating for a delay in the propagation of a plurality of signals via different signal paths, i.e., a skew compensation method, are provided. The apparatus includes a processing circuit which performs a data processing operation on input data, and a reset adjustment circuit which maintains a reset state of the processing circuit for a time period when a reset signal that initializes the processing circuit is received.
Synchronized storage providing multiple synchronization semantics
A shared resource access control system having a gating storage responsive to a plurality of controls with each of the controls derived from an instruction context identifying the shared resource, the gating storage including a plurality of sets of access method functions with each set of access method functions including a first access method function and a second access method function with the gating storage producing a particular one access method function from a particular one set responsive to the controls; and a controller, coupled to the gating storage, for controlling access to the shared resource using the particular one access method function.
Apparatus and method for decreasing the latency between instruction cache and a pipeline processor
A method and apparatus for executing instructions in a pipeline processor. The method decreases the latency between an instruction cache and a pipeline processor when bubbles occur in the processing stream due to an execution of a branch correction, or when an interrupt changes the sequence of an instruction stream. The latency is reduced when a decode stage for detecting branch prediction and a related instruction queue location have invalid data representing a bubble in the processing stream. Instructions for execution are inserted in parallel into the decode stage and instruction queue, thereby reducing by one cycle time the length of the pipeline stage.
System, method and software to preload instructions from an instruction set other than one currently executing
An instruction preload instruction executed in a first processor instruction set operating mode is operative to correctly preload instructions in a different, second instruction set. The instructions are pre-decoded according to the second instruction set encoding in response to an instruction set preload indicator (ISPI). In various embodiments, the ISPI may be set prior to executing the preload instruction, or may comprise part of the preload instruction or the preload target address.
Managing volumes in volume groups
Provided are a method, system, and program for managing volumes in volume groups configured in a storage system. A first set of volumes is assigned to a first volume group and a first host is assigned to the first volume group. A second set of volumes is assigned to a second volume group and a second host is assigned to the second volume group. The first host may only access volumes in the first volume group and the second host may only access volumes in the second volume group, wherein one volume is assigned to both the first and second volume groups to be accessible to both the first and second hosts.
Persistent flash memory mapping table
Flash memory is accessed via mapping tables comprising a master mapping table and at least one secondary mapping table. The master mapping table contains indexes to the secondary mapping tables. The secondary mapping tables contain indexes to locations in the flash memory. The mapping tables are maintained in the flash memory. Upon initialization subsequent a safe power shutdown, the master mapping table is cached and secondary mapping tables are cached as needed. Upon initialization subsequent an unsafe power shutdown, the mapping tables are constructed in accordance with a multiple-phase process. In an example embodiment, the multiple-phase process comprises locating all the secondary mapping tables stored in the flash memory, determining which secondary mapping tables are valid, determining which secondary mapping tables are invalid, determining which sectors of the flash memory are free, and constructing the master mapping table and the secondary mapping tables from this information.
Method and system for dynamically managing storage of data objects generated during execution of a computer program
Method and system for managing a heap. A map is employed to indicate which areas of the heap are inaccessible to a program. Such areas constitute garbage which is potentially returnable to a data structure which identifies free storage available for reallocation to the program. By choosing map entries corresponding to portions of storage whose size is of the same order of magnitude as a predetermined minimum unit size for the data structure, a small map can be used. Such a map can be scanned more quickly than a larger map of higher granularity to identify only relatively larger areas of garbage for reallocation.
Semiconductor device and IC card
A semiconductor device according to the present invention comprises a first non-volatile memory, a second non-volatile memory in which initial data is stored, and an initialization controller for initializing the first non-volatile memory, wherein the second non-volatile memory has anti-stress properties higher than those of the first non-volatile memory, and the initialization controller reads the initial data from the second non-volatile memory when the first non-volatile memory is initialized and copies the read initial data in the first non-volatile memory to thereby initialize the first non-volatile memory.
Semiconductor storage device detecting change of memory content and information processing device including semiconductor storage device detecting change of memory content
A single information processing device capable of configuring an information system that maintains matching between information retained by a self device and information retained by a partner device in a way that links up a plurality of information processing devices with each other, has a storage unit including a memory cell retaining a predetermined quantity of information and a comparing unit that compares the information retained by the memory cell at the present with information written afresh to the memory cell, an extraction unit extracting the information written afresh to the memory cell about which the comparing unit judges that the information retained at the present is different from the information written afresh, and a transmitting unit transmitting the extracted information to the partner device linking up with the self device.
Method and system for using upper cache history information to improve lower cache data replacement
A system for managing data in a plurality of storage locations. In response to a least recently used algorithm wanting to move data from a cache to a storage location, an aging table is searched for an associated entry for the data. In response to finding the associated entry for the data in the aging table, an indicator is enabled on the data. In response to determining that the indicator is enabled on the data, the data is kept in the cache despite the least recently used algorithm wanting to move the data to the storage location.
System, method and computer program product for executing a cache replacement algorithm
A system, method and computer program product for executing a cache replacement algorithm. A system includes a computer processor having an instruction processor, a cache and one or more useful indicators. The instruction processor processes instructions in a running program. The cache includes two or more cache levels including a level one (L1) cache level and one or more higher cache levels. Each cache level includes one or more cache lines and has an associated directory having one or more directory entries. A useful indicator is located within one or more of the directory entries and is associated with a particular cache line. The useful indicator is set to provide an indication that the associated cache line contains one or more instructions that are required by the running program and cleared to provide lack of such an indication.
Method, system, and apparatus for an hierarchical cache line replacement
A cache line replacement protocol for selecting a cache line for replacement based at least in part on the inter-cache traffic generated as a result of the cache line being replaced.
Method, system and program product for equitable sharing of a CAM table in a network switch in an on-demand environment
A method, system and program product for equitable sharing of a CAM (Content Addressable Memory) table among multiple users of a switch. The method includes reserving buffers in the table to be shared, the remaining buffers being allocated to each user. The method further includes establishing whether or not an address contained in a packet from a user is listed in a buffer in the table, if the address is listed, updating a time-to-live value for the buffer for forwarding the packet and, if the address is not listed, determining whether or not the user has exceeded its allocated buffers and whether or not the reserved buffers have been exhausted, such that, if the user has exceeded its allocated buffers and the reserved buffers have been exhausted, the address is not added to the table and the user is precluded from using any additional buffers in the network switch.
Dynamic disk throttling in a wide area network optimization device
A network device may operate to increase application performance over a wide area network. In one particular implementation, the network device may monitor accesses to a disk drive from entities and determine whether an entity is accessing the disk drive in a manner that causes a disproportionate amount of performance degradation. If so, the network device may throttle access to the disk drive for the entity.
Flash memory allocation for improved performance and endurance
A flash storage device having improved write performance is provided. The device includes a storage block having a plurality of physical pages and a controller for mapping the plurality of physical pages to a plurality of logical addresses at initialization or at run-time of the flash storage device and for writing data to the plurality of physical pages. When updating data previously written to one of the plurality of logical addresses, the controller is configured to write the updated data to a second physical page which is mapped to the logical address. Each of the logical addresses may be associated with a pointer field, which is for storing a pointer value indicating the invalidity of a physical page and/or the location of another physical page.
Nonvolatile memory system, and data read/write method for nonvolatile memory system
A nonvolatile memory system comprises a nonvolatile memory having a plurality of data areas; and a memory controller operative to control read and write operations to the nonvolatile memory. The memory controller successively executes read/write operations to plural sectors within a selected data area in the nonvolatile memory in accordance with a command and a sector count and sector address fed from a host device.
Employing a native fully buffered dual in-line memory module protocol to write parallel protocol memory module channels
A translator of an apparatus in an example employs a native fully buffered dual in-line memory module protocol (native FB-DIMM protocol) to write to a plurality of parallel protocol memory module channels that comprises a plurality of double data rate registered and/or unbuffered dual in-line memory modules (DDR registered and/or unbuffered DIMMs).
Bus control apparatus and bus control method
A bus control apparatus includes a plurality of blocks configured to output a write command for writing data into memory via a bus, and a bus connection control unit provided in correspondence with each of the blocks. The bus connection control unit monitors signals between the bus and the block, and upon detecting a read command signal for reading data in a cause register of the block, blocks connection of a signal line between the block and the bus and outputs a dummy read command signal for the memory. The bus connection control unit releases blockage when a response signal for the dummy read command signal is received.
Method for restoring system configuration information of a network attached storage
A method for restoring system configuration information of a network attached storage includes the steps of: setting system configuration information of an network attached storage as a backup file; registering an interrupt handler; pressing down an input key (16) to turn off a power switch (K1) and generate an interrupt signal; invoking the interrupt handler to process the interrupt signal and returning interrupt GPIO information; determining whether an operating system receives the interrupt GPIO information from the interrupt handler; sending a periodical voltage to a second pin (P2) for blinking a LED (L1) if the operating system receives the interrupt GPIO information from the interrupt handler; invoking the backup file to restore the system configuration information of the network attached storage; and sending a high voltage command to the second pin for powering off the LED, which indicates that the system configuration information has been restored.
Usage of EHCI companion USB controllers for generating periodic events
A polling system polls a USB keyboard connected to a USB port of a computing system. A detect module in identifies the keyboard as a low speed USB device. A polling module polls the keyboard with the scheduled interrupt transactions. A key press polling response module detects a key press, stores corresponding key scan data in a key data buffer, and returns the key scan data in response to a scheduled interrupt transaction from the polling module. A key repeat polling response module starts akey repeat polling mode when the key scan data is returned from the key press polling response module, detects whether the key data buffer is empty when a scheduled interrupt transaction is received, and returns the key scan data again if the key scan data buffer is not empty. A stop module stops the key repeat polling mode if the key scan data buffer is empty.
Interface device and method for command processing
Embodiments of the present invention provide an interface device and method for command processing for commands requiring data flow in both directions on a Fiber Channel or other data transport protocol exchange. The commands can include proprietary commands, SCSI linked commands or other commands known in the art. According to one embodiment, an interface device can assign a command a data flow direction indicator. When a reply to the command is received, the interface device can determine if the reply is expected or unexpected based on the data flow direction specified by the data flow direction indicator. If the reply is unexpected, the interface device can determine whether to process the reply. According to one embodiment, the data flow direction indicator can be the exchange identification.
Interface detecting circuit and interface detecting method
An interface detecting circuit and interface detecting method are provided, whereby operations can be carried out depending on peripheral devices connected to USB terminals, and whereby the system can be simplified and software load can be reduced. A pull-down resistor is connected to an ID terminal of a Mini-A receptacle of a peripheral device, the voltage generated by the pull-down resistor, which is pulled down by the ID terminal of the Mini-A receptacle of the peripheral device, and a pull-up resistor, which is pulled up by the ID terminal of a Mini-B receptacle of a device, is detected in an analog fashion, using a detecting section comprised of comparators, and, via a logic section, a logic output is subjected to noise cancellation in a filter section and is memorized in a register section. The operations of other devices are determined according to the states memorized in the register section.
Method for communicating plural signals generated at a source to a remote destination through a single wire
A system having a processor, a printed circuit board, and an adapter board, coupled to the processor through the printed circuit board. The adapter board provides a first signal having a first state when the adapter board is in a proper operating condition and a second state when the adapter board is in an improper condition. The adapter board produces a second signal having the second state for less than a predetermined time when an adapter board requires a reset signal from the processor. The adapter board combines the first signal with the second signal a single signal fed to the processor through the printed circuit board. When the processor detects that the single signal is in the second state for a time less than the predetermined period of time, the process interprets the single signal as indicating the adapter board requires a reset.
Programming parallel 12C slave devices from a single 12C data stream
Consistent with one example embodiment, communications systems, using a serial data transfer bus having a serial data line and a clock line used to implement a communications protocol, incorporate programming of parallel slave devices concurrently using an I2C serial bus. At least two slave devices are coupled in parallel on the data transfer bus and configured to load serial data over the serial data line using the communications protocol. Each slave device includes a programmable configuration register configured to be programmed, using the communications protocol, to select one of a plurality of selectable slave device configurations. One of the selectable slave device configurations causes the at least two slave devices to load the serial data in parallel, and another of the selectable slave device configurations causes the at least two slave devices to be loaded one at a time.
Management of background copy task for point-in-time copies
A scheduling method and apparatus for use by a processor that controls storage devices of a data storage system is presented. The method allocates processing time between I/O operations and background operations for predetermined time slots based on an indicator of processor workload.
Retrieving documents over a network with a wireless communication device
A computing system is provided that comprises a portable, hand-held computer comprising a display and a plurality of cursor control keys; and a proxy server coupled to the portable computer by a data link. A proxy server is also coupled to at least one remote server on the Internet. The portable computer is adapted to activate a menu comprised of a plurality of entries. Each entry corresponds to at least one mark-up language file to be accessed by the user. The method disclosed herein provides a shorthand way of requesting mark-up language files using one hand and a minimal number of keystrokes. Once the proxy server receives the file, it separates the file into viewable segments and sends the first viewable segment to the portable computer.
Resolving names to network endpoints
A system, apparatus, method, and computer-readable medium are provided for resolving a name to a network endpoint. According to one method, naming providers are registered with a computer system that are operative to resolve names to network endpoints for one or more domains. A provider can claim to be a primary provider or a secondary provider for a domain. A provider can also register as a wildcard provider. Once the providers have been registered, requests may be received to resolve an e-mail address into a network address of the corresponding computer system. In response to such a request, one or more of the registered providers are identified as being able to resolve names in the domain to network addresses. Requests are transmitted to the identified providers requesting that they resolve the e-mail address to a corresponding network address. The manner in which the requests are made depends upon whether authoritative results are required. Once the results of the name resolution have been returned, the results are utilized to establish a network connection to and communicate with the computer system identified by the returned network address.
Individual XML message processing platform
A communications platform contains a message processing platform along with an XML message format which provides for the reception, organization, summarization, filing, storage, synthesis, routing, formatting, and intelligent processing of XML-based electronic messages and SMTP electronic mail. The platform allows a user to define an endpoint table which correlates message attributes with different user endpoints such as home phone, cell phone, email etc. Received messages are sent to a first endpoint in accordance with the message attributes and the endpoint, if no receipt is received from the first endpoint, a second endpoint is selected from the endtable and the message is re-routed.
System and method for determining the geographic location of internet hosts
A system and methodologies are disclosed for determining the geographic location of an Internet host. A first method infers host location based on the DNS names of the host of interest or other nearby network nodes. A second method employs network delay measurements from geographically distributed locations to triangulate the coordinates of the host. A third method couples partial host-to-location mapping information obtained from one or more sources with BGP or other routing information in order to infer location of the host of interest.
Apparatus, method and system for improving application performance across a communications network
An apparatus, method and system to enable dynamic replication of Web servers across a wide area in response to access patterns by Web clients as well as in response to customer requests. The method for dynamically replicating one or more parent nodes on a network in response to a user request by a policy manager. The policy manager transmits the user request to an event module. The event module transmits the user request to a data consistency module, wherein the data consistency module maintains integrity of the data on the parent node. The event system communicates with a resource management module to ensure proper utilization of network resources, and transmits the routing request to a request routing module for appropriately balancing the network load. The request routing module is capable of providing optimal routing based on the network resources.
System and method for remote machine data transfer
A method for data transfer between a client system and a server comprises receiving one or more user-defined file transfer specifications and establishing a communication channel between a client system and a server system based on the file transfer specifications. The method also includes initializing transfer of operation data between the client system and the server system via the communication channel. The method further includes providing an exception notification to one or more user-designated recipients if the transfer of the operation data between the client system and the server system is inconsistent with the file transfer specifications.
Transmission of business rules to portable devices
A system that facilitates implementation of business rules for multimedia content on a portable device comprises a receiver component that receives a request for support of extensions to a protocol that enable transfer of customized business rules associated with multimedia content from a host device to a portable device, the portable device is a closed system. A servicing component provides the requested support to an entity that initiated the request.
Network access to partial document images
A method and apparatus for transporting portions of document images across a network in response to one or more requests are described. In one embodiment, the method comprises receiving a plurality of requests for portions of a JPM file and transmitting a JPM file in parts in response to the plurality of requests.
Method and system for preventing a timeout from reaching a network host
A method and system for preventing a timeout from reaching a network host when bringing up a down link that is slow to waken. The method generally comprises receiving a request to access an information. If a link along a path to a remote computer containing the information is down, the link is established while concurrently returning a plurality of imposter responses, such as domain names, until the network link is established. Software implementing this method may be stored and executed in any network host. This method is particularly advantageous when waiting for a dial-up telephone connection to a network to be established.
Communication system, communication server and communication method
A communication system comprises a first communication terminal (101) provided with an ID tag (106) and having a communication function for a first medium, a second communication terminal (102) provided with an ID reader (107) and having a communication function for a second medium different from the first medium, and a communication server (109) connected to the first and the second communication terminals. The ID tag stores terminal address information representative of an address of the first communication terminal. When the ID reader reads, as readout address information, the terminal address information from the ID tag, the second communication terminal informs the readout address information to the communication server. Supplied from the second communication terminal with the address of the first communication terminal as the readout address information, the communication server registers the first and the second communication terminals as a single communication terminal having the communication functions for the first and the second media.
Resource management in application servers
The present invention is directed to a method, a computer readable medium and a and a system of managing consumption of computing environment resources by multiple applications that features limiting resource consumption based upon examination of the total real-time resources of a computing environment being consumed rather than by the total resources available. The method includes observing communication between computing resources and multiple applications to obtain a real usage profile (RUP), for one of the multiple applications. A request to consume resources of the computing environment is received for one of the multiple applications. It is determined whether the whether granting access in response to the request violates a desired usage profile (DUP) based upon real usage profile. The computer-readable medium includes computer instructions to facilitate carrying-out of the functions of the claimed method by a general computing system. The system includes features capable of carrying-out the functions of the method.
High availability for intelligent applications in storage networks
Methods and apparatus provide formation and management of intelligent application clusters in a storage area network. Disk arbitration mechanisms ensure that a cluster is owned by a single member. In the event of a network partition, each cluster member involved arbitrates to gain ownership of a cluster. High availability mechanisms allow monitoring of system resources and effective failover capabilities.
Support for multiple data stores
Technology is disclosed for supporting multiple data stores. The set of data stores can be of a uniform type, or the various data stores can be different types (e.g. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Structured Query Language (SQL), etc.). One implementation of the disclosed technology is with an Identity System. Another implementation is with an integrated Identity System and Access System. Various embodiments of the present invention utilize different means to separate the business logic of a system from the data access logic so that different types of data stores can be used without changing the business logic.
Data processing apparatus and network system that outputs quality of service information to a user
In each of the information processing apparatuses connected to each other via a network, there is arranged a quality of service (QOS) table to which functions and performance thereof are registered. When an information processing apparatus is additionally linked with the network, a QOS table thereof is automatically registered to a local directory of the network such that an agent converts the contents of the QOS table into service information to be supplied via a user interface to the user. Thanks to the operation, information of functions and performance of each information processing apparatus connected to the network is converted into service information for the user. Consequently, the user can much more directly receive necessary services.
User activity detection on a device
Communication information is sent to a device that a user is using rather than a device the user is not using. For example, a backlight of a device can be monitored and if the backlight becomes inactive (turns off) for longer than a predetermined interval, it can be inferred that the user is no longer using the device and communications are no longer sent to the device. If the backlight becomes active (turns on) for longer than a predefined interval it is inferred that the user is active on the device and communications are sent to the device. If intrinsic evidence is of a high confidence level that the user is using the device, such as answering a phone call or sending a communication, the device is declared active without waiting for expiration of the confirmation timer.
Methods and apparatus for displaying storage resources
A resource manager application performs a search for managed resources (e.g., hosts, adapters, databases, host devices, etc.) associated with a storage area network. Results of the search are displayed in a first display region of a display screen. Based on selection of a particular managed resource by a user from the first display region, the resource manager populates a second display region of the display screen with corresponding additional managed resource information. The user further selects one of multiple view mode options to view different types of corresponding additional managed resource information in the second display region.
Method and system for online printer error database
Methods and apparatus for generating an online database of printer error messages. In one embodiment, a printer contains an error detecting device and an embedded Web server in communication with a global computer network. If printer errors are detected, error messages are generated. Each error message is conveyed through the embedded web server to an online database. The online database contains error information conveyed by a large number of printers, which can be monitored and analyzed. Methods of the present invention include providing a printer incorporating an embedded web server linked to a network, and a error detector. The error detector monitors print jobs sent to the printer, generating an error message when an error is detected. Error messages are conveyed by the embedded web server through the network to an online error message database and may be written to an internal printer error log.
Methods and devices for the asynchronous delivery of digital data
The method of asynchronous delivery of digital data according to the invention is implemented in at least one server system and at least one client system connected via a network.According to the method, at the time of a request for data coming from a client system, an item of context information (CINF) representing a first state of the client system on sending out the request is associated with the latter.On delivering to the client system a response, the response incorporates the context information (CINF).The client system is adapted to put itself in a second state analogous to the first state mentioned above, in accordance with the context information (CINF, CUID).The method according to the invention provides context management enabling the user to associate the responses received with requests sometimes made well beforehand.
Method and apparatus for pre-packetized caching for network servers
A method and apparatus for caching client node requested data stored on a network server is disclosed. The method and apparatus comprise caching server responses at the pre-packetized level thereby decreasing response time by minimizing packet processing overhead, reducing disk file reading and reducing copying of memory from disk buffers to network interfaces.
Gateway registry methods and systems
A gateway device for managing a set of two or more local management devices at a location. A system for networks at a plurality of locations. A method of operating a gateway device in a control network. A method for storing information to operate a gateway device in a control network. A method for storing information to operate a replacement gateway device in a control network.
Adjusting timing between automatic, non-user-initiated pollings of server to download data therefrom
The timing between automatic, non-user-initiated pollings of a server to download data from the server is changed. In one embodiment, user input in relation to polling the server to download data from the server is detected. In response, the timing between automatic, non-user-initiated pollings of the server is changed based at least on the user input detected. In another embodiment, the amount of data downloaded from the server at each polling is tracked. The timing between pollings of the server is thus changed based on the amount of data downloaded from the server during the pollings of the server. The server may be an email server, such that the data downloaded therefrom includes email messages.
Using multiple media players to insert data items into a media stream of a streaming media
A method, apparatus and article of manufacture for processing a content stream at a client computer, the method comprising displaying a tagged content stream that was received from a media source by using a first media player, wherein the first media player is embedded in a Web page; and, when the first media player receives notification that a tag was found, muting the first media player; and displaying an untagged content stream by using a second media player, wherein the second media player is embedded in the Web page.
Double-proxy remote data access system
A method for enabling access to a data resource, which is held on a file server (25) on a first local area network (LAN) (21a), by a client (28) on a second LAN (21b). A proxy receiver (48) on the second LAN (21b) intercepts a request for the data resource submitted by the client (28) and transmits a message via a wide area network (WAN) (29) to a proxy transmitter (52) on the first LAN (21a), requesting the data resource. The proxy transmitter (52) retrieves a replica of the data resource from the file server (25) and conveys the replica of the data resource over the WAN (29) to the proxy receiver (48), which serves the replica of the data resource from the proxy receiver (48) to the client (28) over the second LAN (21b).
Systems and methods for preventing spam
Systems and methods are disclosed for preventing spam, including email spam and telephone spam, through the use of dynamic passcodes or dynamic signatures included with transmitted messages. Both the dynamic passcodes and dynamic signatures may be changed periodically or continually, according to an example embodiment of the invention. Qualified senders may include a dynamic signature that is automatically generated by the sender's node or exchange entity. The recipient's node or exchange entity can then use a graylist associated with the recipient account in verifying the qualified sender and/or dynamic signature. On the other hand, non-qualified senders may need to manually obtain a dynamic passcode from a dynamic passcode provider and include the dynamic passcode with the transmitted message. The dynamic passcode provider may be a public website using human interactive proofs. According to an embodiment, a non-qualified sender may be optionally pre-charged with a fee to obtain a dynamic passcode. The recipient of the message may then refund the charge if the received message is not spam.
Generic event notification service for resource-constrained devices
A generic event notification service for a resource-constrained device is provided. One method includes receiving an event having a unique event identifier, and determining whether an event-producing application is authorized to fire the event. Upon a determination of authorization to fire the event, a determination is made whether any event-consuming applications are authorized by the event-producing application to receive the event. Upon a determination of authorization to receive the event, the event is forwarded to each authorized event-consuming application. In this manner, secure, flexible, generic, and uniform application interaction is facilitated.
Event notification method in wireless communications system
An event notification method in a wireless communications system can reduce the amount of transmission data in a wireless section and improve transmission efficiency by reducing the number of notifications with respect to an event which is frequently generated as a user sends a server an event notification request message including period information through a SIP-based client in order to request the notification with the specific event, and the server sends an event notification message to the client according to a period included in the period information or when a permitted time range is satisfied in order to notify the event when the corresponding event is generated.
Method and apparatus for managing software component downloads and updates
A component manager receives requests for component updates from a variety of sources, parses the requests and extracts URL information that identifies the location of a file containing the component resources. The component manager presents the URL to a download manager that asynchronously retrieves the component resources from the specified location and places the file in a staging area. Once the component resources have been downloaded, an install manager, also operating asynchronously from the component manager and the download manager, installs the component update.
Management and synchronization application for network file system
An application is provided for managing files. Information about a file system is mapped to a comparison file. A working version is made from the file system. The application identify one or more operations were performed on the working version. The identified operations are recreated on the file system during a synchronization operation.
System and method for reliably exchanging information across a computer network
A send client can send a message or multiple segments of a message to a receive client via a computer network. A data exchange server can receive the message and store the message in a storage device. If the send client sent the message in multiple segments, the data exchange server can store the message segments in the storage device once it receives all the message segments. The data exchange server can send the message in multiple segments to a receive client. The data exchange server can send a send receipt to the send client upon sending the message to a next destination. The data exchange server can send a receive receipt to the send client upon receiving the message. The data exchange server can send messages of an ordered set in the order in which they are received from a send client.
Microprocessor instructions for performing polynomial arithmetic operations
Polynomial arithmetic instructions are provided in an instruction set architecture (ISA). A multiply-add-polynomial (MADDP) instruction and a multiply-polynomial (MULTP) instruction are provided.
File update availability checking in a hierarchal file store
A device includes a computer processor and a file store coupled to the computer processor. The file store includes a hierarchal file system. A plurality of files is located in the hierarchal file system. Each of the plurality of files is associated with digital signature metadata determined by a content of the file. A plurality of directories is located in the hierarchal file system. Digital signature metadata is associated with each of the plurality of directories and determined by the digital signature metadata associated with the directories and the files that are direct descendants of the directory. An update module determines if an update to any of the plurality of files is available based on the digital signature metadata associated with a root directory in the plurality of directories.
Dynamic XSD enumeration
In general, in one aspect, a method for dynamic markup language schema enumeration includes receiving a request for schema file data, the schema file data for validating markup language data, using a database query to retrieve from a database values in a database table that are valid values for the markup language data, and dynamically generating schema file data comprising markup language data structures generated in response to the retrieved database table values, the markup language data structures comprising the results of the database query.
System and method for managing data using static lists
A method and system are provided in which static lists facilitate arbitrary grouping of items of data independent of their locations and in ways that are meaningful to the user. A static list is a set of items defined by a root item, a direction, and the entry relationships with that root item in that direction. The static list also defines the properties that each entry relationship in the list is required to have. Verbs are provided to manage a static list. A verb is an action that may be performed on the items in the static list, and includes, among others, move, copy, add, remove, and delete. A view is provided to specify characteristics for displaying data from a static list, including visibility, order, and formatting, among other characteristics.
Method and apparatus for simplified access to online services
An online service provider is equipped to receive a request from a client to access a subscribed online service of a subscriber at the online service provider. Comprising the request is a globally unique identifier (GUID) of the subscriber. Once the request is received, the online service provider, determines if the GUID is associated with the subscriber, and if the GUID is associated with the subscriber, the online service provider facilitates access to the subscribed online service of the subscriber. As a result, a user is able to access online services without having to manage several a logon Id and password pair. In one embodiment, the GUID is also caused to be stored in an email with an email service provider. The novel storage enables the subscriber to access his/her subscribed services from another location, or even after the subscriber has reconfigured the original location.
Simple and fast directory search with reduced keystrokes and reduced server calls
Methods are provided for identifying user-directory records that match input strings entered into a packet-based telephone. Each input string comprises symbols associated with character sets, and each record comprises multiple attributes. A record matches a set of input strings when, independent of the order of the input strings, there is a one-to-one correspondence matching the input strings with an equal number of attributes of the record. An input string matches an attribute when, on a character-by-character, symbol-by-symbol basis, the characters of at least a portion of the attribute are elements of the character sets associated with the symbols of the input string. Subsets of matching records are dynamically sent to the packet-based telephone for display.
Data access layer design and code generation
A system and method that facilitate data access in a software development environment is provided. The system generates strongly typed objects that encapsulate raw, untyped data access logic and groups together like database commands in a common data access component. The system provides a mapping between database types and common language runtime data types including the impedance mismatch of null representations. The system configures data access component(s) that are employed at design-time to facilitate access to data object(s) by application(s) and allows a user of the configured data access component(s) to improve developer productivity and/or reduce the quantity of runtime errors introduced into code. The data access component can be instanced on multiple forms components and/or with the developer's own class(es). Thus, change(s) to a query and/or interface are accomplished within the data access component and be available to the forms components and/or object(s) that utilize the data access component.
Enhancing node-based query languages to support common relational mapping patterns
The subject invention relates to systems and methods that augment node-based programming languages to facilitate efficient data manipulation of hierarchical data structures. In one aspect, a query or general purpose language system is provided. The system includes a query component to interact with hierarchical node-based data collections and a language extension component to augment the query component to facilitate interactions with the node-based data collections. The language extension component supplies various functions to filter the data collections at a granular level, re-shape the data collections, sort the data collections, or extend the data collections with computed nodes.
Detection of attributes in unstructured data
A method for processing information includes receiving a set of records, which include a plurality of fields containing data regarding respective items, and selecting a field that occurs in all of the records and contains multiple terms in each of the records. At least first and second terms that occur among the terms in the selected field in the records are identified, such that the records are partitioned into at least first and second respective subsets by occurrences of the at least first and second terms in the selected field. Responsively to partitioning of the records by the occurrences, it is determined that the at least first and second terms correspond to at least first and second different values of an attribute of the items. The data are classified according to the values of the attribute.
Searching a document based on a customer defined metadata schemata
Search and filtering of documents with different metadata schemata is enabled using a single index that supports a single schema through decorated namespaces. Each metadata schema submitted to a system is assigned a unique identifier and property names associated with the schema are prefixed with the unique identifier. A single-valued, decorated property is used to indicate whether a submitted document is part of a registered schema in the system. The single-valued properties are converted to a search index table that enables resource-optimized searching and filtering of documents eliminating documents of other schemata by simply checking the association property.
Method, system and program for creating an index
A method for creating an index for searching a structured document having a document data-structure stored, in a computer. The method to be performed in the computer for creating an index includes the steps of: analyzing a structured document to extract a document data-structure in the structured document; normalizing the extracted document data-structure to create a logical structure index composed of a plurality of elements having a hierarchical structure; extracting an appearance number of each element in the created logical structure index; and extracting elements for creating the index, based on the logical structure index, by comparing the extracted element appearance number and a first predetermined threshold.
System and method for generating referral fees
A method, computer program product and computing device for offering complementary products/services includes monitoring one or more actions taken by a user while browsing a website. One or more search terms are assigned to at least one of the one or more actions taken by the user. One or more complementary terms are assigned that define one or more products/services that complement the one or more actions taken by the user. A query is executed on a datastore based on at least a portion of the one or more search terms and at least a portion of the one or more complementary terms to generate a result set.
System and method for managing web applications
A method, system and article of manufacture for processing requests in web applications and, more particularly, for processing requests between two different applications. One embodiment provides a computer-implemented method of processing a copy request in a distributed environment including at least a first and a second application. The method comprises receiving, from the first application, a copy request for a copy of a selected object. A fully defined instance of the selected object resides in the second application and only a representation of the fully defined instance resides in the first application. The method further comprises generating, by the second application, an object descriptor representing the fully defined instance. At least a portion of the fully defined instance is excluded in the object descriptor. The object descriptor is transmitted from the second to the first application. Thereby, access by the first application to the fully defined instance is prevented.
Massive multi-pattern searching
To perform multi-pattern searching, a preprocessing engine populates a SUFFIX table, a PREFIX table and a PATTERN table. The SUFFIX table combines data conventionally stored in SHIFT and HASH tables. Pointers in the SUFFIX table refer to corresponding segments in the PREFIX table. Each PREFIX table segment is sorted by a prefix hash. A PATTERN table includes a hash of each full pattern sorted and grouped into segments, with each segment corresponding to a suffix hash and prefix hash combination. Pointers in the PREFIX table refer to corresponding segments in the PATTERN table. The PREFIX and PATTERN can be kept in secondary storage, allowing potentially billions of patterns to be used. After preprocessing, patterns are evaluated against a source file. A document metric is determine to qualitatively describe the similarity between the source file and each pattern file.
Optimizations for a background database consistency check
Two features allow for increased performance in running database consistency checks. First, a database consistency check runs directly on a database, as opposed to running on a saved database snapshot. This saves memory since there is no need to save a database snapshot. To handle any pages modified since a start of the database consistency check, a supplemental check runs on modified pages. Any facts generated by either check run through an early aggregation that attempts to aggregate facts during the database consistency check.
Method and a device for sterilizing downloaded files
A method and a device for managing a computer network, especially a technique for ensuring the security of a network. A computer network system in which computers are connected to each other through transmission lines, each computer stores the data which constitutes a moving type software exclusively used for security and transmitted together with a message when the computer transmits the message to another computer of the system, and executes the moving type software by using the stored data upon receiving a message from another computer.
System for deterministic database recovery time
A system for limiting the amount of time for a database server to perform a crash recovery process. A maximum recovery time for the database server to perform the crash recovery process is specified. An estimated recovery time for the crash recovery process that is less than the maximum recovery time is calculated, based on at least one of a deterministic analysis of cost accumulation during prior instances of the crash recovery process or an empirical analysis of cost accumulation during regular transaction processing in the database server. The crash recovery process is then conformed to the estimated recovery time.
Efficient storing and querying of snapshot measures
A facility for efficiently storing and querying snapshot measures from a relational data warehouse is provided. The facility allows for the efficient query of measures at any given point in time by efficiently modeling snapshot measures. In one technique, the facility stores periodic snapshots of a metric at longer time intervals, and computes intermediate snapshots of the metric as necessary in between these time intervals. Under this technique, the facility can compute an intermediate snapshot measure of a metric for any specified time by determining the last snapshot measure of the metric from the most recent periodic snapshot, and adding to the last snapshot measure the value of the changes to the metric that happened since the time of the most recent periodic snapshot and the specified time.
Versions and workspaces in an object repository
Maintaining versions and workspaces in an object repository is disclosed. The system provides an efficient way to manage versions of objects by only copying objects when absolutely necessary, i.e. when a property value in a particular object has changed. In addition, the system provides a mechanism to control whether or not relationships are propagated to successor versions of an object. A further aspect of the system is that resolution of objects during a relationship traversal can be customized depending on whether or not an application accessing the objects is version-aware. If the application is not version aware, a means for resolving the relationship to a particular object is provided. A still further aspect of the system is that merge behavior is parameterized. When two versions of an object are merged, flags control how conflicts in property values and relationship contents are managed. Finally, the system provides a workspace that acts as a virtual repository session and provides workspace context and scope to repository objects.
Methods and apparatus for processing partitioned changes
In a storage area network, agents provide transactions of data sets containing updates to manageable entities in a SAN. A SAN server avoids intermittent dissemination of events pertaining to a single transaction by storing events in a cache until completion of all subtransactions in the transaction, and then disseminating all events pertaining to the transaction. Transactions are broken down into update sections, each containing one or more subtransactions collectively defining the entire transaction. Update sections corresponding to the transaction are tagged with a section ID. Events indicating completion of processing of the update section are identified by the section ID, and suppressed temporarily by storing them in the event cache pending completion of the transaction. Other events not matching a tagged section ID are allowed to disseminate. Upon completion of the transaction, events for all section IDs corresponding to the transaction are disseminated from the cache.
Systems and methods for classifying and transferring information in a storage network
Systems and methods for data classification to facilitate and improve data management within an enterprise are described. The disclosed systems and methods evaluate and define data management operations based on data characteristics rather than data location, among other things. Also provided are methods for generating a data structure of metadata that describes system data and storage operations. This data structure may be consulted to determine changes in system data rather than scanning the data files themselves.
Method and system for presenting traffic-related information
Presenting of real-world situational data on a dynamically updateable user interface is provided for by providing a dynamically updateable user interface that includes dynamic objects having variable characteristics and that correspond to real-world objects, receiving situational data that corresponds to a status of the one or more real-world objects, and conforming the one or more variable characteristics to be consistent with the situational data such that an observer of the one or more dynamic objects is informed of a current status of a corresponding real-world situation.
File system for nonvolatile memory
A file system for nonvolatile memory media is disclosed, based on the assumptions that the file system structure is flat (i.e., does not contain directories), and that a relatively small amount of memory space is available. The nonvolatile memory medium is divided into logical blocks of predetermined size, depending on the typical file size expected for each particular implementation. Each of these logical blocks includes a header describing the contents of the block. For example, the block header may comprise a magic number indicating whether the block is a valid file system block or a free block, the name of the file to which the current block belongs, a flag indicating whether the current block is the first or last block of the file, the block number of the next block of the current file, if any, and the length of valid data in the present block.
Reducing memory used by metadata for duplicate user defined types
A computer automatically identifies multiple occurrences of an abstract data type that is embedded within an object of metadata of another abstract data type (hereinafter “top-level” abstract data type), e.g. by recursively visiting each element of the top-level abstract data type. Then the computer automatically generates, for the top-level abstract data type, a tap-level description that contains a description of each embedded abstract data type. At several locations in the top-level description that correspond to occurrences of a given embedded abstract data type in the top-level abstract data type, the computer automatically inserts offsets that identify a common position where the single description of that given embedded abstract data type is present in the tap-level description. Use of multiple offsets that identify a common position of an embedded description reduces space. The space was otherwise occupied by multiple embedded descriptions in prior art's top-level descriptions.
Project management system, method, and network, employing ODBC-compliant database and SQL servers
A software application, system of using the application, and distributed computer network comprising the application, are provided for managing professional services projects. Professional services practices typically employ distributed proprietary applications which complicate the ready transfer of data between and among applications. The database of the present invention is preferably built on an ODBC-compliant platform, such as Lotus Notes, and operates in conjunction with an SQL and Cold Fusion servers. Data is secured from other applications by the SQL and/or the Cold Fusion servers, depending on the format in which the data is maintained in the other applications, and supplied to an ODBC-compliant database, from which the data is accessible by the user.
Dual source remittance processing
A method and apparatus for electronically processing bill payment requests where respective sets of payment requests are received electronically from a plurality of independent sources, each set of payment requests corresponding to an associated set of payers requesting payments to a plurality of payees. The payment requests are processed at a single remittance processing system having a database including payee information for each of the plurality of payees to generate payment directions for paying the plurality of payees in accordance with the processed payment requests.
Methods and apparatus for storing, organizing, sharing and rating multimedia objects and documents
The present invention provides electronic methods and apparatus for storing and organizing access to restricted multimedia objects. This is accomplished using semantic networks by interactively defining a semantic network, identifying a relationship between nodes by associating a label with each semantic link, attaching multimedia objects to nodes and restricting user access to multimedia objects and/or the semantic network. The method allows users to access and edit the semantic network in a Java- or AJAX-based platform-independent software environment. The present invention further provides a method for rating semantic networks by allowing viewers to provide feedback regarding a semantic network's value or usefulness and then calculating a rating in accordance with the received feedback. The present invention further provides a method for linking semantic networks to build a knowledge base.
Collaborative content evaluation
A method and system determines respective reputation values for one or more users of a network-based community, the respective reputation values being based on one or more user attributes associated with the one or more users. The method and system receives content included in one or more communications from one or more respective users, the one or more communications identifying the content as objectionable within a network-based community and then evaluates the content based on respective reputation values of the one or more users to determine an action to take with respect to the content.
Method and system for maintaining disk location via homeness
A method and system manages ownership information about disks in a storage network without the need for an emulated, partner mode system. The method and system provides for ownership information, including a current owner and a home owner for resources, such as disks, to be stored on each disk in a storage system, as well as to be stored in memory on each storage system node in the network. A further aspect of the invention is a disk homeness application program interface (API), which provides commands that can be utilized by an administrator at a host computer to set, modify and display ownership information about each disk in the cluster. Upon a takeover, any node in the network can takeover one or more disks by reading the ownership information stored on the disks or in the tables.
Searching hypertext based multilingual web information
The present invention provides methods, apparatus and systems for searching hypertext based multilingual Web information when searching on a network for keywords to be queried. A method includes: a receiving step for receiving keywords input by a user; a native language hypertext searching step for searching on the network, according to the keywords to be queried, for all hypertexts whose representing language is the same as a language representing the keywords and which matches the keywords to be queried; extracting hyperlinks related to an arbitrary language from all the searched hypertexts; a hyperlink ranking step for ranking the extracted hyperlinks according to the correlativity of the hyperlinks with the keywords to be queried; and returning to the user ranked search result. Thereby, an accurate cross language searching can be provided without extra machine translation effort, being more accurate and objective than machine translation, even than human translation.
Common common object
Enterprise management information in a first format for use by a first computerized system is transformed into an intermediate format to readily make the stored enterprise management information available for use in a second computerized system that utilizes a second format. The transformation includes a plurality of common data type elements that are adapted to be shared across a plurality of data objects in the intermediate format.
Software transaction commit order and conflict management
Various technologies and techniques are disclosed for applying ordering to transactions in a software transactional memory system. A software transactional memory system is provided with a feature to allow a pre-determined commit order to be specified for a plurality of transactions. The pre-determined commit order is used at runtime to aid in determining an order in which to commit the transactions in the software transactional memory system. A contention management process is invoked when a conflict occurs between a first transaction and a second transaction. The pre-determined commit order is used in the contention management process to aid in determining whether the first transaction or the second transaction should win the conflict and be allowed to proceed.
Semantic network methods to disambiguate natural language meaning
A computer implemented data processor system automatically disambiguates a contextual meaning of natural language symbols to enable precise meanings to be stored for later retrieval from a natural language database, so that natural language database design is automatic, to enable flexible and efficient natural language interfaces to computers, household appliances and hand-held devices.
Problem solving process based computing
A computer implemented problem solving system utilizing an information storage infrastructure and a flexible development environment for data storage, includes a stored, user modifiable program including a problem solving rule set relevant to a problem to be solved, a stored, user modifiable set of vocabularies related to a problem to be solved, at least one stored, user modifiable knowledge set relevant to a problem to be solved, and stored, user modifiable individual user preferences relevant to a problem to be solved. A computer implemented problem solving method utilizing an information storage infrastructure and a flexible development environment for data storage, includes generating screen displays on a display screen, and entering a problem identified by an initial assessment to the computer at a designated place in one of the screen displays. The method further includes selecting from at least one of the screen displays at least one item from at least one of: a stored, user modifiable set of vocabularies related to a problem to be solved, at least one stored, user modifiable knowledge set relevant to a problem to be solved, and stored, user modifiable individual user preferences relevant to a problem to be solved and entering the at least one item to the computer at a designated place in one of the screen displays.
Method and system for measuring interest levels of digital messages
In an electronic communication system, relevance levels of an incoming or outgoing message for presenting it to an interlocutor is measured without having to actually interact with the interlocutor, by a method comprising the steps of extracting from the message, a flow of digital signals pertaining to transmission/reception context features, to content of the message and/or to other interlocutors with the interlocutor; weighting probabilistically the digital signals by means of indicators of relative and interrelated frequencies of occurrences of the same digital signals extracted from previous messages; from the results of the above steps, auto-generating a Bayesian network that allows the interlocutor to obtain a probabilistic prediction on the attractiveness of sent/received signals or messages, or find most probably interested interlocutors for a given information or message, each node of the Bayesian network being associated with a signal.
Reduction of memory usage for prime number storage by using a table of differences between a closed form numerical function and prime numbers which bounds a prime numeral between two index values
Embodiments of prime indexing and/or other related operations are disclosed.
Multi-layer development network having in-place learning
An in-place learning algorithm is provided for a multi-layer developmental network. The algorithm includes: defining a sample space as a plurality of cells fully connected to a common input; dividing the sample space into mutually non-overlapping regions, where each region is a represented by a neuron having a single feature vector; and estimating a feature vector of a given neuron by an amnesic average of an input vector weighted by a response of the given neuron, where amnesic is a recursive computation of the input vector weighted by the response such that the direction of the feature vector and the variance of signal in the region projected onto the feature vector are both recursively estimated with plasticity scheduling.
System and method for resolving gamma-ray spectra
A system for identifying radionuclide emissions is described. The system includes at least one processor for processing output signals from a radionuclide detecting device, at least one training algorithm run by the at least one processor for analyzing data derived from at least one set of known sample data from the output signals, at least one classification algorithm derived from the training algorithm for classifying unknown sample data, wherein the at least one training algorithm analyzes the at least one sample data set to derive at least one rule used by said classification algorithm for identifying at least one radionuclide emission detected by the detecting device.
Adaptive system for fan management
A system may include construction of observation vectors based on a plurality of power samples indicating past power consumption of a device and a plurality of temperature samples indicating past temperatures of the device, determination of an estimated temperature of the device based on fuzzy reasoning models comprising the observation vectors and a fan control parameter vector; measurement of a temperature of the device, determination of an error based on the estimated temperature and the measured temperature, and adaptation of the fan control parameter vector using a recursive least squares algorithm based on the error. The fans may be controlled based on the fan control parameter vector.
Electric power trading support system
An electric power trading support system includes a demand prediction unit, a demand prediction error evaluation unit, a demand predicted value upward adjustment ratio (quantity) setting unit, a private power generation/power purchase ratio (quantities) setting unit, an optimization unit for evaluating optimum values of the demand predicted value upward adjustment ratio (quantity) and the self power generation/power purchase ratio (quantities) based on costs, and a display unit for displaying the optimum values evaluated by the optimization unit, maximizing profit to an electric power retailer by minimizing the cost for power generation and power purchase when the electric power retailer sells electric power by use of a private power generator and backup electric power purchased from an electric power company.
System and method for validating postage
Systems and methods for dispensing postage or other authorization information electronically by using a secure processor containing an amount of preauthorized postage which can be applied to any piece of mail or other item are shown. The generated postage as applied to an item is preferably scanned and decoded toward the goal of validation of the pre-paid rights or obligation to pay to send the article of mail. A plurality of criteria and checks may be used to accomplish validation. For example, the fact that the indicia can be decoded gives a basic comfort level of validation and a check against a central user database for validation criteria provides for validation according to embodiments.
Methodologies and analytics tools for identifying potential licensee markets
A method is disclosed for use with at least one initial document describing a technical concept suitable for licensing, the method comprising: retrieving a set of intellectual property documents from a data warehouse; partitioning the set of intellectual property documents into a plurality of document categories; classifying the set of intellectual property documents by an industry parameter; constructing a contingency table that includes a listing of industry classifications for each of the document categories, and identifying documents within a particular one of the document categories that have different industry classifications so as to identify at least one potential new licensee industry of the technical concept described in the initial document.
System and method for processing payments
A method for processing payments is provided that includes receiving with at least one server data representative of a plurality of payments. For at least one of the payments, the at least one server causes data representative of at least one third party offer to be mailed to the payee associated with the payment along with a check for the payment amount of value associated with the payment. The method also includes receiving with the at least one server, data representative of an acceptance of the at least one third party offer. Responsive to the acceptance, the at least one server may cause: a gift certificate to be issued to the payee; value in the amount of the payment minus a service fee to be transferred to a merchant associated with the at least one third party offer; and to cause the check to be voided.
Method and system for an inter-financial institution transactional network
Systems and methods for conducting transactions across financial institutions are presented. More specifically, in one embodiment a financial transaction center may be provided such that transactions may be coordinated and controlled utilizing the financial transaction center. The financial transaction center may determine a financial institution associated received requests and issue requests to financial institutions. By coordinating the fulfillment of transactions between financial institutions through the financial transaction center a level of abstraction may be introduced whereby transactions may be conducted across financial intuitions without knowledge of host systems at the financial institutions or overly compromising the privacy or security of these host systems.
Automated political risk management
A risk management method and system for facilitating analysis and quantification of risk associated with politically exposed persons is disclosed. A computerized political risk management system maintains a database relating individuals to politically sensitive positions and world events. A rating system is used to assess risk based upon criteria such as a position held, historical data and/or interpretation of world events. The system can generate a risk quotient or other rating based upon a weighted algorithm applied to the criteria. The risk quotient is indicative of risk associated with an account. Actions commensurate with a risk quotient can be presented to an institution to help the institution properly manage risk associated with a politically exposed person. A log or other stored history can be created such that utilization of the system can mitigate adverse effects relating to a problematic account. Mitigation can be accomplished by demonstrating to regulatory bodies, shareholders, news media and other interested parties that corporate governance is being addressed through tangible risk management processes.
Systems and methods for analyzing data
Information regarding individuals that fit a bad performance definition, such as individuals that have previously defaulted on a financial instrument or have declared bankruptcy, is used to develop a model that is usable to determine whether an individual that does not fit the bad performance definition is more likely to subsequently default on a financial instrument or to declare bankruptcy. The model may be used to generate a score for each individual, and the score may be used to segment the individual into a segment of a segmentation structure that includes individuals with related scores, where segments may include different models for generating a final risk score for the individuals assigned to the particular segments. Thus, the segment to which an individual is assigned, which may be determined based at least partly on the score assigned to the individual, may affect the final risk score that is assigned to the individual.
System and method for a trading interface incorporating a chart
A graphical interface and method are provided for displaying market information corresponding to a tradeable object. One graphical interface includes a chart region for displaying historical market data in relation to a first value axis, and a market grid region in alignment with the chart region. The market grid region comprises a plurality of areas for receiving commands from a user input device to send trade orders, and the areas are displayed in relation to a second value axis. A plurality of values displayed along the second value axis is a subset of values displayed in relation to the first value axis, and can be modified to a new plurality of values that corresponds to a new subset of values on the first value axis.
Methods and systems for providing crossing markets
Methods and systems for providing and implementing crossing markets are provided. These methods and systems preferably include facilitating trading at crossing markets by establishing crossing market trading rules, incentivizing crossing market participants, and improving the efficiency of crossing market trading.
Graphical user interface for retirement income planning
A graphical user interface for guiding a user through the planning of an income stream includes one or more user input fields for receiving data from the user, where the data relates to user preferences regarding the income stream. Additionally, the graphical user interface includes at least one graph region for graphically displaying to the user the likelihood that the user will achieve a desired outcome based on the data provided to the user input fields. The graphical user interface thus assists the user in making informed decisions regarding his or her retirement goals and the necessary investments he or she must make in order to meet those goals.
System and method for placing products or services and facilitating purchase
A system and method for placing products or services within interactive television or radio programming or other programming, and for facilitating viewers' purchases thereof. The present invention allows viewers to mark and store placed products or services for later consideration or purchase; provides a virtual catalog entry showing such options as different colors, styles, or sizes, as may be appropriate given the nature of the product or service; identifies local or regional sources or providers of selected products or services; indicates availability and estimated delivery times for selected products or services; and allows for a greater variety of products and services to be placed.
Adult digital content management, playback and delivery
An electronic information system and method pursuant to which at least one user interface is adapted for interaction with a user; at least one database comprising adult digital content associated with a server is remotely accessible and accessed by the user, and a network provides remote access to the at least one database to enable downloading of adult digital content.
In-store self-service ordering guide system and method
A self-service shopper ordering guide system and method for use by retailers to customize product ordering promotions. An ordering guide database is synchronized with the retailer's product and inventory databases so that current product data is available to the system. The self-service ordering guide system comprises tools for developing and deploying screens to self-service terminals located throughout a store. A screen flow editor prompts a user to define screens for an order flow and to specify products from the ordering guide database to include on screens. The user's selections populate screen templates that comprise an order flow. Photographs and files for use in the screens and subscreens allow a retailer to create a customized look. A shopper using an in-store terminal is prompted to make selections from the screens to create an in-store order. The ordering guide system is further integrated with the retailer's fulfillment system for processing online orders.
Apparatus for preparing client communications involving financial products and services
A method and apparatus are provided for automatically preparing a client communication pertaining to a financial product for a client, wherein the client communication is for combined use with a corresponding host vehicle. The method comprises providing a format for the client communication wherein the communication format includes a variable portion; inputting into a computer-accessible storage medium variable information other than a client identification; inputting into the storage medium decision information; and using the decision information to select a subset of the variable information for inclusion in a variable portion of the client communication corresponding to the variable portion of the client communication format. The apparatus comprises an inputting device for inputting into a computer-accessible storage medium variable information comprising other than a client identification and decision information; a processor operatively coupled to the storage medium for using the decision information to automatically select a subset of the variable information for each of the clients; and an output preparing component in operative communication with the processor for preparing the client communications and for automatically inserting into the client communication the subset of variable information for the corresponding and respective client.
System, method and program product for optimizing usage based pricing and availability for a resource
System, method and program product for determining a price “P” to bill a customer for a resource. An amount “U” of the resource provided to the customer during the billing period is determined. An amount “Ci” of the resource committed to the customer during the billing period is identified. The price P=F(Ci)+G(U−Ci) is determined, where “F” and “G” are price functions for the resource. The price “P” is billed to the customer for the billing period. A determination is made as to the number of requests for the resource which were made by the customer during the billing period in excess of “Ci” which were denied. If the number of denied requests exceeds a predetermined threshold, the amount “Ci” for determining the price “P” is increased during a subsequent billing period. The price “P” is billed to the customer for the subsequent billing period based on the increased amount “Ci” and the value “U” during the subsequent billing period, and the functions “F” and “G”.
System, method, and program for managing transport information
A system is configured by a movement record acquiring unit that acquires a cargo movement record through data communication with a communication apparatus included in a transportation means to store the cargo movement record into a cargo movement record database, a load amount identifying unit that identifies cargos having the overlapping periods between the loading time and unloading time and transported by the same transportation means among the cargos to store a load record into a load record database, an average load amount calculating unit that calculates an average value of the past load amount in the loading period as an average load amount, an energy consumption calculating unit that calculates the energy consumption of each cargo, and an output processing unit that outputs the energy consumption of each cargo to an output interface.
Method and apparatus for providing virtual capacity to a provider of services
Method and apparatus for providing virtual capacity to a service provider. A service provider contacts a third party service provider when the service provider can not perform services for a customer. A solicitation is sent by the service provider and accepted by the third party service provider. After acceptance, status and/or location information from the third party service provider is redirected within a network management facility so that the information is sent to the service provider, rather than to an entity normally associated with the third party service provider. After services have been performed by the third party service provider, the third party service provider is generally free to accept service requests from other service providers, whereby messages transmitted by the third party service provider are routed to the new service provider.
Determination of a bottleneck
A bottleneck determination method and system are disclosed. Sequential processes are defined and certain attributes for each process are quantified. These attributes may include a beginstock amount, a production amount, and a spoilage amount. Using the attributes, calculations are performed, and the results of these calculations are used to select processes that may be bottlenecks. Further calculations are performed with regard to this selected group, and the results of these further calculations are used to select a bottleneck process.
Method and system for unused ticket management
A method and system for unused ticket management, that identifying travel data related to one of future or past travel data for one or more travelers; identifying one or more unused travel purchase; generating a value for the unused travel purchase, the value corresponding to the one or more travelers, the respective values based at least in part on the travel data of the one or more travelers; and presenting to at least one of the one or more travelers, one or more options of unused travel purchases and the respective generated values.
System for reducing the risk associated with an insured building structure through the incorporation of selected technologies
A method and computerized system is disclosed for managing the underwriting, quoting and binding an insurance policy with regard to the technology used to militate against the financial consequences of property losses. The invention utilizes a classifier for categorizing and weighing risk, composed of data representing in an identified building, a first unmitigated insurance risk and a second insurance risk, based upon the use of certain technology. A plurality of such weights are summed such that the weights generate a minimized risk for a building structure under consideration. combinations of technologies, employed in existing building structures to a classification, which then permits an underwriter to establish a premium. In another aspect of the invention data structures representing the quantification of risk reduction attendant a given technology or product are chained into a plurality of decision trees that process a construction phase and a pruning phase.
System and method for clinical strategy for therapeutic pharmacies
A system and method of distributing pharmaceutical prescriptions within a network of pharmacies based on the review of prescription claim data and patient medical state to enable stratification of patients, wherein each pharmacy within the network has been established to handle one or more particular patient medical states.
System and method for managing discharge workload in healthcare environment
A computerized system and method for determining a discharge workload score for a patient and a discharge planner is provided. A first discharge data element for a patient is received and assigned a first value. A second discharge data element for the patient is received and assigned a second value to the second discharge data element. The first and second values are utilized to determine a discharge workload score for the patient. The one or more patients for a care planner are determined. The workload score for each of the one or more patients is accessed and the workload scores are utilized to determine an overall workload score for the care planner.
Influencing communications among a social support network
Methods and systems are provided for promoting and managing communications among a social support network. According to one embodiment, a communication system includes a closed communication service platform and a hardcopy-based communication appliance. The communication service platform provides a caregroup virtual private network (VPN) through which only registered members of the caregroup, authorized personnel of the communication service platform, processes associated with the communication service platform, and a target of the caregroup are permitted to exchange communications. The hardcopy-based communication appliance is associated with the caregroup VPN and used by the target and is operable to be communicatively coupled to the communication service platform to print inbound communications received from registered members of the caregroup, and to upload to the communication service platform outbound digital representations of annotated pages defining communications to be delivered to one or more members of the caregroup.
Method of optimizing healthcare services consumption
A method of optimizing healthcare services consumption according to the invention includes the steps of assessing the healthcare situation of an employer providing healthcare benefits to a population, identifying a first group of patients from the population likely to generate expensive healthcare claims based on data representing past claims, periodically determining whether patients in the first group have satisfied certain predetermined healthcare requirements, identifying a first group of providers who provide high quality, cost efficient healthcare services based on the practice patterns of the providers, prompting patients who have not satisfied the predetermined healthcare requirements to obtain services from providers in the first group, and responding to healthcare requests from patients by determining whether the requesting patient is seeking services from a provider in the first group, and, if not, urging the patient to obtain such services from a provider in the first group.
Resume management and recruitment workflow system and method
A computer system and method for managing access to a resume database. For each skill or experience-related phrase in a resume, the system computes a term of experience based on an experience range associated with a contextual use of the phrase in the resume. The term of experience for a phrase that occurs multiple times in the resume is the summation of the term of experience for each occurrence of the phrase associated with a different contextual use. The system stores each phrase and the term of experience in a parsed resume. The resume database also stores job descriptions that include required phrases and a required term of experience for each required phrase. The job descriptions also store a required level of education or field of specialization, and a required salary range. A recruiter searches the resume database to find matching resumes that satisfy a job description.
Chat information service system
The present invention provides a chat information system having a voice recognition device for recognizing voices, a voice synthesizer, a humanoid robot, a microphone for receiving the voices and a speaker for pronouncing synthesized voices. The system comprises a headline sensor capturing news from the Internet, a news database for storing the captured news, and a conversation database including at least a general conversation database storing a set of inquiries and responses. The system also includes a chat engine configured to extract one or more keywords from a user's speech that has been recognized by the voice recognition device, to search at least one of the news database and the conversation database with the extracted keywords and to output via the speaker the contents that have been hit by the search.
Systems and methods for monitoring speech data labelers
Systems and methods for using an annotation guide to label utterances and speech data with a call type. A method embodiment monitors labelers of speech data by presenting via a processor a test utterance to a labeler, receiving input from the labeler that selects a particular call type from a list of call types and determining via the processor if the labeler labeled the test utterance correctly. Based on the determining step, the method performs at least one of the following: revising the annotation guide, retraining the labeler or altering the test utterance.
“Smart” elevator system and method
An information and control system for personnel transport devices. In one embodiment, the information and control system is coupled to the elevator system of a building, and includes a touch panel input device, a flat panel display having a touch sensitive screen, and speech recognition and synthesis systems serving each elevator car. The speech recognition and synthesis systems and input device(s) are operatively coupled to a processor and storage devices having a plurality of different types of data stored thereon. Each elevator car is also a client connected to a LAN, WAN, intranet, or Internet, and capable of exchanging data with and retrieving data therefrom. Functions performed by the information and control system include a voice-actuated building directory, download of selected data to personal electronic devices (PEDs), monitoring of areas adjacent to the elevator car on destination floors, and control of lighting and security monitoring in selectable areas of destination floors. The system is also optionally fitted with an RFID interrogator/reader capable of recognizing RFID tags carried by passengers on the elevator, thereby granting access to various controlled locations automatically after password authentication. The RFID system also allows the authenticated passenger(s) to control utilities such as lighting and HVAC within specific zones on their destination floors. The information and control system is also optionally equipped with an occupancy estimating sub-system which allows elevator cars to bypass calling floors when their capacity is reached or exceeded.
Method and system for frame erasure concealment for predictive speech coding based on extrapolation of speech waveform
A method and system are provided for synthesizing a corrupted frame output from a decoder including one or more predictive filters. The corrupted frame is representative of one segment of a decoded signal output from the decoder. The method comprises extrapolating a replacement frame based upon another segment of the decoded signal and substituting the replacement frame for the corrupted frame. Finally, the internal states of the filters are updated based upon the substituting.
Speech recognition system and technique
The present invention relates to speech recognition systems, particularly speech-to-text systems and software and decoders for the same. The present invention provides a decoder for an automatic speech recognition system for determining one or more candidate text unit concatenations according to a predetermined criterion and which correspond to a speech segment, the decoder comprising: means for receiving a sequence of feature vectors corresponding to the speech segment; means for mapping with different likelihood values the feature vectors to sequences of nodes in a decoding network, every sequence representing a concatenation of text units; means for determining one or more candidate node sequences in the decoding network corresponding to the candidate text unit concatenations by implementing a dynamic programming token passing algorithm in which each token corresponds to a node and is associated with a number of text unit concatenations and likelihood values for these concatenations, and wherein a token associated with a node in the decoding network is derived from the tokens associated with the previous nodes in the network; wherein tokens from different nodes that are to be passed to a common node are combined to generate a new token corresponding to the common node and associated with an identifier for text unit concatenations and likelihood values associated with the previous tokens of said different nodes. This is combined with means for merging a said token having a said identifier, the text unit concatenations of the said previous tokens being associated with said merged token dependent on their corresponding likelihood values.
Speech recognition device and speech recognition method
A speech recognition apparatus equipped with the garbage acoustic model storage unit storing the garbage acoustic model which learned the collection of unnecessary words. A feature value calculation unit calculates the feature parameter necessary for recognition by acoustically analyzing the unidentified input speech including the non-language speech per frame which is a unit for speech analysis. A garbage acoustic score calculation unit calculates the garbage acoustic score by comparing the feature parameter and the garbage acoustic model, and a garbage acoustic score correction unit corrects the garbage acoustic score calculated by the garbage acoustic score calculation unit so as to raise it in the frame where the non-language speech is inputted. A recognition result output unit outputs, as the recognition result of the unidentified input speech, the word string with the highest cumulative score of the language score, the word acoustic score, and the garbage acoustic score which is corrected by the garbage acoustic score correcting unit.
Apparatus and method for detecting voice activity period
An apparatus and method for detecting a voice activity period. The apparatus for detecting a voice activity period includes a domain conversion module that converts an input signal into a frequency domain signal in the unit of a frame obtained by dividing the input signal at predetermined intervals, a subtracted-spectrum-generation module that generates a spectral subtraction signal which is obtained by subtracting a predetermined noise spectrum from the converted frequency domain signal, a modeling module that applies the spectral subtraction signal to a predetermined probability distribution model, and a speech-detection module that determines whether a speech signal is present in a current frame through a probability distribution calculated by the modeling module.
Audio signal noise reduction device and method
An audio signal reduction device that generates a gap period in accordance with a noise generation period of noise included in an input audio signal. Noise is removed from the audio signal, and the level envelope of the audio signal is continuously detected. A coefficient for the level envelope in the gap period is generated in accordance with the level envelope detection and is used to modulate an interpolated signal. The noise-removed audio signal and the modulated interpolated signal are mixed; and the mixed signal is output in a period corresponding to the gap period, while the audio signal is output, as is, not in the gap period.
Methods and system for recognizing names in a computer-generated document and for providing helpful actions associated with recognized names
Methods and systems are provided for recognizing names entered into a computer-generated document in the context of a plurality of spoken languages and for providing helpful actions to users upon the recognition of the entered names.
Multi-language jump bar system and methods
A multi-language jump bar system and methods for use in connection with a multi-language contact management computer software program. The jump bar system includes a plurality of user-selectable buttons which may be associated with alphanumeric characters from different languages through use of a character set in which each alphanumeric character is identified by a single, unique, numeric character code. The buttons enable rapid updating of displayed contact information from a contacts information database simultaneously storing contact information in multiple languages so that a user of the contact management computer software may more quickly locate contact information for a particular contact. A jump bar method enables assignment of character codes to buttons according to weights associated with each character code. Such weights may be based at least partially on the usage frequency of the alphanumeric characters associated with the character codes in their respective languages.
User interface for machine aided authoring and translation
A user interface and associated methods for machine aided authoring and translation is provided. The user interface can display strings and associated metadata to assist with authoring and translations. The metadata can be used to mark the strings. The metadata can include one or more constraints which correspond to evaluation criteria and one or more anchor points operable to project the constraints against a string.
Empirical methods for splitting compound words with application to machine translation
A statistical machine translation (MT) system may include a compound splitting module to split compounded words for more accurate translation. The compound splitting module select a best split for translation by the MT system.
System and method for generating markup language text templates
A method of generating a markup language text template comprises identifying a variable text element in a source language text string and assigning a first predefined symbol to the variable text element, identifying a grammatical rule for the variable text element and assigning a second predefined symbol to the variable text element based on the identified grammatical rule, determining whether to assign supplemental information to the variable text element, wherein the first predefined symbol, the second predefined symbol, and the supplemental information if assigned represent a token, and repeating the identification of a grammatical rule, assignment of first and second predefined symbols, and determination of whether to assign supplemental information for remaining variable text elements in the source language text string so as to complete a markup language text template comprising one or more tokens.
Simulation of hardware and software
A method and apparatus are provided to allow co-verification of hardware and software elements asynchronously from a programmable logic device (PLD).
System and method for sugarcane recovery estimation
A product recovery prediction model that models recovery of a product from a crop is generated by inputting training product recovery data by date, age, and variety. A first model that models season dependent effects on product recovery, and/or a second model that models age dependent effects on product recovery, and/or a third model that models other effects such as, for example, weather dependent effects on product recovery are generated. The first, second, and/or third models are combined, and the product recovery prediction model is generated based on the combined first, second, and/or third models and on the training product recovery data. The crop may be sugarcane, and the product may be sugar. The product recovery prediction model may be used to predict recovery of the product to use for harvesting or any economical decisions.
Efficient approaches for bounded model checking
A method for bounded model checking of arbitrary Linear Time Logic temporal properties. The method comprises translating properties associated with temporal operators F(p), G(p), U(p, q) and X(p) into property checking schemas comprising Boolean satisfiability checks, wherein F represents an eventuality operator, G represents a globally operator, U represents an until operator and X represents a next-time operator. The overall property is checked in a customized manner by repeated invocations of the property checking schemas for F(p), G(p), U(p, q), X(p) operators and standard handling of atomic propositions and Boolean operators.
An apparatus for analyzing the condition of a machine having a rotating shaft, comprising: at least one input for receiving measurement data from a sensor for surveying a measuring point of the machine, the measurement data being dependent on rotation of the shaft; a data processor for processing condition data dependent on the measurement data; the data processor performing a plurality of condition monitoring functions (F1, F2 Fn). At least one of the plurality of condition monitoring functions (F1, F2 Fn) is a restricted function having a disabled state and an enabled state; the disabled state prohibiting complete execution of the condition monitoring function, and the enabled sate allowing execution. The apparatus allows a limited amount of use of the at least one restricted condition monitoring function; and at least one of the plurality of condition monitoring functions (F1, F2, Fn) is an unrestricted function.
Methods, systems and computer program products for providing system operational status information
Methods for providing operational status information associated with a distributed application environment can include monitoring performance of actions occurring on separate components in a distributed application environment in response to a requested operation to determine operational status information of the distributed application environment based on reports provided by the separate components. Related systems and computer program product are also disclosed.
System and method for testing the accuracy of real time clocks
A method for testing the accuracy of real time clocks is disclosed. The method includes the steps of: setting test parameters for testing the accuracy of real time clocks (RTCs), the test parameters comprising a test time length, a test time sampling interval, and an acceptable margin; synchronizing the time of an RTC IC and an RTC to be tested via a UUT; reading a current time of the RTC IC and the RTC via the UUT at each test time sampling interval; calculating a time difference between the current time of the RTC IC and the RTC via the UUT, and measuring whether the absolute value of the time difference is less than the acceptable margin; detecting whether the test time length is over; repeating the test process if the test time length is not over, or outputting test pass information if the test time length is over. A related system is also disclosed.
Method for estimating movement of a solid
The method estimates movement of a solid mobile in a medium capable of generating disturbances defined by a three-variable vector, wherein the movement is defined by a six-variable vector and the solid is equipped with at least one sensor sensitive to acceleration having at least three sensitive axes and at least one sensor sensitive to the magnetic field having at least three sensitive axes. The method for estimating the movement of a solid includes a step of calculating a nine-variable vector consisting of the six-variable movement vector and of the three-variable disturbance vector and a step of weighting the nine-variable vector capable of transforming the nine-variable vector into a vector with not more than five variables to be estimated.
System and method for testing semiconductor device
According to an example embodiment, a semiconductor device test system includes a semiconductor device and a test apparatus. The semiconductor device includes a plurality of function blocks for performing predetermined functions at different operating speeds and a plurality of ports, each corresponding to a respective function block. The test apparatus is adapted to generate a plurality of signals with different frequencies corresponding to each of the operating speeds of the function blocks, to output a plurality of input test data to the ports in response to the signals, and to receive a plurality of output test data from the ports to determine if the semiconductor device is normal.
Orientation calculation apparatus, storage medium having orientation calculation program stored therein, game apparatus, and storage medium having game program stored therein
An orientation calculation apparatus obtains data from an input device comprising at least a gyro sensor, an acceleration sensor, and an image pickup means, so as to calculate an orientation of the input device. Firstly, the orientation calculation apparatus calculates an orientation of the input device in accordance with an angular rate detected by the gyro sensor. Secondly, the orientation is corrected in accordance with acceleration data detected by the acceleration sensor. Further, the orientation is corrected in accordance with an image of a predetermined subject to be taken by the image pickup means.
Power switching control apparatus
A power switching control apparatus for acquiring pieces of making operation time information of individual phase switches more precisely according to loads and making instants. Making operation time information detecting means outputs the making operation time information of at least one of individual phase switches on the basis of the motion of the movable contact of the phase switch, and outputs the making operation time information of at least another of the individual phase switches on the basis of the phase current of the phase switch. Moreover, the making operation time information detecting means outputs the making operation time information ITA, ITB and ITC of an A-phase switch, a B-phase switch and a C-phase switch individually on the basis of either the detected output of a contact operation sensor and the detected output of a phase current sensor.
Pressure relief valve monitoring
A pressure relief valve monitoring system and method is disclosed. In one aspect there is an online pressure relief valve monitoring system that includes at least one acoustic sensor located about a pressure relief valve that obtains ultrasonic measurements therefrom. One or more temperature sensors located about the pressure relief valve obtain temperature measurements therefrom. A data acquisition system receives the ultrasonic measurements from the at least one acoustic sensor and the temperature measurements from the one or more temperature sensors. An online monitor monitors the measurements received by the data acquisition system for detection of a leak about the pressure relief valve. The online monitor detects the presence of the leak as a function of the ultrasonic measurements and temperature measurements.
Photometrically modulated delivery of reagents
A process system adapted for processing of or with a material therein. The process system includes: a sampling region for the material; an infrared photometric monitor constructed and arranged to transmit infrared radiation through the sampling region and to responsively generate an output signal correlative of the material in the sampling region, based on its interaction with the infrared radiation; and process control means arranged to receive the output of the infrared photometric monitor and to responsively control one or more process conditions in and/or affecting the process system.
Micropressors, devices and methods for use in analyte monitoring systems
The present invention comprises one or more microprocessors programmed to execute methods for improving the performance of an analyte monitoring device including prediction of glucose levels in a subject by utilizing a predicted slower-time constant (1/k2). In another aspect of the invention, pre-exponential terms (1/c2) can be used to provide a correction for signal decay (e.g., a Gain Factor). In other aspects, the present invention relates to one or more microprocessors comprising programming to control execution of (i) methods for conditional screening of data points to reduce skipped measurements, (ii) methods for qualifying interpolated/extrapolated analyte measurement values, (iii) various integration methods to obtain maximum integrals of analyte-related signals, as well as analyte monitoring devices comprising such microprocessors. Further, the present invention relates to algorithms for improved optimization of parameters for use in prediction models that require optimization of adjustable parameters.
System and method for monitoring physical condition of production well equipment and controlling well production
A system and method for producing fluid from a completed well is provided wherein the method in one aspect includes determining a first setting of at least one first device under use for producing the fluid from the well; selecting a first set of input parameters that includes at least one parameter relating to health of at least one second device and a plurality of parameters selected from a group consisting of information relating to flow rate, pressure, temperature, presence of a selected chemical, water content, sand content, and chemical injection rate; and using the selected first set of parameters as an input to a computer model, determining a second setting for the at least one first device that will provide at least one of an increased life of at least one second device and enhanced flow rate for the fluid from the completed well.
System and a method for automatic air collision avoidance
A method and a system for avoiding collisions between aircraft. The method includes computing a default fly out maneuver regarding how the aircraft shall be maneuvered during a fly out action, predicting a fly away path including a prediction of the position of the aircraft during the fly out maneuver, sending information about the own fly away path to the other aircrafts, receiving information about fly away paths from the other aircrafts, detecting an approaching collision, and activating the fly out maneuver upon detecting an approaching collision. The method further includes carrying out the following steps after activation the fly out maneuver: receiving the current position of the aircraft, and calculating a compensated fly out maneuver for the aircraft based on the current position of the aircraft, the previously predicted position, and the default fly out maneuver.
Navigation system and method
A novel mapping paradigm is provided for the visual display of information in the form of an improved navigational aid. Unlike today's road maps which use a point-arc-polygon paradigm, the new mapping paradigm uses a compressed linear-pictographic-topological design that typically depicts roads as vertical linear pictograms. Further, the display has a columnar layout, whereby the descriptive elements are grouped together by type, and displayed one above the other in columns. In this manner, the mapping paradigm also serves to increase traveler safety, provide navigation assistance during address-less trips, create valuable advertising space and new promotional opportunities, and dramatically increases the travelers' communications and entertainment options.
Aided INS/GPS/SAR navigation with other platforms
The need for geo-registered features is avoided by a system for estimating a motion of a first sensor during a time interval. The system has a second sensor where the first sensor and the second sensor sense the same geo-location during the time interval. The first sensor computes a first target location error from sensing the geo-location. The second sensor also computes a second target location error from sensing the geo-location. A data link interconnects the first sensor and the second sensor, the data link transmitting the second target location error computed by the second sensor to the first sensor during the time interval. A processor at the first sensor combines the first target location error and the second target location error in a first sensor observation model, where the sensor observation model is descriptive of the motion of the first sensor. The observation model is used with a Kalman filter to update the position of the first sensor. This combination of the first sensor observation model and the second sensor observation model generates a more accurate target location error at the first sensor. The principle is extended to a plurality of platforms.
Method for the automatic calculation of optimum routes
A method for automatically calculating optimum routes in a traffic-route network is provided, taking into consideration at least one set, fixed route section, where the traffic-route network is described by segments for traffic-route sections, weighted with a resistance, and nodes for the intersection points of traffic-route sections, and the route to be calculated runs from a starting segment to a destination segment, and where, for purposes of optimization, the segments from the destination segment to the starting segment are evaluated with respect to the best resistance. The route is optimized, in each instance, from a starting segment up to the fixed route sections, at the fixed route sections, and from the fixed route section up to a destination segment.
Navigation system for a vehicle
A navigation system for a vehicle includes a man-machine interface to enter at least one key word for characterization of a point of interest and to enter a geometric figure and a search module to search for at least one of the points of interest assigned to the key word within a geographic area defined by the geometric figure.
When a variable valve lift control apparatus is in a steady condition, a fluctuation control is performed. In the fluctuation control, a target lift amount is increased by a fluctuation width during an up-time and then the target lift amount is decreased by the fluctuation width during a down-time which is longer than the up-time to be returned to an original value. A decreasing amount of the integral term is greater than the increasing amount thereof. Consequently, the integral term can be made smaller than the original value. Even when a control duty is a larger value due to a hysteresis, the fluctuation control gradually decreases the increment of the integral term and converges the control duty to the small value.
Method and device for controlling the braking system of a motor vehicle
A process and device for controlling the brake system of a motor vehicle with all-wheel drive are described. The process and the device include an electronic control unit which controls at least one coupling unit for engaging and disengaging an all-wheel drive, so that at least one wheel can be decoupled, from the drive. After stopping the motor vehicle, for example on a sloping roadway, a predefined brake pressure on at least one wheel of the motor vehicle is held either depending on or independently from the extent of brake pedal actuation. The brake pressure is held until a brake pressure reduction condition is present, such as during a brake pressure holding time. During that time, the brake pressure on at least the one wheel is reduced and the wheel is decoupled from the drive to detect slippage, while at least one other wheel remains pressurized with brake pressure.
Vehicular steering control apparatus and control method thereof
An operation torque estimating portion estimates an operation torque Th of a driver based on an input angle θh and an input torque T output from a torque sensor. A non-holding state detecting portion determines whether the driver is holding a steering wheel by comparing an absolute value of the operation torque Th and a predetermined value ε1. An equilibrium detecting portion determines whether an equilibrium point is reached by comparing the absolute value of the input torque T with a predetermined value ε2. When it is determined that the driver is not holding the steering wheel and the equilibrium point is reached, a switching portion switches to such a position that causes a target steering adjusting portion to multiply a target output angle θpm by a predetermined gain G according to the input torque T so that the target steering angle is made smaller.
Steering system with lane keeping integration
A system for steering a vehicle including: an actuator disposed in a vehicle to apply torque to a steerable wheel; a driver input device receptive to driver commands for directing the vehicle; and a sensor for determining an intent of a driver and generating a signal indicative thereof. The system also includes: a lane keeping system for detecting a location of the vehicle relative to a lane marker and generating a lane position signal indicative thereof; a controller in operable communication with the actuator, the driver input device, the first sensor, and the lane keeping system. The controller provides a command to the actuator responsive to the intent of the driver, the lane position, and a desired lane position. The controller executes a lane keeping algorithm consisting of a single control loop based on at least one of the lane position and the lane position deviation.
Electric power steering system
An electric power steering system includes: a band-stop filter 15a having a transfer function G1(s) for suppressing resonance, and a phase compensator 15b having a transfer function G2(s). The above function G1(s) is represented by an expression G1(s)=(s2+2ζ11ω1+ω12)/(s2+2ζ12ω1+ω12), where s is a Laplace operator, ζ11 is a damping coefficient, ζ12 is a damping coefficient, and ω1 is an angular frequency. On the other hand, the above function G2(s) is represented by an expression G2(s)=(s2+2ζ21ω2+ω22)/(s2+2ζ22ω2+ω22),where s is a Laplace operator, ζ21 is a damping coefficient, ζ22 is a damping coefficient, and ω1 is an angular frequency. Furthermore, the above damping coefficients ζ21, ζ22 satisfy an expression ζ2124 ζ22≧1.Thus, a filter such as a phase compensator may attain a design freedom while preventing the increase of arithmetic load, whereby both the suppression of resonance and a good assist response in a normal steering speed region, for example, may be achieved.
Vehicle help system and method
A system and method for providing customized help to a vehicle user when a vehicle problem is detected. The method includes detecting vehicle data that indicates a condition of a vehicle and obtaining profile data comprising an estimated mechanical skill level of a user. The method further includes providing instructions, based upon the profile data and the vehicle data, to the user for addressing the condition.
Control system and method for electric vehicle
An electric traction vehicle is described herein which may be used to provide power to off-board electric power-consuming systems or devices. The electric traction vehicle may provide 250 kilowatts or more of three phase AC power to an off-board electric power consuming system. The electric traction vehicle may also include an electrical power storage device which can be selectively discharged to allow the vehicle to be serviced.
Method and apparatus for determining wagon order in a train
The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for determining the order of wagons in a train. The invention configures a plurality of wagons of a train to sense at least one environmental condition that the wagons are respectively exposed to when the train is moving. The invention configures the wagons to generate a corresponding announcement message in response to a change in state of the environmental condition. The invention configures the first wagon of the train to listen for the announcement message generated by any of the plurality of wagons. The invention configures the first wagon to compute a sequence of the announcement messages from an order in which the wagons have been heard.
Water savings system
An irrigation controller has run-times that are modified as a function of a calculated volumetric irrigation amount and a preferred irrigation amount. The preferred irrigation amount is at least partly based on an evapotranspiration (ETo) value and the area of the irrigated site. The calculated volumetric irrigation amount is based on flow meter data and inputted irrigation run-times. Preferably the flow meter is a water meter that measures water distributed to the irrigation system and to other water using devices at the irrigated site, and the flow data is based on signature data. In addition to flow data, water pressure may be measured that corresponds with the flow data. It is anticipated that the function will involve the dividing of the preferred irrigation amount by the calculated volumetric irrigation amount to arrive at a modifying factor.
Characterizing vibrational health in computer systems with variable component configurations
One embodiment of the present invention provides a system that efficiently conducts vibrational characterizations for a computer system having variable component configurations. During operation, the system receives a given component configuration associated with the computer system. Next, the system looks up the given component configuration in a resonant spectra library, which contains structural resonant frequencies for a number of possible component configurations for the computer system. If the given component configuration is found in the resonant spectra library, the system retrieves a set of structural resonant frequencies associated with the given component configuration. The system subsequently controls one or more vibration sources within the computer system to avoid the set of structural resonant frequencies.
Control device for refrigeration or air conditioning systems
The invention relates to a control unit for a refrigeration or air conditioning device, comprising a main processor that is situated in a housing and that controls the temperature, fan and/or the defrosting process of a refrigeration or air conditioning device. Contact points for a co-processor, which is separate from the main processor and is suitable for controlling an electronic expansion valve, are located in said housing.
Apparatus and method for controlling camera of robot cleaner
Disclosed are an apparatus and a method for controlling a camera mounted at a robot cleaner in order to sense obstacles and perform position compensation. The apparatus for controlling a camera of a robot cleaner includes a first axis driver for driving a camera mounted at the robot cleaner in a first axis direction; a second axis driver 320 for driving the camera in a second axis direction other than the first axis direction; an image processor 330 for receiving and processing an image photographed by the camera; and a control section 340 for controlling the first axis driver and the second axis driver, and controlling a traveling of the robot cleaner based on the image photographed by the camera.
Personal medication dispenser
An automated personal pill dispenser has one or more chambers for holding a supply of pills. A feed mechanism is associated with each chamber and is selectively operable to dispense an incremental number of pills from each respective chamber. A programmable controller is coupled to control and operate the feed mechanism. The controller has a timer, a memory and an input means and is programmably operable by the user and/or by remote input from a smart card, PDA or various networks such as one having access to data from a pharmacy. The programming presets at least one of a time and a number of pills to be dispensed from each chamber. The controller operates an alarm to alert the user and operates the feed mechanism to dispense pills at the preset time and number, also detecting the user's access to obtain the dispensed pills.
Image forming system and inserter device
A control command communicated between a print control section and a finisher control section are relayed by an inserter control section. The print control section and the finisher control section generate the control command without taking into account processing at an inserter, and the inserter control section judges the content of the control command upon receiving the control command sent from the print control section or the finisher control section, and converts the control command or adjusts output timing of the control command if the control command needs to take into account the processing at the inserter.
The transport apparatus is provided with a path that extends past a plurality of article transferring locations, a plurality of article transporting vehicles that run on the path, a travel driving means provided on each of the article transporting vehicles for controlling movement of the article transporting vehicle, and a ground-side controller for managing operation of the plurality of article transporting vehicles by managing the travel driving means, wherein the ground-side controller is capable of transmitting run command information and stop command information, relating to each of the article transporting vehicles, to their corresponding travel driving means, and wherein the travel driving means drives and stops the article transporting vehicles based on the run command information and the stop command information from the ground-side controller.
Audio signal processor with modular user interface and processing functionality
Disclosed is an audio signal processor that determines the type of audio processing to be performed utilizing an audio processing device (APD) and a removable module. The APD includes a digital signal processor (DSP) that modifies an input audio signal in accordance with a signal processing instruction set. The removable module includes the signal processing instruction set, and when the removable module is coupled to the APD, the signal processing instruction set is transferred to and implemented by the DSP of the APD to perform an audio processing function upon the input audio signal. The removable module may also include a user interface having at least one control to set a control parameter that is transferred to the DSP of the APD to further modify audio processing. The APD may also include a multi-state footswitch whose functionality can be determined by the DSP.
Aiming feedback control for multiple energy beams
Plural energy beam sources are aimed at an energy receiving device by way of feedback control signals. Each energy beam is uniquely modulated by way of amplitude, polarization and/or coning patterns to enable individual detection and control. Sensors detect individual energy beams incident to the energy receiving device and provide corresponding detection signals. Control electronics receive the detection signals and derive one or more control signals that are coupled to the plural energy sources. Aircraft and other vehicles are thus provided with electrical and/or thermal energy without the need for source-to-vehicle cabling or substantial on-board energy resources.
Wireless intravascular medical device with a double helical antenna assembly
A medical device, such as a cardiac pacing device for an animal, includes an intravascular antenna that has a first coil for engaging a wall of a first blood vessel to receive a radio frequency signal. The first coil includes a first winding wound helically in a rotational direction along a longitudinal axis from a first end of the coil to a second end. A second winding that is connected to the a first winding at the second end, is wound helically in the same rotational direction along the longitudinal axis from the second end to the first end. An electronic circuit is implanted in the animal and is connected to the antenna to receive an electrical signal therefrom.
Methods and systems for connecting electrical leads to an implantable medical device
Methods, lead retention assemblies and systems may provide a secure connection of electrical leads to an implantable medical device, such as a pacemaker or a defibrillator. The method may include: providing a lead retention assembly including a support member, a first side clamp and a second side clamp, a first port and a second port each defining a respective receptacle in conjunction with the support, and a fastener configured to urge both the first and second side clamps toward the support upon actuation of the fastener; providing at least two electrical lead bodies each including a respective proximal end portion; inserting the respective proximal end portions into the respective receptacles to be in electrical communication with a respective electrical contact in the respective receptacles; and actuating the fastener to thereby clamp the proximal end portions of the respective electrical lead bodies within the first and second ports.
Implantable devices, and methods for use therewith, for monitoring sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on the heart
Provided herein are implantable devices, and methods for use therewith, that independently monitor levels of parasympathetic and sympathetic tone of a patient. In accordance with an embodiment, a cardiac electrogram (EGM) signal is sensed using implanted electrodes, cardiac intervals are measured within a portion of the sensed EGM signal, and levels of parasympathetic tone and sympathetic tone are independently assessed based on the measured cardiac intervals. This abstract is not intended to describe all of the various embodiments of the present invention.
Catheter imaging probe and method
A catheter imaging probe for a patient. The probe includes a conduit through which energy is transmitted. The probe includes a first portion through which the conduit extends. The probe includes a second portion which rotates relative to the conduit to redirect the energy from the conduit. A method for imaging a patient. The method includes the steps of inserting a catheter into the patient. There is the step of rotating a second portion of the catheter relative to a conduit extending through a first portion of the catheter, which redirects the energy transmitted through the conduit to the patient and receives the energy reflected back to the second portion from the patient and redirects the reflected energy to the conduit.
Opposed view and dual head detector apparatus for diagnosis and biopsy with image processing methods
The invention relates generally to biopsy needle guidance which employs an x-ray/gamma image spatial co-registration methodology. A gamma camera is configured to mount on a biopsy needle gun platform to obtain a gamma image. More particular, the spatially co-registered x-ray and physiological images may be employed for needle guidance during biopsy. Moreover, functional images may be obtained from a gamma camera at various angles relative to a target site. Further, the invention also generally relates to a breast lesion localization method using opposed gamma camera images or dual opposed images. This dual head methodology may be used to compare the lesion signal in two opposed detector images and to calculate the Z coordinate (distance from one or both of the detectors) of the lesion.
Medical device guidance system
The present invention realizes a medical device guidance system capable of improving propulsion control characteristic. The capsule guidance system 1 includes a rotating electromagnetic field generating device 4 for generating a rotating electromagnetic field for applying from the outside of a subject into the subject; a capsule 3 to be inserted into the body cavity of the subject; a magnet 16 provided in this capsule 3 and acting on the rotating electromagnetic field generated by the rotating electromagnetic field generating device 4; a spiral projection portion 12 provided on the outer peripheral surface of the capsule 3 and converting the rotational movement generated by the magnet 16 into a thrust; a controller 6 for controlling the rotating electromagnetic field generating device 4 to continuously change the state of the rotating electromagnetic field generated by rotating electromagnetic field generating device 4; and a capsule rotational direction pattern generator 41 for interchanging the rotational directions of the rotating electromagnetic field generated by the rotating electromagnetic field generating device 4 for each set rotational direction.
Method of registering pre-operative high field closed magnetic resonance images with intra-operative low field open interventional magnetic resonance images
A system and method for registering pre-operative magnetic resonance (MR) images with intra-operative MR images is disclosed. A pre-operative MR image of an object is received. A set of intra-operative MR images of the object is received. The pre-operative MR image is rigidly registered with the initial intra-operative MR image. The subsequent set of intra-operative images is deformably registered. The pre-operative MR image undergoes both rigid and deformation transformation to match specification of each image with in intra-operative MR image set.
Non-invasive determination of blood components
A method of estimating an amount of a substance in a bodily fluid from the color of a tissue surface of a subject includes capturing an image including at least a portion-of-interest of the subject and at least a reference portion of a color reference, the image being a digital image of pixels of at least one color, the image including a component value for each pixel for each of the at least one color, obtaining a first value associated with at least one component value corresponding to the portion-of-interest of the subject, obtaining a second value associated with at least one component value corresponding to the reference portion, and calculating an estimated amount of the substance using the first and second values.
Static preventing device and mobile handset having the same
A mobile handset having a static preventing device comprises a handset body having components such as a PCB, a detachable battery, a locking member for securing the battery to or for releasing the battery from the handset body, a conductive contact plate located by the locking member, a ground provided at the battery for discharging static electricity, and a switching path from the conductive contact plate to the ground, wherein the switching path is operative when the battery is secured to or released from the handset body.
Mobile communication terminal
A mobile communication terminal is provided that can be opened or closed when the mobile communication terminal is shaken in one direction. By simply shaking the mobile communication terminal held in hand to move a weight pendulum, a second body of the terminal can be opened and closed with respect to a first body for user convenience.
Body rotation type portable terminal
A portable terminal comprises: a terminal body having a keypad; a display unit having a display screen for displaying information; and a hinge unit mounted between the terminal body and the display unit, rotatably supporting the display unit so as to dispose the display unit crosswise, and rotatably supporting the terminal body so as to dispose the terminal body crosswise, thereby rotating the terminal body to be disposed crosswise as well as the display unit. Accordingly, the portable terminal can facilitate a key manipulation during a game or the like and additionally perform various functions.
Display interface of mobile telecommunication terminal
A display interface (interface device) of a mobile telecommunication terminal is provided. The mobile telecommunication terminal includes a main body having a processor, and a display coupled to the main body. The processor is configured to implement mobile telecommunication terminal functions. The interface device includes a digital-to-analog converter configured to convert digital pixel information to an analog color signal. The interface device also includes graphic signal lines operatively connected to the digital-to-analog converter, configured to carry the analog color signal to the display. The interfere device also includes a clock line operatively connected to the digital-to-analog converter, configured to provide a timing reference used to sample the analog color signal. The interface device also includes a data enable line operatively connected to the digital-to-analog converter, configured to control transmission of the analog color signal through the graphic signal lines based on a selective switching operation.
Cellular communications network optical cross-connect switching architecture
A cellular communications network architecture is disclosed. The architecture includes a mobile switching office, a first base transceiver station in communication with the mobile switching office via a first communications link, and a second base transceiver station in communication with the mobile switching office via a second communications link. A first optical switch is in communication with the first base transceiver station via a third communications link and a second optical switch is in communication with the second base transceiver station via a fourth communications link. A fiber optic communications link couples the first optical switch with the second optical switch. The first optical switch is physically located separate from the first base transceiver station and the second optical switch is physically located separate from the second base transceiver station.
PoC communication server apparatus, terminal apparatus and PoC communication method
Subject to user's setting in PoC group communication, the user address of that user is set to non notification against other users. In case of starting PoC group communication, a PoC subscriber selects non notification subjects and transmits a PoC session commencement request. At that time, the caller sets his own address and/or address/addresses of all or a part of users to non notification. On a user designated as a non notification subject due to the caller's setting, PoC terminal apparatuses in receipt of a PoC session commencement request or PoC communication service controlling apparatuses undergo non notification setting processing. On a called party not selected as non notification subject users, if he/she sets his/her own user address to non notification in advance, likewise non notification processing is implemented. Even after a PoC session is established, each user can set his/her own user address to non notification and non notification service complying with user's intention is providable.
Method of providing location service using CDMA-based cellular phone system, a method of measuring location and location system
At least three base stations transmit a specific signal pattern at given intervals. This allows a mobile station that received this signal pattern to locate itself by using the positional information about the base stations, sending timing (or information on phase shift from the reference time) of each signal pattern from the base stations, and signal pattern receiving time information. At least one of the above base stations changes the sending timing of the signal pattern. On this occasion, the mobile terminal or station is notified of the altered reference time offset (or information on phase shift from the reference time) of the sending timing or updated sending timing of the signal pattern.
Method and system for determining a location of a wireless transmitting device and guiding the search for the same
Method and system of determining a location of a wireless transmitting device, such as a cellular phone, a wireless PDA or a radio tag, and guiding the searching personnel to physically reach the wireless transmitting device are disclosed that employ a “Movable Detection Station” and a “Guiding and Reference Device”, and optionally a “searching robot”. The movable detection station is carried on board of a moving platform, such as a police car, an ambulance or a fire truck, or carried by searching personnel. The guiding and reference device is a handheld device including a display device that displays position and guiding information to a user, and a reference wireless transmitter that works with a movable detection station. A searching robot is a robot with a reference transmitter installed on it.
Dynamic reconfiguration of communication resources in a multi-transceiver configuration
A system and method that provide dynamic reconfiguration of communication resources in a multi-transceiver configuration. Various aspects of the present invention may comprise communicating a first portion of a first communication using a plurality of transceivers. A determination may be made to reallocate at least one of the plurality of transceivers for a second communication. A second portion of the first communication may be communicated using the plurality of transceivers less the reallocated transceiver(s), and the second communication may be communicated using at least the reallocated transceiver(s). Various aspects of the present invention may also comprise communicating a first communication utilizing a first transceiver and a second communication utilizing a second transceiver. A determination may be made to utilize the first and second transceivers in a MIMO configuration to communicate next information. The next information may then be communicated utilizing the first and second transceivers in a MIMO configuration.
Method and system for radio-independent predictive handoffs in a wireless network
According to one embodiment of the invention, a method includes determining, at a base station, at least one usability factor providing a relative measure of the desirability of receiving control of a mobile unit. The method also includes communicating, from a base station to a remote controller, the determined at least one usability factor for comparison to at least one usability factor of another base station as determined at the other base station and communicated to the remote controller. The method also includes taking control, by the base station, of the mobile unit in response to receiving a signal from a controller to take control of the mobile unit in response to comparison of the controller of the at least one usability factor determined by the base station and the at least one usability factor determined by the other base station.
Seamless enterprise and consumer mobility
Tools and techniques for providing seamless enterprise and consumer mobility are described. More particularly, the tools manage network connections between a communications device and two or more networks. A first network has a first type, and a second network has a second type different type than the first network. When the communications device is proximate the first network, a first device detection signal is generated. Also, a first presence signal is associated with the first network, and varies in response to a condition of a connection between the communications device and the first network. The first presence signal indicates whether the condition of the connection permits an ongoing communication to use the first network. When the condition of the connection does not permit the ongoing communication to continue using the first network, the communication is handed over to the second network.
Apparatus, method and computer program product providing for release, configuration and reconfiguration of E-RGCH/E-HICH at a serving cell change
Communications are received from a user equipment UE on an uplink enhanced dedicated channel E-DCH. The radio resources of at least one downlink channel that supports the E-DCH are either released or configured or reconfigured while the E-DCH is maintained for the UE. The downlink channels may be E-AGCH, E-HICH, or E-RGCH, and the radio resources may include a temporary identifier E-RNTI, signature sequence, and/or channelization codes. At a serving cell change of the UE, either or both of the serving cell and the non-serving cell can add/configure/reconfigure a supporting downlink channel, all without terminating the E-DCH. The UE and the SRNC are notified by an E-RGCH release indicator whether the E-RGCH is released or not at a serving cell change, and the UE deletes its stored E-RGCH parameters when the release indicator indicates it is released.
User equipment (UE) assisted system database update
A wireless communication system includes a base station that receives information regarding neighboring wireless systems and updates and stores this information for use in handover of user equipments (UEs).
Method and apparatus for controlling communications of data from multiple base stations to a mobile station in a communication system
An apparatus and method provides for controlling communications from multiple base stations to a mobile station in a communication system. A mobile station transmitter transmits from the mobile station channel quality indicator data of a first base station. The data is covered with Walsh code assigned to the first base station. A base station receiver receives the transmission of the channel quality indicator data of the first base station. The mobile station transmitter punctures the transmission of the channel quality indicator data of the first base station with null channel quality indicator data, and covers the null channel quality data with Walsh code assigned to a second base station of the multiple base stations to indicate a desire to switch a source of transmission of traffic data from the first base station to the second base station.
System and method for personal identification number messaging
A relay site associated with a wireless network can send messages between mobile devices associated with the wireless network without having to transmit the messages to a host system. The messages include PIN messages and each of the mobile devices has a PIN address. The relay site includes a relay server for controlling the operation of the relay site, and sending the PIN messages between the mobile devices. The relay site also includes a relay data store having PIN information for users associated with the mobile devices. The relay server can access the relay data store to allow users that use the mobile devices to query the relay data store for PIN information of other users.
Radio frequency planning with consideration of inter-building effects
A method includes providing a first set of location data using a first coordinate system that corresponds to a first building and a second set of location data using a second coordinate system that corresponds to a second building. A third set of location data is generated from the first and second sets of location data by converting the first set of location data from the first coordinate system to a third coordinate system and converting the second set of location data from the second coordinate system to the third coordinate system.
Portable cellular phone system having automatic initialization
A portable cellular phone system is provided, wherein matched sets of algorithmically generated communication units are generated, each defining an increment of authorized communication. One set is stored on a system server, i.e. a service provider, and the pre-paid set is available for use within a portable cellular phone. The portable cellular phone, which is normally non-activated, automatically contacts the system server upon selective activation by the user, to initiate a call (outgoing or incoming). A voice recognition system allows the user to place calls and/or receive calls. During a call, the portable cellular phone and the system server allow authorized access to communication, while the communication units are decremented at the system server and at the portable cellular phone. The portable cellular phone typically has either an internal energy supply and storage for the pre-paid communication units, or a removable airtime cartridge, typically containing an energy supply and either the ability to store or to generate a set of pre-paid single use airtime communication units.
Method and system for automated call diversion
A method and a system for automated call diversion of calls intended for a mobile radio device to a second network connection. A detection module of a customer premises equipment detects the mobile radio device as soon as it is located in the sphere of influence of an interface between the mobile radio device and the customer premises equipment, whereby identification data of the mobile radio device are transmitted via the interface. Based on the identification data of the mobile radio device, call diversion of calls intended for the mobile radio device to the second network device is activated as long as the mobile radio device is located in the sphere of influence of the interface between the mobile radio device and the customer premises equipment.
Device used in a vehicle which is controlled by vehicular operation to avoid dangerous vehicular operation
In the current state of the art there are a number of operable devices 11, 12, 13 known that have an operating panel 14 through which a user of the device 11, 12, 13 can produce and/or change-existing operating states, Because of the fact that manual operation is often very complex and can also result in the distraction of the user in situations that require the full the attention of a user to be directed elsewhere, the invention increases the ease of operation and simultaneously reduces the amount of attention required to be paid to the devices 11, 12, 13. The invention uses a decision unit 15 that blocks or releases certain operating states of the operable device 11, 12, 13 based on the data received. The invention can be implemented, for example, so that a mobile telephone 11 installed in a vehicle 10 does not “transfer” any telephone calls or suppresses the making of telephone calls from within the vehicle 10 when the vehicle 10 is moving faster than a certain speed.
Reactive management of dropped calls in a wireless communication system
A method and system is disclosed for reactively managing dropped calls in a wireless communication system. A mobile station determines that it has experienced a dropped call. In response, the mobile station allows a user to continue communicating, such as by recording the user's speech, for instance. The mobile station may then play out the recorded speech to the user or to another call participant, such as upon reestablishment of the call.
Authentication of mobile station
A method for processing authentication of a mobile station in a mobile communication system comprises determining whether an authentication state is inactivated, and requesting registration. The method also comprises receiving a result message from a network, and activating the authentication state according to the result message. The authentication state may be checked using a success flag or a fail flag. The success flag may be activated when the result message is a success message. The fail flag may be activated when the result message is a fail message. The activating the authentication state may comprise activating an authentication success state in response to activation of the success flag, and activating an authentication fail state in response to activation of the fail flag. The method may further comprise entering a lock state when the authentication state is activated as an authentication fail state.
RF radio and method for monitoring warning alert data
An RF radio and a method of monitoring warning alert data is provided. The RF radio includes a radio receiver for receiving broadcast radio wave signals, and a tuner adjustable for selecting radio wave signal channels within AM and FM radio bands and radio wave signal channels within a weather band. The weather band is adapted to provide warning alert data. The radio also includes a controller for controlling the tuner to select a radio wave signal channel within the AM or FM radio band. The controller controls the tuner to periodically switch to the weather band and determines presence of warning alert data. The controller further initiates receipt of the warning alert data when such warning alert data is determined to be present.
Provided is a mixer including: an amplifier amplifying an input signal using at least one amplifier element; a mixing unit mixing the input signal amplified by the amplifier with a local oscillator signal output from a local oscillator. The mixing unit includes at least one pair of switching elements switching the amplifier, and the switching elements are MOSFETs having gates and body nodes to which a same local oscillator signal is applied. Thus, a time required for turning on the switching elements can be reduced, and 1/f noise is also reduced. Also, an overdrive voltage can be increased with respect to local oscillator signals having an identical intensity. Thus, a relatively low voltage operation can be performed.
Adaptive impedance matching module (AIMM) control architectures
An embodiment of the present invention an apparatus, comprising an adaptive impedance matching module (AIMM) adapted to minimize the magnitude of an input reflection coefficient seen at an RFin port under boundary conditions of a variable load impedance ZL, a tuner connected to the AIMM and including a plurality of variable reactance networks with independent control signals, wherein node voltages are sampled within the tuner; and a microcontroller or digital signal processor (DSP) calculates complex reflection coefficient information from the sampled voltages, the microcontroller or DSP providing a coarse and fine tune function that feeds bias signals to control impedance matching.
Single sideband mixer and method of extracting single sideband signal
Single sideband (SSB) mixers and methods of extracting a SSB signal, which are capable of outputting a single frequency using a plurality of mixers and a local oscillating frequency without having to implement phase-shifting. In one embodiment, a single sideband (SSB) mixer comprises a first mixer and a second mixer, wherein the first and second mixers multiply an input IF (intermediate frequency) signal by a local IF signal having the same frequency of the input IF signal; a band-pass filter which passes upper sideband signal output from the first mixer; a third mixer which multiplies the upper sideband signals output from the band-pass filter by a LO (local oscillating) signal; a fourth mixer which multiplies the signals output from the second mixer by the LO signal; and a subtraction device that subtracts output signals of the third mixer from output signals of the fourth mixer. Accordingly, a quadrature local oscillator which displaces a phase of a local oscillating signal by 90° at a high frequency is not required. Also, since the SSB mixer applies the same local oscillating frequency signal to each mixer, the rejection characteristics against undesired signals can be achieved to a level of about 70 dB, experimentally.
High linearity, low noise figure, front end circuit with fine step gain control
A system, method, and electrical circuit comprises a LNA signal line path comprising a LNA and a first signal mixer operatively connected to the LNA. The circuit further comprises an attenuator signal line path comprising an attenuator and a second signal mixer operatively connected to the attenuator; a radio frequency (RF) power detector operatively connected to an output of each of the LNA and the attenuator, wherein the RF power detector is adapted to vary a front end power gain of the electrical circuit; and logic circuitry operatively connected to the RF power detector, wherein the logic circuitry is adapted to (i) select transmission of a signal through only one of the LNA signal line path or the attenuator signal line path, and (ii) output the selected signal.
Method of and circuit for sampling a frequency difference in an integrated circuit
A method of sampling a frequency difference in an integrated circuit is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of receiving a clock signal in a first clock domain; comparing a count of the clock signal in the first clock domain to a predetermined value N; converting the result of the comparison to a second clock domain; and generating an error signal representing the difference between the count of the first clock signal and the count of a second clock signal in the second clock domain. A circuit for sampling a frequency difference in an integrated circuit is also disclosed.
Electronic apparatus, computer system, and communication control method
According to one embodiment, an electronic apparatus comprises a wireless communication device configured to conduct wireless communication with an external apparatus, a switch connected to a radio frequency circuit of the wireless communication device, and configured to couple an RF signal input and output port of the radio frequency circuit to one of a wireless communication antenna and a cable connected to the external apparatus, and a control module configured to control the switch to switch a mode of conducting communication with the external apparatus between a wireless communication mode and a wired communication mode, a wireless signal being transmitted and received between the external apparatus and the wireless communication device through the wireless communication antenna in the wireless communication mode, the wireless signal being transmitted and received between the external apparatus and the wireless communication device through the cable in the wired communication mode.
Wireless communication apparatus and response data processing method therefor
A wireless communication apparatus that communicates data with an external wireless apparatus in a wireless communication range includes a controller and a wireless communication interface device is provided. The wireless communication interface device includes a transmitting unit that transmits response request data to the external wireless apparatus, a counter that counts time for determining whether or not a time limit for waiting for the response data has elapsed, a storage unit that stores the response data, a receiving unit that receives first response data from the external wireless apparatus and that instantaneously receives second response data without an instruction from the controller when the time limit has not elapsed, a frame length checking unit that checks a frame length of the received response data, and an error detector that performs error detection on the response data.
Apparatus and method for relaying neighbor base station information in a multi-hop relay wireless access communication system
An apparatus and method for relaying neighbor BS in a multi-hop relay broadband wireless access (BWA) communication system are provided. In the BWA communication system, a BS transmits a neighbor BS advertisement message to a relay station (RS) within a cell area of the BS. The RS configures a relay neighbor BS advertisement message by eliminating unavailable neighbor BS information from the neighbor BS advertisement message, and broadcasts the relay neighbor BS advertisement message in a cell area of the RS.
Resource optimized live to virtual communications
An exemplary embodiment of the invention relates to configuring the minimum number of relay radios in a live-virtual communications system for a tactical training event. The system includes live radios, virtual radios cooperating with a wide area network, and radio bridge circuits cooperating between the live radios and the wide area network. A number of relay radios is determined by determining the mean transmission length for the tactical training event. The duration of peak performance and the expected number of transmissions for the tactical training event are determined. The number of radios for the traffic capacity is calculated, which incorporates a QoS and a spare capacity.
Speaker control in a mobile station
A method for controlling speakers in a mobile station comprises detecting a movement of the mobile station. The method also comprises differentially controlling sound output by the speakers based on the detected movement of the mobile station. The differentially controlling the sound output by the speakers based on the detected movement of the mobile station may comprise at least one of adjusting a sound volume and selecting a sound effect. The detecting the movement of the mobile station may comprise detecting a tilt of the mobile station.
Method and mobile terminal for accessing a service portal via bi-directional network
A user of a combined mobile telephone and IPDC receiver (10) accesses a WAP portal (16) through the Internet (82) and/or a mobile telephone network (81). The WAP portal (16) provides a service menu, comprising a number of links to service menus further down in the hierarchy or to IPDC services. The WAP portal (16) is provided with information relating to IPDC services by an IPDC operator (80). This information includes at least the name of the service, the IP address and the port number relating to each service. The information may additionally include a Network Information Table, IP/MAC Notification Table and Program Mapping Table, although this information may be provided to the mobile terminal instead by broadcast from a DVB transmitter (13). When a user of the mobile terminal (10) selects an item on the service menu presented by the WAP portal (16) which relate to IPDC service, the WAP portal pushes information relating to that service to the mobile terminal (10), allowing the mobile terminal to open an appropriate IP channel and consequently receive and consume the IPDC service.
Broadcast monitoring system and method for intelligent optimization
A system for optimizing play of media content, and a method of optimizing play of media content are disclosed. The system for optimizing play of media content includes a hub that is at least partially remote from a media content play point, for accessing and instructing a forwarding of the media content for play, at least one output associated with the hub that contributes non-play content, and at least one module at the media content play point for the parsing of the non-play content, wherein the parsed non-play content enables the hub to instruct a preemption of a first of the media play content with an accessing and insertion of a second of the media play content to the media content play point.
Sheet feeding device and a cleaning member in sliding contact with a conveying unit
A sheet feeding device includes: a conveying member of a conveying unit which conveys a sheet; and a cleaning member which is in sliding contact with a circumferential surface of the conveying member to clean the circumferential surface. The conveying member and the cleaning member rotate in the same tangential direction at a sliding contact position thereof, and drives of the conveyance member and the cleaning member are controlled so that the following expression is satisfied: V1>V2 where V1 represents a line speed of the circumferential surface of the conveying member during a rotation thereof, and V2 represents a line speed of a sliding contact portion of the cleaning member during a rotation thereof.
Cleaning device and image forming apparatus including same
A cleaning device and a blade which is provided in the cleaning device and which has an edge portion to be pressed against a surface of a photoreceptor, so as to scrape toner are arranged so that: the blade includes (a) a blade main body constituting a main body portion of the blade and (b) a fluorocarbon resin layer formed in an edge portion, which is to make contact with the photoreceptor, of the blade main body, the fluorocarbon resin layer being made of a resin material, the resin material being filled in irregularities of a smooth surface of the blade main body. With this, even when the cleaning device is provided in a high-speed machine using small-particle toner with no corner, it is possible to extend the life of the photoreceptor without reducing a cleaning property.
Image forming apparatus
An image forming apparatus includes an image carrier for bearing a visible image thereon, an endless transfer-fixing belt stretchedly disposed between a plurality of spanning members, a pressure member for pressing the transfer-fixing belt to the image carrier while contacting a backside of the transfer-fixing belt at the transfer nip, and a heater for heating the visible image. The visible image on the image carrier is transferred onto the front surface of the transfer-fixing belt at the transfer nip and is transported to the transfer-fixing nip while heated by the heater, where the visible image is transferred and fixed on a recording member. The transfer-fixing belt is stretchedly arranged such that the transfer-fixing belt travels in a direction substantially perpendicular to a pressure direction of the pressure member in the proximity of the transfer nip.
Methods and devices to transfer toner in an image forming device to control charge buildup on a toner image
The present application is directed to methods and devices for controlling charge buildup on a toner image as the toner image passes through one or more transfer nips. Charge buildup may be reduced by laterally offsetting a transfer roller from a photoconductor drum. The transfer roller may be constructed of an essentially non-compressible conductive material. AC current may be used to generate an electrical field between the photoconductor drum and the transfer roller.
Pretransfer toner treatment in an electrostatographic printer
A system for reducing lead edge (LE) smearing in an electrostatographic machine is provided. The system comprises a pretransfer corotron positioned between a developing station and a transfer station in an electrostatographic imaging device. The pretransfer corotron is configured to apply a predetermined charge to at least a portion of a developed toner image on a photoreceptive surface. The predetermined charge is greater than a charge applied to the rest of the developed toner image. The system further includes a controller operably associated with the pretransfer corotron. The controller is configured to activate the pretransfer corotron to apply said predetermined charge to the developed toner image at a lead edge region of the developed toner image when leading edge smearing is detected during imaging operations.
A toner bottle that is composed of a main part, a toner loading portion, a bottle cap that can hermetically close and open a toner loading opening in the toner loading portion, and a bottle-side toner discharge port. This toner bottle is constructed such that the bottle cap that encloses the toner loading opening has a locking projection which can limit the rotation in the loosening direction while the toner loading portion has a cap locking projection which will engage the locking projection and can limit the rotation in the loosening direction.
Developer agitator increasing electrification rate of developer, and developing apparatus and image forming device having the same
A developer agitator of an image forming device capable of improving the electrification rate of a developer is disclosed. The developer agitator includes a rotatable shaft and an agitating wing disposed on the circumferential surface of the shaft. The agitating wing has an uneven part formed to increase the contact area with a developer. The developer agitator can obtain an electrification rate of the developer required for high speed printing, thereby allowing the image forming device to be operated at a high speed.
Developer storing container, method of assembling developer storing container and method of recycling developer storing container
A developer storing container includes: a first storing member including a first storing portion for storing a supplied developer; a second storing member including a second storing portion for storing a collected developer; and a partition member that connects the first storing portion and the second storing member so as to sandwich the partition member therebetween, and that separates the first and second storing portions from each other.
Image forming apparatus, image forming cartridge supporter, and image forming unit
An image forming apparatus has a body frame and a slide frame. The slide frame is configured to be pulled out from the body frame along a sliding direction. A plurality of image forming cartridges is detachably mounted on the slide frame. A plurality of electrode members is mounted on the slide frame and aligned along the sliding direction so as to correspond to the image forming cartridges. A body-side contact portion of each of the electrode members protrudes towards the body frame. A cartridge-side contact portion of the electrode member protrudes towards the image forming cartridge. The image forming cartridge is connected to the body via the corresponding electrode member when the slide frame mounting the image forming cartridges is inserted to the body frame.
Image forming apparatus, image forming system, and method of controlling image forming apparatus
An image forming apparatus is provided which is capable of preventing a drop in productivity even if a consumable such as toner is not replenished as expected. The image forming apparatus has a feature of shifting to a mode of saving the consumable if an arrival time of the consumable is determined to be later than a time when the consumable needs to be replenished, on the basis of the shipping status information on the consumable obtained from a management server and the calculated time when the consumable needs to be replenished.
Optical quadrature-amplitude modulation receiver
In one embodiment, a receiver of the invention has an optical detector coupled to a digital processor. The optical detector is adapted to mix the received optical quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) signal with an optical local oscillator (LO) signal having a time-varying phase offset with respect to the carrier frequency of the QAM signal to produce two digital measures of the QAM signal. The digital processor is adapted to: (i) determine the amplitude and phase differentials for each QAM-symbol transition based on these digital measures; (ii) adjust each phase differential for an amount of phase drift associated with the time-varying phase offset; (iii) map each QAM-symbol transition onto a constellation point of a 2D decision map using the transition's amplitude differential and adjusted phase differential; and (iv) based on the mapping results, recover the data encoded in the optical QAM signal.
Wave division multiplexed optical transport system utilizing optical circulators to isolate an optical service channel
The invention provides for optical circulators which redirect light from port to port sequentially in one direction used to separate traffic in a bidirectional optical fiber transmission system. The invention provides for using two optical circulators in each span of bidirectional fiber so that the OSC channel can be transmitted in one direction opposite to the WDM channels. The invention also provides for a gigabit Ethernet path between chassis which is utilized for control traffic and customer traffic. The invention is placed in a non-critical region of the optical spectrum and is independent of all other chassis equipment. The invention also provides the advantage in alternate embodiments of providing the option of a second counter propagating WDM channel being transmitted along with the OSC to provide additional system capacity. The invention also provides the advantage in an alternate embodiment of allowing the OSC to be amplified through a raman source without the need of complete system retrofit.
Optical transceiver tester
In embodiments of the present invention, an optical device tester performs stressed eye testing on several optical receivers and transmission and dispersion penalty testing on optical transmitters at a variety of data rates wavelengths using single mode optical signals and multimode optical signals using a variety of supply voltages and temperatures.
Local area warning of optical fiber intrusion
Disclosed is a method and apparatus which provides for alerting of potential fiber optic cable intrusion. A stress detector located at a fiber optic cable termination point detects stress on the fiber optic cable and generates an alarm signal in response to the stress detection. The alarm signal is transmitted to remote alarm units along the fiber optic right of way via a conductive metallic portion of the fiber optic cable (e.g., the fiber optic cable sheath). In response to receipt of an alarm signal, the alarm units initiate a perceptible (e.g., audible and/or visible) alarm. The stress detector may also determine a location of the stress, and generate an alarm signal addressed to a particular one or more alarm units in the vicinity of the stress location.
Method and apparatus for increasing depth of field for an imager
An imaging method and apparatus is disclosed which improves the depth of field of an image by, in one exemplary embodiment, capturing a plurality of images at respective different focus positions, and combines the images into one image and sharpens the one image. In an alternative exemplary embodiment, a single image is captured while the focus positions change during image capture, and the resulting image is sharpened.
Image quality in cameras using flash
The specification and drawings present a new method, apparatus and software product for using a flash light with, e.g., light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or other light sources of a camera of an electronic device for improving quality of images provided by the camera. The flash related parameters comprising a white balance setting and/or exposure settings can be determined using, e.g., an ambient light level and an estimate of the flash light reflected from said object.
Electronic blur correction device and electronic blur correction method
A blur correction device is disclosed, which acquires a plurality of time-division images, each captured for a time-division exposure time having a period that is an integral multiple of an image reading cycle of an image pickup device, to generate a blur-corrected image from the plurality of time-division images. According to this blur correction device, since the exposure times for the plurality of time-division images are substantially continuous, an image in which the trajectory of a moving body is continuous can be obtained.
Recording/reproduction device and method
When a digital broadcast is decoded and then re-encoded and digitally recorded, detailed program information contained in the original digital broadcast and information such as age-based viewer control information or parental control information may be lost. This problem is solved by providing a digital tuner to demodulate the digital broadcast signal and output the MPEG-TS, a demultiplexer to demultiplex the MPEG-TS into the component packet streams, an AV decoder to decode the demultiplexed AV data packets, and an AV encoder to re-encode the demultiplexed AV data packets into AV data packets for recording. A control microprocessor reads, reconstructs, and sends the PSI or SI packets demultiplexed by the demultiplexer to save the viewer control information to the system multiplexer. The system multiplexer multiplexes the PSI or SI packets with the re-encoded AV data packets, and the multiplexed stream is then written to the recording medium.
Information recording method, information recording medium, and information reproducing method, wherein information is stored on a data recording portion and a management information recording portion
With this invention, at least one of a video file containing video information, a still picture file containing still picture information, and an audio file containing audio information and a management file having management information on a control method of reproducing the information in the file are recorded on an information storage medium. This realizes a data structure that causes the recording and deleting places on the information storage medium to correspond spuriously to places on a single tape, such as a VTR tape. Use of the data structure provides users with an easy-to-use interface.
Video/audio synchronizing apparatus
A video and audio reproducing apparatus is provided with a re-synchronization controlling portion (20) for carrying out operation control with respect to re-synchronization of video and audio which are transmitted via an IP network, wherein the delay times of video data and audio data are controlled by the video delay controlling portion (21) and audio delay controlling portion (22), respectively, thereby carrying out re-synchronization. At this time, the re-synchronization controlling portion (20) judges re-synchronization timing on the basis of the audio level of audio data, encoding video type of video data, data transmission status and user operation, etc., and at the same time, judges the priority for which mode of the video priority mode or the audio priority mode the re-synchronization is carried out, on the basis of a fluctuation in the arrival time of audio data, data transmission status, contents of video data and audio data and user operation, etc. And, the delay amount for synchronization is determined by executing a prescribed re-synchronization algorithm at the re-synchronization timing to control the video delay controlling portion (21) and the audio delay controlling portion (22), wherein disturbances in video and audio can be mitigated when carrying out re-synchronization.
Method and apparatus for consecutively recording broadcast programs
Embodiments of methods and apparatus for recording at least two broadcast programs that are consecutive in time can consecutively record the plurality of programs (e.g., consecutively) on a recording medium without a process of creating and recording navigation information between programs. Navigation information for the recorded section can be created and recorded on the recording medium after the consecutive recording of the plurality of programs is completed. Such navigation information can consider the consecutive broadcast programs as a single entity or a plurality of individual entities (e.g., for play back).
Digital video record/playback apparatus and playback method thereof
Disclosed is a digital video record/playback apparatus and playback method thereof, by which a trick play mode of a digital video stream is processed. In the present invention, the transport stream is stored without additional data, the index information extracted in the storing process includes picture type, location of PCR packet of the corresponding picture, record location of the corresponding picture, etc., and the decoding time point of the picture is determined to display the corresponding picture by appropriately adjusting the transmission bit rate and the status of the VBV buffer according to the trick play mode in playing back the digital video stream. Therefore, without additional appended devices and a series of processing, the present invention enables to implement the trick play of the user-selected direction and speed and to reduce costs.
Reproducing apparatus and reproducing method
A reproducing apparatus enabling reproduction of a moving image file using index information larger than a memory size without re-reading the index information into the memory. The apparatus includes a table size obtaining unit (S40) obtaining, from a recording medium, size information of a table which holds index information for the moving image file, a memory storing index information, a memory size obtaining unit (S42) obtaining size information of the memory, and a calculating unit (S41) calculating the thinning-out ratio of the index information so that the size of the table becomes equal to or smaller than the size of the memory. The apparatus also includes a thinning-out unit (S44) thinning out the index information based on the thinning-out ratio, and a writing unit (S45) writing the thinned-out index information into the memory.
Optical fiber and optical fiber coupler, erbium-doped optical fiber amplifier, and optical waveguide using the same
An optical fiber that includes a core containing a first concentration of germanium, an inner cladding arranged on the core, the inner cladding containing a second concentration of germanium and having a first diffusion coefficient, and an outer cladding arranged on the inner cladding, the outer cladding having a second diffusion coefficient, where the first diffusion coefficient is larger than the second diffusion coefficient, and where the first concentration of germanium is about 200% or more of the second concentration of germanium. An optical fiber constructed in this manner can be spliced with an optical fiber having a different MFD, such as a single-mode optical fiber or an erbium-doped optical fiber, with low splice loss and a sufficient splicing strength.
Optical transmission line holding member, optical module and mounting method thereof
An optical transmission line holding member includes a main body that mechanically positions and holds an optical transmission line, and an electrical interconnection used to mount an optical element. The main body includes a holding hole which opens in one surface of the main body and is used to mechanically position and hold the optical transmission line, an guide hole which opens in another surface of the main body, has a diameter larger than that of the holding hole and is coaxially aligned with the holding hole, and a resin storage groove provided in the guide hole. The electrical interconnection is formed on the surface in which the holding hole opens.
Method and apparatus for treating a mating portion of a fiber optic connector
A method and apparatus for treating a mating portion of a fiber optic connector for reducing an insertion force for the mating portion includes providing a mating portion of a fiber optic connector and treating the mating portion of the fiber optic connector by applying a cleaning and/or lubricating solution thereto to reduce the insertion force of the mating portion.
Optical integrated device and manufacturing method thereof
In the optical integrated devices with ridge waveguide structure based on the conventional technology, there occur such troubles as generation of a recess in a BJ section to easily cause a crystal defect due to the mass transport phenomenon of InP when a butt joint (BJ) is grown, lowering of reliability of the devices, and lowering in a yield in fabrication of devices. In the present invention, a protection layer made of InGaAsP is provided on the BJ section. The layer has high etching selectivity for the InP cladding layer and remains on the BJ section even after mesa etching.
Colorless multichannel tunable dispersion compensator
A colorless tunable dispersion compensator for compensating for chromatic dispersion in a multi-channel light signal is provided. The compensator includes a multi-channel Bragg grating extending along a waveguide. Dispersion tuning means, such as a temperature gradient inducing device, are provided for tuning the dispersion characteristics of the wavelength channels. Wavelength shifting means are also provided for uniformly shifting the central wavelengths of all channels independently of their dispersion characteristics. A uniform temperature inducing or strain applying assembly can be used for this purpose.
Mode selective fiber stub, a transmitter optical subassembly that incorporates the stub and methods for making the mode selective fiber stub
A fiber stub assembly is provided that has a cladding layer that is reduced in diameter near the end of the stub into which light is launched from a light source. The portion of the stub having the cladding layer with the reduced diameter is surrounded by a light-absorbing material that is in contact with the inner surface of the ferule and with the outer surface of the cladding layer. The light-absorbing material and the outer surface of the cladding layer have indices of refraction that are matched, or very close to one another, such that any modes of light that are propagating in the cladding layer that impinge on the interface propagate into the light-absorbing material and are absorbed thereby. The reduced diameter of the cladding layer and the surrounding light-absorbing material form a pin hole opening through which light is received. The pin hole opening makes it possible to use a simple ball lens to focus light from the light source into the end of the fiber stub to thereby reduce the number of modes that are dispersed into the cladding layer.
Method for assembling a collection of digital images
A method for recommending a collection of digital images from a set of images includes specifying at least one image selection criterion. For each of a plurality of images in the set of images, an image quality value for the image is determined. Images are recommended for the collection by taking into consideration the image quality value for the images and the degree to which the collection satisfies the at least one image selection criterion.
Image expansion apparatus and image expansion method
According to one embodiment, a first correlation calculator calculates a correlation between first pixel blocks, and detects as first reference pixels actual pixels contained respectively in the first pixel blocks with the highest correlation. A second correlation calculator calculates a correlation between second pixel blocks, and detects as second reference pixels actual pixels contained respectively in the second pixel blocks with the highest correlation. The first pixel blocks include pixels arranged in a plurality of rows and columns The second pixel blocks include pixels arranged in at least one row less than the rows of the first pixel blocks and a plurality of columns. An interpolation calculator calculates, when the first reference pixels are located perpendicular to the actual pixel lines, the pixel value of the interpolation pixel based on the second reference pixels.
Method and apparatus for capturing images of a document with interaction
The user assistance system provides a system and method for capturing images of a document and interaction of a primary user with the document in an interaction session. Briefly described, one embodiment comprises an image capture means adapted to capture an initial image of the document and at least one subsequent, additional image of the document during an interaction session, the image being mapped to a known co-ordinate system, interaction capture means for capturing the interaction of a user with the document whereby to determine at least one co-ordinate of a pointer used for the interaction relative to the same co-ordinate system defined for the initial captured image, and processing means for determining an appropriate transform that maps the additional image onto the original image.
Image enhancement employing partial template matching
A method of image-resolution enhancement employing partial-template matching, including storing at least a portion of an image, and selecting from the image a window comprising a plurality of adjacent line segments having pixels, the window including a target pixel. The method also includes comparing the pixels of the window with a template for a partial match, and responsive to a partial match being found, substituting an enhancement pixel for the target pixel. By allowing a partial match for enhancement instead of requiring a 100-percent match of the prior art, the method provides image-resolution enhancement for digital-image data having noise or other errors.
Method for estimating quantization factor of compressed digital image
An estimation system provides quality measure of a given image for image/video applications to determine if the image needs to be enhanced or not. The system systemically measures the image quality by estimating quantization parameter of the compressed digital image. This allows estimating the image quantization parameter effectively in the pixel domain. Because block artifact are caused by image compression transforms, especially in flat image region, the estimation system first detects the suspicious regions of the image for the block artifacts by calculating a variance for each location in the image. Next, noise power is computed by using the detected regions. Then, the estimated noise power is compared with the statistical model to calculate the quantization parameter that is used in the encoder side when the input image is compressed. Finally, a quantization parameter is used as a quality measure of the input image.
Method for processing a digital image and image representation format
An image representation format for representing a digital image comprises: image information stored as a bitstream representing sequential image blocks, each block comprising one or more components, each component comprising one or more data units and each data unit being represented as a Huffman-coded stream of coefficients of basis functions, wherein a zeroth order coefficient is represented as a difference to the previous zeroth order coefficient of the corresponding component, and a block information table, which comprises: indicators to the first coefficient of a specified order of each image block in said bitstream, information indicating the number of bits in the bitstream between adjacent coefficients of said specified order of the image block, and the zeroth order coefficient of at least the first data unit of each component, said zeroth order coefficient being represented in a non-differential form.
System and method for identifying text-based SPAM in images using grey-scale transformation
A system, method and computer program product for identifying spam in an image using grey scale representation of an image, including identifying a plurality of contours in the image, the contours corresponding to probable symbols (letters, numbers, punctuation signs, etc.); ignoring contours that are too small or too large given the specified limits; identifying text lines in the image, based on the remaining contours; parsing the text lines into words; ignoring words that are too short or too long, from the identified text lines; ignoring text lines that are too short; verifying that the image contains text by comparing a number of pixels of a symbol color within remaining contours to a total number of pixels of the symbol color in the image; and if the image contains a text, rendering a spam/no spam verdict based on comparing a signature of the remaining text against a SPAM template.
Electronic transaction processing server with automated transaction evaluation
An invoice processing system generates a data structure, comprising a data field value associated with each of a plurality of identified data fields, from a document image comprising text representing each of such data field values. The secure document data capture system includes a character recognition system receiving the document image and recognizing characters within the text to generate, for each of the identified data fields, a data field value for association therewith. A validation engine identifies a subset of the identified data fields which can be referred to as exception data fields due to failure to comply with a validation rule. An exception handling system provides an exception image to a first client system. The exception image comprising a portion of the document image which includes text of the at least one suspect character within the exception data field with a context portion of the document image redacted. The context portion of the document image is a portion of the document image which comprises text which discloses a meaning of the at least one suspect character or the data field value. The exception handling system receives, from the first client system, user input of a replacement character for at least each suspect character. The secure data capture system then generates the data structure utilizing, for each identified data field, the data field values generated by the character recognition system with substitution of the replacement character from the exception handling system for each suspect character.
Method and apparatus for image processing
The present application relates to a method of processing data corresponding to an image (42; 52; 68; 70; 78, 80; 98). The method includes the step of generating an identifier (56, 58, 60, 62; 74, 76; 83, 84; 91, 92, 93) for identifying a region of the image (42; 52; 68; 70; 78, 80; 98) to which a block of said data relates; and then storing the identifier (56, 58, 60, 62; 74, 76; 83, 84; 91, 92, 93). The application further relates to apparatus for processing data corresponding to an image (42; 52; 68; 70; 78, 80; 98).
Method for selection and display of images
A method for efficiently allowing users to select or view images from a large quantity of images that are stored on various medias. The method groups images according to specific parameters and displays a sub set of these parameters allowing users to quickly select or determine if the image that they are seeking is in that particular storage area or media.
Image display method, image display program, and image display apparatus
An image display method by which a presence of a variation in a color signal in video, a variation in brightness data in video, a bit rate of video reproduction, an audio signal, a variation in a bit rate of video reproduction, or caption data is checked, whereby it is possible to display a significant image whose contents can be grasped by a user by skipping over a monochrome image such as a black or white image whose contents cannot be grasped by the user, even if a moving image starts from such a monochrome image.
Method and system for sensing 3D shapes of objects with specular and hybrid specular-diffuse surfaces
Surface normals and other 3D shape descriptors are determined for a specular or hybrid specular-diffuse object. A camera records an image of a smoothly spatially-varying pattern being reflected in the surface of the object, with the pattern placed at an initial position. The camera then records multiple images of the pattern undergoing a sequence of subsequent displacements to a final position distinct from the initial position. For a pixel in the images, the pattern displacement that corresponds to the minimum difference between the pixel value in the initial image and any of the final images is determined. The incident ray that strikes the surface of the object at the point being imaged by the pixel is then determined using the determined pattern displacement. The surface normal at that same surface point is then determined using the determined incident ray. Other 3D shape descriptors are determined from the surface normals of the object, such as principal curvatures, or the principal axes of a parametric surface, or the 3D shape, or the object pose.
Hand held portable three dimensional scanner
Embodiments of the invention may include a scanning device to scan three dimensional objects. The scanning device may generate a three dimensional model. The scanning device may also generate a texture map for the three dimensional model. Techniques utilized to generate the model or texture map may include tracking scanner position, generating depth maps of the object and generation composite image of the surface of the object.
Methods and systems for detecting defects on a specimen using a combination of bright field channel data and dark field channel data
Various methods, carrier media, and systems for detecting defects on a specimen using a combination of bright field channel data and dark field channel data are provided. One computer-implemented method includes combining pixel-level data acquired for the specimen by a bright field channel and a dark field channel of an inspection system. The method also includes detecting defects on the specimen by applying a two-dimensional threshold to the combined data. The two-dimensional threshold is defined as a function of a threshold for the data acquired by the bright field channel and a threshold for the data acquired by the dark field channel.
Image reading apparatus
An image reading apparatus includes a carrying unit that carries an irradiated object having a reflecting portion and a transmitting portion in a carrying direction, a first light source arranged on one face side of the irradiated object that irradiates light to an irradiated portion in a path of carrying the irradiated object, a second light source arranged on other face side that irradiates light to the irradiated portion, a detecting unit arranged to be spaced apart from the irradiated portion by a predetermined distance that detects the transmitting portion, a lighting control unit that controls to put on the second light source during a time period of passing the transmitting portion through the irradiated portion, a lens array arranged on one face side of the irradiated object that converges reflecting light reflected by the reflecting portion and transmitting light, and a sensor that receives converged light.
Automatic nodule measurements
A method for automatically estimating a measure of a nodule includes providing sliced image volume data comprising at least one marked position of the nodule, extracting a sub-volume from the sliced image volume data that includes the marked position, performing a figure-ground separation to determine a solid foreground of the sub-volume and a non-solid foreground of the sub-volume, determining a seed point corresponding to the nodule from each of the solid foreground and the non-solid foreground, selecting one of the seed point of the solid foreground or the seed point of the non-solid foreground, determining whether the selected seed point is solitary or non-solitary and performing region growing for non-solitary selected seed point, determining a segmentation of the selected seed point, estimating the measure of the nodule corresponding to the segmentation, and outputting the segmentation and an estimate of the measure of the nodule.
Estimation of the average propagator from magnetic resonance data
An average propagator is estimated from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance data. Diffusion-weighted signal attenuation data is determined from the diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance data. Estimated average propagator data is determined from the diffusion-weighted signal attenuation data based on at least one of a priori information of the diffusion-weighted signal attenuation data or a priori information of the average propagator.
Highly constrained reconstruction of motion encoded MR images
A series of velocity encoded MR image frames are acquired. To increase the temporal resolution of the acquired image frames radial projections are acquired and each image frame is highly undersampled. The radial projections for each velocity encoding direction are interleaved throughout the scan and a composite phase image is reconstructed from these and used to reconstruct a velocity image for each image frame in a highly constrained backprojection method.
Method and system for guided two dimensional colon screening
A method and system for guiding imaging reading for colon screening includes scrolling through a succession of two dimensional (2D) cross-sectional images of a colon in respective image planes. A point of intersection with a current image plane with the centerline of the colon is marked in a first color in the current cross-sectional image. As the scrolling proceeds and a new current cross-sectional image in a respective image plane is observed. a new point of intersection is marked in the current cross-sectional image in the first color and the prior point of intersection is projected onto the new current cross-sectional image and marked in a second color.
Validation scheme for composing magnetic resonance images (MRI)
Method and apparatus for determining the quality of alignment of a pair of volumes of data of medical images is disclosed. The method for validating the alignment includes selecting one or more points in the first volume and one or more points in the second volume, determining the average distance between the one or more points in the first volume and the one or more points in the second volume, determining a distortion category based on the average distance, determining an average noise level in the first and second volumes, and assigning a Q value indicative of the quality of the alignment based on the distortion category.
Automatic optimal view determination for cardiac acquisitions
A method, system, and apparatus of determining optimal viewing planes for cardiac image acquisition, wherein the method includes acquiring a set of sagittal, axial, and coronal images of a heart, where the axial and coronal images intersect with the sagittal image orthogonally, and where the heart has a natural axis and a left ventricle (“LV”) with a bloodpool, a bloodpool border, and an apex. The method also includes making a map of the bloodpool border, and using the map to create a full coordinate frame oriented along the natural axis.
Method and apparatus for classifying fingerprint image quality, and fingerprint image recognition system using the same
A method and apparatus for classifying fingerprint image quality and a fingerprint image recognition system are provided. The method includes dividing a fingerprint image into a plurality of blocks, calculating and vectorizing quality classification parameters with respect to the respective blocks, obtaining quality classification values for the respective blocks by inputting the vectorized quality classification parameters into a trained quality classifier, and selecting a representative value of the quality classification values and determining the representative value as the quality of the fingerprint image. Since the quality of the fingerprint image can be accurately judged, reliability of the fingerprint image recognition system is increased.
Artificial intelligence systems for identifying objects
A process for object identification comprising extracting object shape features and object color features from digital images of an initial object and storing the extracted object shape features and object color features in a database where said extracted object shape features and object color features are associated with a unique identifier associated with said object and repeating the first step for a plurality of different objects. Then extracting object shape features and object color features from a digital image of an object whose identity is being sought and correlating the extracted object shape features and object color features of the object whose identity is being sought with the extracted object shape features and object color features previously stored in the database. If a first correlation of the extracted object shape features is better than a first threshold value for a given object associated with an identifier in the database and if a second correlation of the extracted object color features is better than a second threshold value for the given object, then making a determination that the object whose identity is being sought is said given object.
Multi-technology information capture system and method
A mobile system having a portable fingerprint collecting system for generating a digitized image of a fingerprint collected from a subject, a database system configured to store a database containing a plurality of fingerprint templates cross-referenced with identification information, the database system configured to compare the digitized fingerprint images generated by the portable fingerprint collecting device with the fingerprint templates stored in the database to provide identification information for the fingerprint, and a communication system providing real time communication of the digitized fingerprint image and identification information between the portable fingerprint collecting system and the database system.
System and method for authenticated and privacy preserving biometric identification systems
A system and method for the identification of users and objects using biometric techniques is disclosed. This invention describes a biometric based identification and authorization systems which do not require the incorporation of an on-line database of stored complete biometrics for the security infrastructure. In order to remove the connectivity requirements, an off-line biometric system is achieved by incorporating an identity verification template (IVT) on a storage device/token (e.g., magnetic strip or smart-card) during the user's registration which provides for a reliable storage medium; however, there are no security requirements required of the token even to protect the privacy of the stored biometric. The IVT does not contain complete information of the user's biometric but allows for the verification of the user when that user later provides a biometric reading. To deal with errors that may be introduced into later scans of the biometric (for example at the time of verification) error correcting techniques, well known in the art of communication and error control systems, are incorporated into the system. The system is also usable in the online model. Moreover, it may also be used to enable cryptographic operations by being used to partially compose or encrypt private keys for cryptographic operation.
Indicating positions of and directions to battlefield entities in a soldier's head-mounted display
A computer-implemented method for indicating positions of and directions to battlefield entities in a soldier's head-mounted display using annotated arrows which indicate units both in and out of the soldier's field of view. The method includes a Unit Identifier (100) for associating units in aerial imagery with soldiers on the battlefield, a Commander Presenter (102) for presenting the aerial imagery and unit positions to a commander, a Unit Annotator (104) for enabling commanders to identify unknown units, and a Soldier Presenter (106) for identifying and labeling units that appear in a soldier's head-mounted display.
Time-to-contact estimation device and method for estimating time to contact
A time-to-contact estimation device for estimating a time to contact of a moving body to an object in surroundings of the moving body, includes: an image sensor provided on the moving body, and continuously capturing time-varying images of the surroundings of the moving body; a brightness change calculation unit calculating brightness changes in pixels between the time-varying images captured one after another; and a time-to-contact calculation unit calculating optimized brightness gradients based on the brightness changes calculated by the brightness change calculation unit, and calculating the time to contact of the moving body to the object based on the optimized brightness gradients.
Methods for marking images
An image is marked by making slight changes to pixel values. These changes are essentially imperceptible on human scrutiny, but detectable by computer analysis. Such markings have applications in identifying ownership of images (including video), and also in device control (e.g., triggering a “do not copy” response in suitably configured hardware and software systems).
Method and system for composing a digital signature graphic appearance and specifying a document display location thereof
One aspect of the present invention is to graphically configure a digital signature appearance to be suitable for being configured into the electronic document. Another aspect of the present invention is to place a digital signature appearance graphic into the electronic document. A method of implementing the graphic configuration aspect of the present invention includes the steps of generating a composition environment for configuring a graphical appearance of the digital signature and its placement origin point. A method of implementing the digital signature graphic placement aspect includes the steps of specifying a reference point in the digital signature appearance, determining a graphic scaling factor and placement location in the electronic document, which is at least partially based on the reference point and tile placement origin point, and placing it accordingly. A method for specifying and placing the configured digital signature appearance on multiple pages of a multi-page electronic document is also described.
Transducer with deformable corner
A transducer generates acoustic energy. The transducer is suitable for incorporation into any device that needs sound reproduction capability, including devices with generally rectangular geometries such as cell phones, PDAs, and portable gaming devices. The transducer includes a displaceable membrane with a deformable corner. The deformable corner may extend the frequency range over which the transducer generates acoustic energy without distortion. The deformable corner may be part of a membrane periphery around the displaceable membrane. The membrane periphery may be square, triangular, or may take any other polygonal shape.
Hearing aid with an optical microphone
A hearing aid is provided. The hearing aid includes at least one optical microphone. The at least one optical microphone comprises an acoustic-optical transformer for transforming an acoustic input signal into an optical signal, the optical signal is processed in the hearing aid using an optical signal processing unit, and the processed optical signal is transformed into an acoustic output signal using an opto-electrical transformer.
System, circuit, and amplifier for reducing pop sound
An audio power amplifier includes a differential amplifier circuit that serves as an input circuit. The differential amplifier circuit includes a signal GND (SG) terminal that receives a SG voltage, and an audio signal input terminal that receives an audio signal. A SG voltage generation circuit is provided to output the SG voltage. The SG voltage generation circuit includes a voltage follower amplifier that outputs a current, a reference voltage source that is input to the voltage follower amplifier, and a current control circuit that controls the current output from the voltage follower amplifier. The SG voltage rises in a prescribed manner while suppressing a pop sound during its transition.
Method and apparatus for transition of encryption key during an ongoing media communication session
The disclosed embodiments provide for methods and apparatus for encrypting media using a current media encryption key (MEK), requesting a new MEK, and receiving the new MEK. The method further provides for transitioning from the current MEK to the new MEK and continuing to encrypt the media using the new MEK. In another embodiment, the method provides for decrypting media during an ongoing media communication session, the method provides for receiving encrypted media, and decrypting the encrypted media using a current MEK. The method further provides for requesting a new MEK before the current MEK expires based on its associated expiration time, receiving the new MEK, and continuing to decrypt the encrypted media based on a received MEK indication flag (MIF) that indicates whether the encrypted media is encrypted using the current MEK or the new MEK.
ID-based signature, encryption system and encryption method
An ID-based encryption and signature technique, according to which more efficient and higher speed processing is possible. In generation of public parameters, an element P of a group G1 of order q is selected, and then, g=e(P, P) calculated in advance is added to the public parameters. At the time of encryption and verification, a public key ID is associated with an element PID of the group G1, using uεZq* and two elements P1 and P2 (included in the public parameters) of G1 and calculating PID=P1+uP2. The above-mentioned elements P1 and P2 are determined by P1=s1P and P2=s2P using random numbers s1, s2εZq* as a part of a master key, and a private key of a user is determined by dID=(s1+us2)−1P.
Hinge, and opening/closing type portable terminal device having the same
The present invention aims to reduce a size of a hinge portion and a device in an opening/closing mobile terminal device in which first and second housing members are opened/closed and turned on hinges. In the present invention, a second turning shaft (123) is provided to intersect with the first turning member so as to turn together with a first turning shaft (122) and provided turnably to the first turning shaft (122), first and second guiding member (126, 127) for restricting a turning angle of the second turning shaft (123) are provided in the first turning shaft (122). Also, a flexible board (140) is interposed in the first turning shaft (122) and a first turning bearing (133) in a position that stretches over a first housing member (101a) and a second housing member (101b). A first winding portion (154a) that is wound around an outer periphery of the first turning bearing (133) is formed on one end side of the flexible board (140) to turn together with the first turning shaft (122).
Telephone based method and system for adding contacts to a personal network address book
A system and method for adding contact information to a personal network address book is provided. Contact information is added to the address book by analyzing a billing database or call detail record in order to determine telephone numbers which meet predetermined criteria set by a user. Telephone numbers meeting the predetermined criteria are extracted and transferred to the user. The user is prompted for a nickname corresponding to each extracted telephone number. The nickname and the corresponding telephone number are then stored in the personal network address book. In a voice activated dialing system, the user is able to speak the nickname in order to initiate the dialing process.
Methods and apparatus for processing foreign accent/language communications
Techniques for improving the efficiency of foreign accent/language communications processing are disclosed. For example, in one aspect of the invention, a technique for processing a call received by a call center, includes the following steps/operations. A call is obtained. Then, at least one of an accent and a language spoken by a caller making the call is identified. The call is then directed to an appropriate operator at a first level of the call center based on at least one of the automatically identified accent and the automatically identified language. The techniques may also include multiple-purpose editing, automated translation, and restating methodologies.
Multi-tasking tracking agent
The present invention is directed to a system for tracking a contact center operation. The system includes a tracking agent 232 operable to (a) receive a notification indicating a change in agent focus from a first work item to a second work item; (b) determine whether the first work item involves a communication medium different from the second work item; and (c) when the first work item involves a communication medium different from the second work item, cause termination of a timer with respect to the servicing of the first work item and initiation of a timer with respect to the servicing of the second work item. The first and second work items are concurrently assigned for servicing to the agent.
Direct calling to devices via a shared telephone number
The present invention provides a technique for directly calling telephones via a shared telephone number, which telephones do not have telephone numbers in the address space of the Public Switched Telephone Network. This is particularly useful for visitors and guests who are, for example, temporarily at a hotel, school campus, or business.
System and method for controlling financial transactions over a wireless network
A system and method for controlling financial transactions is disclosed. A customer, using a wireless device, identifies a point of sale and the amount of a transaction at that point of sale is first communicated to a central service and then transmitted to the wireless device for display at the wireless device. The customer can either accept the transaction amount to complete the transaction or reject the amount to cancel the transaction. The customer may have to enter a password or personal identification number to verify the authorization to use the wireless financial system. The customer is billed for the transaction via credit, debit, ATM or other methods, such as the wireless carrier or an internet provider.
Coordination of content streams in interactive voice response systems
A method and apparatus are disclosed that enable an interactive voice response (IVR) system to deliver content streams of various media types (e.g., video, audio, etc.) to telecommunications terminals. The illustrative embodiment provides extensions to the Voice extensible Markup Language (VXML) standard that enable an IVR system script to specify the playback order, timing, and coordination of multiple content streams (e.g., whether an audio stream and a video stream should be played back concurrently or serially; whether a particular content stream should finish before playback of another content stream commences; whether a content stream that is currently playing should be stopped and supplanted with another content stream, etc.).
Telecommunications test plugs having tuned near end crosstalk
A set of telecommunications test plugs. A first test plug has a first test plug printed circuit board having circuit traces for establishing first predefined near end crosstalk between at least two of pairs of wires. The first predefined near end crosstalk is at a first level of a first defined range. A second telecommunications plug has a second printed circuit board having circuit traces for establishing a second predetermined level of near-end crosstalk. The circuit traces are positioned to establish second predefined near end crosstalk between at least two of pairs of wires. The second predefined near end crosstalk is at a second level of a second defined range.
Production of X-ray images containing a reduced proportion of scattered radiation
The invention relates to a method, to an X-ray apparatus for performing the method and to a detector arrangement intended for the latter, for producing X-ray images containing a reduced proportion of scattered radiation. The X-ray radiation is detected in this case by a detector arrangement comprising two X-ray detectors, there being provided in the first X-ray detector openings through which the second X-ray detector is able to detect scattered radiation and primary radiation by separate detector elements. The signals given by the second X-ray detector are used to determine the proportion of scattered radiation that is contained in the image produced by the first X-ray detector and to largely free the first image of the proportion of scattered radiation.
Scintillator aspects of compton scattered X-ray visualization, imaging, or information providing
A visualization or imaging system involves inducing and/or detecting Compton scattered X-rays to provide information or a visual representation of a portion of an individual. In one approach, the Compton scattered X-rays are converted to a visible or detectible representations through scintillation.
Systems for improving a spatial resolution of an image
Systems for improving a spatial resolution of an image are described. One of the systems includes an X-ray source configured to generate X-rays, a transmission detector configured to detect the X-rays to output a plurality of electrical signals, and a plate configured to improve the spatial resolution upon receiving the X-rays. The plate is configured to output a fan-beam upon receiving the X-rays.
Radiography apparatus with scout view function
An X-ray detecting section (13) comprises a first imaging means (S1) to generate an X-ray image in response to the X-ray slit beam (B) and a second imaging means (S2) to generate an X-ray image in response to the X-ray broad beam (BB). The radiography apparatus (M) displays a first X-ray image generated by the X-ray slit beam (B) and said first imaging means (S1), specifies a desired interested area (R) on the first X-ray image, and generates a predetermined sectional image as a second X-ray image by using the X-ray broad beam (BB) and the second imaging means (S2) with respect to the specified interested area (R).
Method for compiling computer tomographic representations using a CT system with at least two angularly offset ray sources
A method is disclosed for compiling computer tomographic representations using a CT system with at least two angularly offset ray sources. A first ray cone with a relatively larger fan angle and a second ray cone with a relatively smaller fan angle scan an object circularly or spirally. The first ray cone generates a first dataset A and the second ray cone generates a dataset B. The dataset B of the smaller ray cone is supplemented with other data at the edge to give an expanded dataset B+ for reconstruction of the CT representation. The expanded dataset B+ of the second, smaller ray cone and the dataset A of the first, larger ray cone is subjected to a convolution operation to give datasets B+′ and A′. Finally, a back projection to reconstruct sectional images or volume data is respectively carried out from the convoluted datasets B+′ and A′. The dataset B is supplemented with data of the dataset A and supplementary data are removed from the dataset B+′ after the convolution but before the back projection.
Lower and upper end plugs of an annular fuel rod
A lower and upper end plugs of an annular fuel rod, into and out of which cooling water flows, comprises: a lower end plug including a filter for debris which has a plurality of pins intersecting each other at the proper position of an inner channel main inlet, through-holes into which the pins of the debris filter are fitted, and at least one inner channel auxiliary inlet through which the cooling water flows into a lower inner channel thereof when the inner channel main inlet is blocked by debris, and which has a through-hole shape; and an upper end plug including at least one upper handling groove and hole, into which a fuel rod handling tool is coupled, at a proper position of an inner circumference of the inner channel main outlet in a circumferential direction.
Systems and methods related to digital frequency locked looping to synchronize frequencies between the local signal from a local oscillator and a reference clock signal from a remote oscillator. A reference counter increments its count for every pulse in the reference clock signal. The value in the reference counter is compared to a configurable reference value. Whenever a match between the reference counter value and the reference value occurs, a hit signal is generated and the reference counter value is reinitialized. Concurrent with the above, a feedback counter increments for every pulse from the local signal. When the hit signal is generated, the value in the feedback counter is compared to a configurable feedback value (by subtraction) to generate a difference value. The difference value is then converted to a frequency adjust signal for use in either increasing or decreasing the frequency of the local oscillator. The hit signal also reinitializes the feedback counter.
Sync extraction apparatus in communication system and method thereof
A synchronization extraction apparatus for a communication system and a method thereof are disclosed. A frame synchronization is obtained in a manner that the sum of an input signal and a delay signal is obtained without obtaining a simple correlation value between the input signal and the delay signal, and then a correlation value between a summed signal and the delay signal is obtained. The synchronization extraction apparatus and method can reduce the implementation complexity and power consumption in obtaining the frame synchronization, and thus increase the battery cycle of a terminal provided with the synchronization extraction apparatus or method.
Receiving method and receiver
Baseband (BB) input units input baseband received signals. An initial weight data setting unit sets weighting coefficients to be utilized in the interval of a training signal as initial weighting coefficients. A gap compensating unit compensates control weighting coefficients with a gap error signal and outputs the updated weighting coefficients acquired as a result of the compensation. A weight switching unit selects the initial weighting coefficients in the interval of the training signal and selects the updated weighting coefficients in the interval of the data signal. Then the weight switching unit outputs the selected initial weighting coefficients and updated weighting coefficients as the weighting coefficients. A synthesizing unit weights the baseband received signals with the weighting coefficients and then sums them up.
Setting the slice level in a binary signal
A method of setting the slice level (SL) in a binary signal (T) comprises measuring the noise level at both signal levels (A,B) and adjusting (Z) the slice levels in dependence upon the measured noise levels. By weighing the noise levels, asymmetric noise is taken into account. A device (10) for setting the slice level comprises level shift means and noise peak level detection means.
Method and apparatus for control of transmitter power consumption
A method and apparatus improve the design and control of amplification stages in a radio frequency (RF) transmitter, so as to reduce its power consumption. In some aspects, the transmitter is operable to transmit an output RF signal at a target power level, which may vary over a wide dynamic range. For each target power level in the dynamic range, a control module in the transmitter configures operational settings of amplification stages of the transmitter in order to produce the output RF signal having the appropriate target power level, while consuming minimal power from the power source.
Multi-stage code generator and decoder for communication systems
A method of encoding data for transmission from a source to a destination over a communications channel is provided. A plurality of redundant symbols are generated from an ordered set of input symbols to be transmitted. A plurality of output symbols are generated from a combined set of symbols including the input symbols and the redundant symbols, wherein the number of possible output symbols is much larger than the number of symbols in the combined set of symbols, wherein at least one output symbol is generated from more than one symbol in the combined set of symbols and from less than all of the symbols in the combined set of symbols, and such that the ordered set of input symbols can be regenerated to a desired degree of accuracy from any predetermined number, N, of the output symbols.
Circuit for canceling DC offset in a communication system
A circuit for canceling a direct current (DC) offset in a communication system includes a digital-to-analog (D/A) converter assembly (30), a summing circuit (40), an inphase-to-quadrature (I/Q) modulator (50), a detecting module (70), and a microcontroller (80). The D/A converter assembly converts digital DC offset regulation signals to analog DC offset regulation signals. The summing circuit sums up the DC offset regulation signals and corresponding vectors of a received base band signal. The I/Q modulator converts the summed base band signal to a radio frequency (RF) signal. The detecting module detects an energy variation due to DC offset contained in the radio frequency (RF) signal. The microcontroller regulates the DC offset regulation signals output from the D/A converter assembly to minimize the energy variation detected by the detecting module. In the invention, the circuit saves energy and enhances qualities of communication signals.
Method for digital wireless communications
In a multivalue modulation type with one pilot symbol inserted for every 3 or more symbols, signal points of each one symbol immediately before and after a pilot symbol are modulated using a modulation type different from that for pilot symbols. In this way, it is possible to suppress deterioration of the accuracy in estimating the reference phase and amount of frequency offset by pilot symbols and improve the bit error rate characteristic in the signal to noise ratio in quasi-coherent detection with symbols whose symbol synchronization is not completely established.
Decoding methods and apparatus for MIMO communication systems
Methods and apparatus are described herein to provide for the decoding of signals in a MIMO communications system. Other embodiments may include a method of deriving a list of possible data vectors and corresponding metrics given a received signal vector and provide the list to a soft bits calculator. Further embodiments include a decoding apparatus that includes a shift and scale module, a linear receiver module, a list generator module and a lattice reduction module. The decoding apparatus may additionally include a soft bits calculator, in further embodiments.
Preamble formats supporting high-throughput MIMO WLAN and auto-detection
A method for generating a preamble of an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexed (OFDM) data frame for a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) wireless communication includes determining at least one system condition preamble format parameter. When the system condition preamble format parameter satisfies a first preamble format parameter a preamble having a first preamble format is formed. When the system condition preamble format parameter satisfies a second preamble format parameter, a preamble having a second preamble format is formed. Further, when the system condition preamble format parameter satisfies a third preamble format parameter, a preamble having a third preamble format is formed. The first, second, and third preamble formats differ based upon their lengths, fields, and modulation formats of a high throughput signal field.
Data stream interleaving with non-monotonically arranged data rotations for spatially diverse transmission
Systems and techniques relating to processing multiple data streams transmitted over a wireless channel. In general, according to at least one implementation, a technique includes: obtaining multiple data streams to be transmitted over a wireless channel using spatially diverse transmission; and applying data rotations to respective data streams, in connection with interleaving the multiple data streams, where the applying includes using data rotation values with respective data streams such that the data rotation values plotted against stream indices correspond to a non-monotonic function. The data rotation values can be independent of a total number of the multiple data streams to be transmitted. The data rotation values can be fixed constants. The same data rotation values can be used with respective data streams irrespective of a selected frequency band. The data rotations can include subcarrier rotations. The data rotations can include column rotations.
Low noise inter-symbol and inter-carrier interference cancellation for multi-carrier modulation receivers
A MCM (multi-carrier modulation) receiver that utilizes a plurality sub-carriers (e.g., tones) to transmit information in a frame-by-frame manner. Identify a first subset of sub-carriers that have negligible ISI (inter-symbol interference) and ICI (inter-carrier interference), and a second subset of sub-carriers that ISI/ICI cancellation is needed to improve the performance. For sub-carriers in the first subset, conventional equalization is performed to obtained soft decisions. For those sub-carriers in the second subset, perform ISI cancellation then ICI cancellation along with equalization. For sub-carriers in the second subset, identify a series of third subsets (one for each of the sub-carriers in the second subset) that cause interference to the sub-carriers in the second set. For sub-carriers in the third subset, identify a series of fourth subsets from a previous frame that cause interference to the sub-carriers in the third set. For each element in the third subset, perform ISI cancellation to eliminate the interference from the elements in the fourth subset from the previous frame to obtain a plurality of intermediate decisions. For each element in the second subset, perform a combined equalization and ICI cancellation using said intermediate decisions. The selection of the first subset, the second subset, the third subset, and the fourth subset are based on examining the frequency response of the communication channel.
System and method for signal alignment when communicating signals
A method and system are provided for aligning signals in a communication system. The method and system include alignment logic or functionality configured to compensate for signal propagation discrepancies when communicating signals between one or more other devices. The alignment logic may operate to adjust one or more communicated signals, so that signals that may have different propagation times arrive at one or more devices at a desired time. The system and method may be used when initializing a communication system and before communicating data. The system and method operate to adjust one or more signals, such as a data strobe signal in a memory system for example, so that the one or more signals arrive at one or more devices spaced apart in time within a defined tolerance at a desired time. The alignment logic is used to compensate for signal propagation delays which can be associated with a signal propagation path.
Apparatus and method for converting signals
An image-coding format converting apparatus comprising an MPEG2 image decoder 30, a resolution/frame rate converter 31, a motion vector converter 32, and an MPEG4 encoder 33. The MPEG2 decoder 30 decodes a bit stream of MPEG2 image codes, generating an image signal. The resolution/frame rate converter 31 converts the image signal. The MPEG4 encoder 33 encodes the output of the resolution/frame rate converter 31, generating a bit stream of MPEG4 image codes. In the resolution/frame rate converter 31, pixels are added or extracted in accordance with the start position of a macro block, thus adjusting the input image signal to one than can easily be encoded to MPEG4 image codes. The motion vector converter 32 generates an MPEG4 motion vector from parameters such as an MPEG2 motion vector. The MPEG4 encoder 33 uses the MPEG4 motion vector to encode the output of the resolution/frame rate converter 31.
Determining intensity similarity in low-light conditions using the Poisson-quantization noise model
A Poisson-quantization noise model for modeling noise in low-light conditions is described. In one aspect, image information is received. A Poisson-quantization noise model is then generated from a Poisson noise model and a quantization noise model. Poisson-quantization noise is then estimated in the image information using the Poisson-quantization noise model.
Blocks in two different frames are subjected to Hadamard transform by first and second Hadamard transform circuits, and a sum component and a difference component are calculated for the components of the two blocks corresponding to each other to perform three-dimensional Hadamard transform, so that detection is made as to whether or not these blocks include a motion. While the sum component and the difference component are encoded for the block determined as including a motion, a motion detection result, rather than the difference component, is encoded for the block determined as including no motion. As a result, a high compression ratio can be achieved in video encoding with a small-scale circuit.
Method and apparatus for determining latch position for decision-feedback equalization using single-sided eye
Methods and apparatus are provided for determining the threshold position of one or more latches employed for decision-feedback equalization. A threshold position of a latch employed by a decision-feedback equalizer is determined by constraining input data such that the input data only contains transitions from a first binary value; obtaining a plurality of samples of a single-sided data eye associated with the constrained input data; and determining a threshold position of the latch based on the samples. The constrained input data can comprise (i) transitions from a binary value of 1 to a binary value of 0 or 1; or (ii) transitions from a binary value of 0 to a binary value of 0 or 1. The size of the single-sided data eye can be obtained by analyzing a histogram associated with the single-sided data eye to identify a region having a constant hit count.
A modem uses information from prior calls in a current call if the current communication line is similar to the communication line of a prior call. During modem training, the current communication line is compared to a communication line used during at least one prior call. If the characteristics are substantially similar, stored data mode information from the prior call(s) is used to design a signal constellation for use during the current call's data mode. If the number of prior calls exceeds a value, then the signal constellation may be designed using previously stored data mode information without using information from the current call's training mode. If the number of prior calls does not exceed the value, then the signal constellation may be designed using the previously stored data mode information and information from the current call's training mode.
Synchronous acquisition circuit and a synchronous acquisition method of a spread spectrum code
In a synchronous acquisition method of a spread spectrum code, a digital code sequence is generated based on a received radio communication signal. The digital code sequence defines a spread spectrum code which includes a preamble symbol. A plurality of correlation signals are generated based on the spread spectrum code of the digital code sequence. A detection signal is generated in accordance with the correlation signal which corresponds to the preamble symbol. A timing control signal is generated in accordance with the detection signal. A demodulation signal is generated based on the correlation signals and in accordance with the timing control signal. A correction signal is generated based on the demodulation signal. A corrected timing control signal is generated based on the timing control signal and the correction signal, such that the demodulation signal corresponds to the preamble symbol.
SIR prediction method and apparatus
The present invention provides a method and apparatus for generating SIR estimates early in a time interval that include the benefits of interference suppression without requiring the computation of specific interference suppression elements. In particular, the present invention generates an SIR estimate for a RAKE receiver during a current time interval based on channel estimates generated based on the received signal(s). By applying an offset derived during a previous time interval to the RAKE SIR estimate, the present invention generates a second SIR estimate for a G-RAKE receiver.
System and method for spatial-multiplexed tropospheric scatter communications
A method is described comprising: transmitting a training signal from each antenna of a base station to each of a plurality of client devices utilizing tropospheric scatter, each of the client devices analyzing each training signal to generate channel characterization data, and transmitting the channel characterization data back to the base station utilizing tropospheric scatter; storing the channel characterization data for each of the plurality of client devices; receiving data to be transmitted to each of the client devices; and precoding the data using the channel characterization data associated with each respective client device to generate precoded data signals for each antenna of the base station; and transmitting the precoded data signals through each antenna of the base station to each respective client device.
Spectrum shaping using code-hopping CDMA
A method for spectrally shaping a communication signal is provided. The method comprises generating a plurality of spreading codes, assigning a probability to each of the plurality of spreading codes, and modulating the communication signal by hopping between the plurality of spreading codes such that a time-average proportion of time spent using any one of the plurality of spreading codes is equal to the probability assigned to that spreading code.
In a solid-state laser amplifier including at least two laser-active media in a common laser radiation field, the laser-active media do not form a hard aperture for the laser radiation field. Each of the laser-active media define a plane that is penetrated by the laser radiation field. The laser amplifier includes at least one focusing optical element disposed in the laser radiation field between two adjacent laser-active media. A focal length and a distance of the focusing optical element from the planes of the two adjacent laser-active media are selected such that the planes of the laser-active media are approximately mapped onto each other by a near-field far-field transformation.
Monolithic semiconductor laser
There is disclosed a monolithic semiconductor laser which is provided with an AlGaAs based semiconductor laser element (10a) and an InGaAlP based semiconductor laser element (10b) formed on a semiconductor substrate (1). The AlGaAs based semiconductor laser element (10a) is composed of an infrared light emitting layer forming portion (9a), which has an n-type cladding layer (2a), an active layer (3a) and a p-type cladding layer (4a) formed so as to have a ridge portion, and a current constriction layer (5a) provided on sides of the ridge portion, while the InGaP based semiconductor laser element (10b) is composed of a red light emitting layer forming portion (9a), which has an n-type cladding layer (2b), an active layer (3b) and a p-type cladding layer (4b) formed so as to have a ridge portion, and a current constriction layer (5b) provided on sides of the ridge portion. The current constriction layers of the both elements are made of the same material having a larger band gap than that of the active layer (3b) of the red light emitting layer forming portion. Consequently, there can be obtained a monolithic semiconductor laser capable of high temperature and high output operation without increasing the number of processes of the growth.
Semiconductor laser device and fabrication method therefor
A semiconductor laser device has a multilayer structure including a first clad layer, an active layer, and a second clad layer stacked successively on a semiconductor substrate in order of increasing distance from the semiconductor substrate. At least one of the first clad layer and the second clad layer has a compressive distortion with respect to the semiconductor substrate. At least one of the first clad layer and the second clad layer includes a semiconductor layer having a tensile distortion with respect to the semiconductor substrate.
Variable wavelength light source
A gain element and a variable wavelength reflector form a resonator. A wavelength selective element selects a resonance wavelength in the resonator. A beam splitter is provided for monitoring an incident light from the gain element and a reflected light from the variable wavelength reflector. A phase adjustment element is arranged in the resonator. A wavelength-lock control unit locks the resonance wavelength to a desired resonance wavelength by adjusting the phase of the resonance wavelength based on the monitored incident light and by adjusting the variable wavelength reflector based on a ratio between the incident light and the reflected light.
Method and apparatus for laser diode compensation
The luminance of a laser diode is a function of laser diode drive current. The luminance is also a function of other factors, such as age and temperature. A laser projection device includes laser diodes to generate light in response to a commanded luminance, and also includes photodiodes to provide a measured luminance. The commanded luminance and measured luminance are compared, and drive currents for the laser diodes are adjusted to compensate for changes in laser diode characteristics.
Method for controlling operation of light emitting transistors and laser transistors
A method for controlling operation of a transistor includes the following steps: providing a bipolar transistor having emitter, base and collector regions; applying electrical signals to the transistor to produce light emission from the transistor; effecting photon-assisted tunneling of carriers in the transistor with self-generated photons of the light emission, and controlling operation of the transistor by controlling the photon-assisted tunneling.
Methods and apparatus for timing synchronization in packet networks
Methods and apparatus for synchronizing a first clock of a transmit node and a second clock of a receive node in a packet network are provided. Receive time stamps are generated for transferred packets at a receive node in-accordance with the second clock. Propagation delay variation is filtered from receive time stamp intervals through a filter in accordance with a frequency of the second clock. The filtered receive time stamp intervals and transmit time stamp intervals of the transferred packets are input into a phase locked loop to generate a new frequency for the second clock. The filter and the second clock are updated in accordance with the new frequency for synchronization with the first clock of the transfer node.
Quasi synchronous transmission in cellular networks
Aspects of the invention include a root node of a wireless communication infrastructure that buffers data packets for transmission by base stations over an air interface. The root node determines a time delay for transmission of a data packet from the root node to each base station, a maximum time delay of those time delays, and a timing latency based upon the maximum time delay. The root node transmits the timing latency to the base stations. In response, each base station initiates transmission of data packets received by the root node after expiration of the timing latency. Alternatively, the root node, instead of the base stations, may buffer the data packets, and transmit them so that they arrive at the base stations at substantially the same time.
Method and apparatus for synchronous switching of optical transport network signals
The invention includes a method and apparatus for synchronously switching at least one plesiochronous signal within a network element. Specifically, a method according to one embodiment of the invention includes receiving the at least one plesiochronous signal, and mapping the at least one plesiochronous signal into at least one synchronous signal. The at least one synchronous signal includes at least one virtually-concatenated signal, where each of the at least one virtually-concatenated signal includes a plurality of sub-signals, and each of the sub-signals is adapted for being synchronously switched within the network element.
A calendar tool displays policies that are scheduled to function in managed networks. The tool allows the network administrator to select and view individual scheduled policies, many individual scheduled policies or scheduled policy suites. The calendar identifies the different scheduled policies as rectilinear colored blocks of time on a calendar. These blocks will open their properties forms when double selected. Overlaps of scheduled policies and gaps between scheduled policies can be identified visually on the calendar because they are displayed in two distinct blocks of color which are different from any other colored block displayed. The administrator/user can see all policies that contribute to an overlap by simply selecting on the particular overlap. The user can see calendar information either in a weekly or daily format.
Media and speed independent interface
A media and speed independent system for transmitting Ethernet data comprises a media access controller (MAC) and a first rate adaptation layer (RAL) module that communicates with the MAC. A first physical extension module communicates with the first RAL module. A second physical extension module communicates with the first physical extension module using a physical extension interface. A second RAL module communicates with the second physical extension module. A physical layer device (PHY) communicates with the second RAL module.
Method and system for out-of-band signaling for TCP connection setup
In certain environments all or part of the TCP signaling traffic may be lost before reaching one or both TCP endpoints, leading to no connection establishment or slow page download times. Embodiments of this invention improve TCP performance over unreliable links and allow TCP connections to be set up when otherwise not possible. Embodiments of this invention include the use of out-of-band signaling for TCP to synchronizing and establishing a connection between two TCP endpoints without modification to the TCP/IP protocol suite. Embodiments of this invention provide a system that creates a control channel to enable out-of-band signaling for TCP connection establishment between two TCP endpoints. In embodiments of this invention, the control channel used for the out-of-band signaling traffic between the TCP endpoints (or peers) is achieved using a system that consists of a signaling broker, an agent application, and a virtual network interface and capture module that together create control channel for the TCP signaling traffic. Embodiments of this invention include a protocol to execute out-of-band signaling for TCP.
Systems and methods for efficient multicast handling
A network device constructs a notification corresponding to a received multicast data unit, where the notification includes administrative data associated with the multicast data unit that does not include a payload of the multicast data unit. The network device replicates the notification at least three different processing elements at different locations in a processing path of the network device to produce multiple replicated data items and produces a copy of the multicast data unit for each of replicated notifications. The network device forwards each copy of the multicast data unit towards a multicast destination.
Pseudo wire processing in a packet forwarding device
A method is provided for pseudo wire processing in a packet forwarding device in which a packet is processed based on whether the ports through which the packet is transmitted are real or pseudo wire ports. The inbound and outbound port information is encoded using a predefined range of index values such that index values falling within one range of values are used for passing real port information, and index values falling within another range of values are used for passing pseudo wire port information. The index values are used in a manner that facilitates efficient performance of pseudowire processing for the packets in the switch fabric component of the packet forwarding device.
Communication device and communication method
A communication device for transmitting and receiving frames, which is capable of preventing an overflow of a buffer memory due to clock error even when the utilization factor of a transmission line is high. A frame holding section stores frames awaiting transmission. A transmission section sequentially takes out each frame from the frame holding section and outputs the frame to the transmission line, based on a control signal indicative of timing for transmitting the frame. A transmission control section initially outputs the control signal at a repetition period of T clocks (T≧2) and acquires the number of waiting frames in the frame holding section every N×T clocks (N≧2). When the number of waiting frames is equal to K (K≧1), the transmission control section makes some of transmission intervals shorter than T clocks to thereby output the control signal N+K times during next N×T clocks
Scalable packet routing and switching device and method
Methods of routing and switching a packet from an incoming link to an outgoing link of a router. In one example, the method includes assigning a destination queue to the packet, determining if the router is implemented in a scaled-down configuration, remapping the destination queue to one or more remapped destination queues, and storing the packet in the one or more remapped destination queues. In one embodiment, the method may also include requesting a packet from the destination queue, translating the request to the remapped destination queue, and transmitting the packet from the remapped destination queue.
Multicast architecture for wireless mesh networks
A multicast architecture and method of operation for multi-hop wireless mesh networks is provided. The multicast architecture is above the network infrastructure to identify a group of clients. These clients share the same application and communicate to each other by using a common multicast address.
Method and apparatus for determining information associated with a particular multicast channel in a multicast network
A method and apparatus for determining information associated with a particular multicast channel in a multicast network are disclosed. In accordance with the method, a request message requesting information associated with the particular multicast channel is generated and sent to the multicast network. Further, the request message is propagated downstream in a recursive manner via a multicast topology of the multicast network. A response to the request message is propagated upstream via the multicast topology to generate a response message including requested information associated with the particular multicast channel. The information may comprise number of users receiving the particular multicast channel.
Apparatus for and method of generating a time reference
In one embodiment, a system is configured to generate a time reference where the system includes a bi-directional loop configured to have a first propagation speed in a first direction and a second propagation speed in a second direction, wherein the first propagation speed is substantially equal to the second propagation speed. In one embodiment, the system further includes a plurality of system elements coupled to the bi-directional loop, wherein each respective system element of the plurality of system elements is configured to determine a time reference common to each as an average arrival time at the respective system element of a first signal transmitted in the first direction over the bi-directional loop and a second signal transmitted in the second direction over the bi-directional loop.
There is provided an apparatus and method for ATM bonding. The apparatus comprises a first unit having a first xDSL line connected thereto, a second unit having a second xDSL line connected thereto and a connection between the first unit and the second unit. The first unit is arranged to convert one incoming ATM datastream to a plurality of data and to convert a plurality of incoming data to one ATM data stream. The first unit is arranged to implement the ATM bonding layer of the ATM protocol. The second unit may be arranged to implement one or more of the higher layers. The method comprises the steps of: a first unit receiving an ATM data stream; the first unit converting the ATM data stream into a plurality of data; the first unit transmitting a first one of the plurality of data over a first xDSL line connected to the first unit; the first unit sending a second one of the plurality of data to a second unit via a connection; and the second unit transmitting the second one of the plurality of data over a second xDSL line connected to the second unit.
Methods, systems and computer program products for packet prioritization based on delivery time expectation
Methods, systems and computer program products for packet prioritization based on delivery time expectation. Exemplary embodiments include receiving a packet for routing, estimating a TimeToDestination for the packet, the estimating performed by a Internet Control Message Protocol, reading a TimeToDeliver field from each the Internet Protocol Header of the packet to extract data on when the packet needs to be at the destination, determining a MaxQueueDelay for the packet, the MaxQueueDelay calculated by subtracting the TimeToDeliver from the TimeToDestination, passing a lower priority packet if the lower priority packet has a lower MaxQueueDelay, and decrementing the TimeToDeliver by an amount of time the network router has had the packet in the queue before passing the packet to a next router, thereby communicating to the next router how much time is left before the packet must be delivered.
Synchronization technique for exchanging data with a mobile device that conserves the resources of the mobile device
A method for exchanging data with a mobile device that begins with the step of detecting a data exchange event. Next, at least one data exchange threshold is identified for the mobile device. An exchange urgency value is then determined and compared to the data exchange threshold. If the comparison is favorable, then the data exchange occurs immediately. Otherwise, the data exchange is placed in a delayed transmission queue, to be sent after a delay period.
Method and apparatus for dynamically allocating traffic in a physical layer device
Methods and apparatus are disclosed for dynamically allocating bandwidth to a plurality of client devices coupled over a network to a physical layer device (PHY). The PHY is preferably configured to utilize a connection criteria, such as bandwidth requirement for the client devices, to negotiate and connect the devices to a host device in a desired order.
Discrete table descriptor for unified table management
A table descriptor is associated with a table and referenced to provide access to the table. The table descriptor includes a first portion identifying information about the table and a second portion identifying one or more locations of the table in memory.
Method of blocking network attacks using packet information and apparatus thereof
A method of blocking network attacks using information included in a packet, and an apparatus thereof are provided. The method includes: receiving a packet containing information on the packet including at least information on a source from which the packet is sent, and information on a destination to which the packet is sent; and extracting the information on the packet included in the packet, comparing the information with a predetermined access control condition, and blocking or passing the packet. By doing so, a packet being transferred with a routing header capable of bypassing a security device as in an Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) network can be appropriately blocked or passed. Accordingly, security problems caused by the routing header can be overcome, and as a result, usage of the routing header can be promoted. Also, since a routing header can be used for transmitting a packet along a desired path, the routing header can be widely used without security problems, and can ease network security concerns relating to IPv6 networks that are expected to come into increasingly wide use.
Source identifier for MAC address learning
A header value or label, referred to herein as a source station identification (SSID), is added to an encapsulated packet header, such as by adding the SSID as a label to the bottom of a stack of MPLS labels. The SSID comprises a unique identifier that identifies the PE that originated the packet. In some embodiments, the IP address of the originating PE may be used as the SSID for that PE. The PE receiving this packet can then associate the source Ethernet MAC address of received TLS traffic, e.g., with the originating PE. Given the SSID of the originating PE, the receiving PE is able to determine which LSP to use to send Ethernet traffic to the station with the learned MAC address.
Techniques to generate network protocol units
A first logic offloads some network protocol unit formation tasks to a second logic. The first logic may request that data be transmitted using a Direct Data Placement (DDP) compatible network protocol unit. The first logic may provide the data as well as other information relevant to forming the DDP compatible network protocol unit. The second logic may form portions of the DDP compatible network protocol unit using the data and the provided information.
Discovering a network element in a communication system
A method, terminal, backend network entity, and system for discovering a network element in a communication system for a terminal, wherein the terminal is establishing a connection to a first part of the communication system, the discovering of the network element comprising a step of retrieving a network address of the network element from a backend network entity of the communication system, wherein the step of retrieving constitutes a part of an authentication of the terminal at the first part of the communication system by means of the backend network entity. Further, the retrieving can be based on a subscription profile of the terminal and/or a database at the backend network entity.
System and method for sending packets over a computer network
The benefits of a multicast-enabled network are realized by a flexible, easy to deploy, software-based solution that does not require reconfiguring of network routers. Systems and methods that implement this solution can perform as follows. A packet is received that was sent by a sender to at least one receiver, and the packet includes a parameter relating to a multicast announce address. A forwarding rules set is associated with the packet if the parameter has a defined value. This forwarding rules set is used to determine whether any of the at least one destination addresses included in the packet corresponds to one of the receivers that has a receiver format that must be converted. In addition, the forwarding rules set defines when a packet should be converted from a sender format to a receiver format before forwarding the packet. The packet is converted from the sender format to the receiver format for each destination address identified as requiring conversion, and forwarded in accordance with the forwarding rules set.
Apparatuses and systems to suppress and expand packet header information in a wireless communication system
Data packets transmitted over a wireless network are suppressed by hardware at the transmitting end and expanded on the receiving end. This conserves bandwidth as well as reduces the processing resource requirements in both the subscriber station and the base station. An extended header element is added to a data packet that is to be transmitted over the wireless network. The extended header element contains an index that is used along with an identifier to access a rule. The rule is used to determine which bytes are to be suppressed at the transmitter and expanded at the receiver.
Cascading of gigabit switches
A method of handling data packets in a series of network switches includes receiving an incoming data packet at a data port of a first switch of the series of network switches. A module id bitmap of the incoming data packet is resolved and a bit corresponding to the first switch of the module id bitmap is examined to determine if the bit is set. A destination address of the incoming data packet is resolved when the corresponding bit is set and the incoming data packet is forwarded or dropped based on the destination address. When the corresponding bit is not set, the incoming data packet is forwarded to a next switch of the series of network switches. A network switch configured to allow for cascading of data packets is also disclosed.
Flexible counter update and retrieval
A network device includes one or more processing units and an external memory. Each of the one or more processing units includes a centralized counter configured to perform accounting for the respective processing unit. The external memory is associated with at least one of the one or more processing units and is configured to store a group of count values for the at least one processing unit.
Method and apparatus for time-of-day synchronization between network nodes
A node with local GPS time in an ad-hoc wireless network synchronizes with the network time immediately and slowly pulls the network time to GPS time. However, network nodes may immediately transition to the common GPS time after an island or group head node determines that the transition in network time does not disturb the communication links.
Synchronizing video/audio data of mobile communication terminal
The present invention relates to a method for shortening the time to synchronize video/audio data in a mobile communication terminal. The method comprises receiving video/audio data in the mobile communication terminal through a set session, determining whether a current sampling rate of the received video/audio data is consistent with a previous sampling rate of the received video/audio data, calculating a standard time according to the determination, and synchronizing the video/audio data based on the calculated standard time. The standard time is calculated using a preset ratio if the current sampling rate is consistent with the previous sampling rate. However, the standard time is calculated using a variation value of a real time protocol (RTP) time stamp and a variation value of a network time protocol (NTP) time stamp if the current sampling rate is not consistent with the previous sampling rate.
Method and system for classification of wireless devices in local area computer networks
A method for classifying radio interfaces in a wireless network. The method includes transferring an unknown MAC address associated with a radio interface of a communication device through a wireless medium and detecting the unknown MAC address on the wireless medium using a first sniffer device. The method also includes transferring information through an access point coupled to a wired medium utilizing the radio interface of the wireless communication device. The information includes the unknown MAC address. The method further includes detecting the unknown MAC address on the wired medium using a second sniffer device and classifying the radio interface as an authorized radio interface based upon detecting the unknown MAC address on the wireless medium and detecting the unknown MAC address on the wired medium.
Channelization code determination by a user equipment
A time division duplex/code division multiple access user equipment receives a plurality of communication bursts transmitted in a time slot. A midamble code included in a received communication burst is determined. A channelization code of a determined midamble's communication burst is determined. A mapping between channelization codes and midamble codes exists such that each midamble being mapped to at least one channelization code and at least one midamble code being mapped to at least two channelization codes which may be received in communication bursts simultaneously.
Arrangement and method for channel mapping in a wireless communication system
An arrangement and method for channel mapping in a UTRA TDD HSDPA wireless communication system by applying interleaving functions in first (530) and second (540) interleaving means to a bit sequence to produce symbols for mapping to physical channels, the first and second interleaving means being arranged to map symbols from respectively systematic and parity bits in a predetermined scheme, e.g., mapping symbols in a forward direction when a channel has an even index number, and in a reverse direction when a channel has an odd index number. The symbols may comprise bit-pairs, each of a systematic bit and parity bit.Systematic bits are preferably mapped to high reliability bit positions in TDD HSDPA, achieving a performance gain of between 0.2 dB and 0.5 dB. The forwards/reverse mapping allows a degree of interleaving that improves system performance in fading channels or channels disturbed by short time period noise or interference.
Spatial puncturing apparatus, method, and system
Stations in an N×N multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) wireless network always puncture the weakest spatial channel. A receiving station determines channel state information for N spatial channels and feeds back to the transmitting station channel state information for only N−1 spatial channels. The channel state information may include a beamforming matrix to cause the transmitting station to utilize N−1 spatial channels.
Communication network and method
A wireless, ad-hoc or private communications network comprising nodes, forming with other elements of the network a switching and management infrastructure (SwMI), and subscribers, wherein each of said nodes has a Visitor Location Register (VLR), and at least a part of said nodes are provided with Home Location Registers (HLRs) and at least a part of said nodes with said HLRs are provided with gateways, wherein in said network every node with an HLR is assigned to a node having a gateway and said SwMI directs calls to and from a subscriber of said network to an external network.
Systems, methods, and apparatuses for spectrum-sensing cognitive radios
Systems, methods, and apparatuses are provided for spectrum-sensing cognitive radios that are operative to detect and utilize available RF spectrum resources. The spectrum-sensing cognitive radios include at least one antenna and a frequency-agile radio front-end module in communication with the at least one antenna and configured to transmit and receive radio frequency signals via the at least one antenna. In addition, a spectrum-sensing module, which may include one or both of coarse-sensing and fine-sensing modules, may be in communication with the at least one antenna and be configured to generate RF spectrum usage information. A medium access control (MAC) module is operative to receive the RF spectrum usage information from the spectrum-sensing module. Based upon the received RF spectrum usage information, the MAC module is operative to direct a frequency of operation of the radio front-end module based at least in part on the received spectrum usage information.
Method communication system, radio base station, mobile terminal and delivery method
A mobile communication system uses efficiently a radio band of a previously-connected base station, when a mobile terminal that executes multicast communication moves among radio base stations. The mobile communication system includes a layer-2 switch. Upon switching from one radio base station over to the other radio base station, the mobile terminal transmits a path formation request related to a multicast group via the connected radio base station. The path formation request reaches the wired port of the one radio base station through the layer-2 switch. Here, “leave” of the mobile terminal from the control of the one radio base station is detected, and the delivery of multicast is halted. The other radio base station, on the other hand, starts delivering the multicast.
Method and a system for managing information in a wireless network
A system and method are provided for managing information in a wireless network. The information can be utilized during handoff of a client from an access point to an access point. The method includes a first frame being generated and transmitted by the client to the access point through the access point. The frame includes a request for the information, wherein the information includes at least a target beacon transmission time (TBTT) of the access point. The method also includes the client receiving a second frame containing the information from the access point through the access point.
Method and system for a channel selective repeater with capacity enhancement in a spread-spectrum wireless network
The present invention relates to a system and method for extending the coverage area and communication capacity of a spread-spectrum based wireless network through the use of intelligent repeaters. The system comprises a wireless communication network augmented with low cost channel selective repeaters that is capable of repeating only desired signals, thereby suppressing undesirable interference and increasing network capacity. The repeaters can be integrated into an existing wireless network with minimal impact to the existing network layer topology or control structure.
Wireless base station and wireless communication method
A wireless base station that performs data communication using a plurality of sub carriers, and repeatedly generates frame patterns comprising one combination or more of at least two types of frames in which the number of common pilots in each is different, and transmits data for mobile terminals having poor receiving quality in a frame having a large number of common pilots, and transmits data for mobile terminals having good receiving quality in a frame having a small number of common pilots.
Local area network having multiple channel wireless access
A communication network having at least one access point supports wireless communication among a plurality of wireless roaming devices via a first and a second wireless channel. The access point comprises a first and a second transceiver. The first and second transceivers operate on the first and second wireless channels, respectively. Each of the plurality of wireless roaming devices are capable of communicating on the first and second wireless channel. In one embodiment, the first wireless channel is used to exchange data, while the second channel is used to manage such exchanges as well as access to the first channel. In an alternate embodiment, both channels are used to support communication flow, however the first channel supports a protocol that is more deterministic than that of the second channel. Allocation of ones of the plurality of wireless roaming devices from one channel to the next may occur per direction from the access point. It may also result from decisions made by each of the wireless roaming devices made independent of the access point. For example, a decision may be made based on the data type being transferred or based on the current channel load. Such factors may also be used by the access point for allocation determinations. In addition, allocation may be based on the type of roaming device involved, such as allocating peripherals to a slower channel.
System and method for floating port configuration
A system and method automatically configures the interfaces of an intermediate network device. A discovery process operating at the device detects the identity or type of network entities actually coupled to the device's interfaces. Utilizing the identity or type of detected entities, a look-up is performed to obtain a configuration macro specially defined for each detected network entity. The retrieved configuration macros are executed and applied at the respective interfaces. During operation, the intermediate network device continues to monitor the identity and type of entities actually coupled to its interfaces. If a change is detected, such as an entity moving from a first to a second interface, the specially defined configuration macro for that entity floats from the first to the second interface where it is executed and applied.
GMPLS control of ethernet
Ethernet provider backbone transport (PBT) paths are controlled utilizing Generalized Multi-protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) signaling protocol. A path between edge nodes is identified by a combination of a VID and destination MAC address in a VID/MAC tuple populated in the forwarding tables of intermediary nodes. To establish the PBT path, a path calculation is performed from the originator node to the terminator node through the network. The originating node then sends a GMPLS label object with a suggested VID/MAC to identify the path to the terminator. The intermediary nodes or bridges forward the object to the terminating node. The terminating node then offers a VID/MAC tuple in a GMPLS label object in response. When the intermediary nodes forward the response from the terminating node to the originator, the appropriate forwarding labels are then installed in the forwarding tables of each node utilizing the associated VID/MAC tuples.
Method and system for providing network management based on defining and applying network administrative intents
Method and system for providing a dynamic network configuration and management based on defining and applying high level administrative intents including retrieving one or more attributes associated with one or more logical groups in a network, determining one or more network policies based on the one or more retrieved attributes, associating the one or more logical groups to a respective network group identifier, and generating a network group list associated with the one or more network group identifiers, is disclosed.
System and method for speeding border gateway protocol graceful restart
A technique is provided for graceful restart of a Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) router that uses a local store on the restarting router that stores prefixes on all routes or the “group best path” information on all BGP peers having a common Autonomous System (AS) number. This local store is used to run best path computations on the restarting router, rather than first awaiting receipt of route information from peers to speed the restart process. Updates are then transmitted to peers using the best path data and an end-of-Routing Information Base (RIB) message it transmitted by the restarting router to indicate that all information has now been sent by the restarting router. Thereafter the restarting router processes incoming updates from peers as received (or these peers routes are timed-out), remaining stale paths are deleted and any changed best paths, based upon the newly received updates, are then transmitted to peers.
Method and apparatus for automatic verification of a zone configuration of a plurality of network switches
Embodiments of the invention provide a method and an apparatus for automatic verification of a zone configuration of a plurality of network switches. In one method embodiment, the present invention accesses an actual zone configuration comprising a plurality of network switching devices, the actual zone configuration for defining the switching devices which are actually part of the zone. Additionally, a machine-readable map of the network is accessed, the map providing a pre-determined zone configuration defining the switching devices which should be part of the zone. An automatic verification is performed, wherein the verification verifies that the actual zone configuration of network switching devices correlates with the pre-determined zone configuration defined by the machine-readable map.
Automatic discovery of logical network elements from existing links in a network
A method and system for automated discovery of logical network elements in a communications network speeds up and reduces the cost of discovering network elements and mapping network topology of network inter-connections. The method comprises the steps of building a cache of protection mechanisms in the communications network, building a network graph based on physical links of the communications network, traversing the network graph, comprising the step of, at each vertex of the network graph, determining whether there is a deterministic path that leads to a next vertex of the network graph, performing a depth first search on the network graph to determine connected components of the network graph, and creating the logical network elements based on the connected components of the network graph.
Smart match search method for captured data frames
Embodiments disclose a method and computer program products for automatically generating a list of search criteria to be used by the computing system when searching captured data frames for one or more resulting data frames having a specific protocol field. The method includes an act of accessing a specific protocol field from one of the captured data frames and an act of accessing protocol definitions. The captured data frame is then interpreted using the protocol definitions to generate a list of additional protocol field and value pairs to use for searching the captured data frames. Finally, the specific protocol field and the list of additional protocol field and value pairs are used to automatically identify the one or more resulting data frames having the specific protocol field.
Method and apparatus for computing routing information for a data communications network
A method is disclosed for computing routing information for a data communications network comprising a plurality of nodes. The method comprises the step performed at a computing node of receiving from a remote node in the network a routing information update representing a change of state of the network. The method further comprises processing the update to identify a change of state type and setting, dependent on the change of state type, a delay interval after which routing information is to be computed from the update.
Apparatus for scalable reliable group communication
A method for group communication over a network of processors comprises determining an overlay spanning tree comprising an origin node and at least one receiving node, and controlling a source communication rate to be less than or equal to a bottleneck rate of the overlay spanning tree.
System and method for improving the quality of real time multimedia sessions
The present invention provides a system and method for improving the quality of real-time multimedia sessions wherein each endpoint of a real-time packet stream transmits (1) feedback reports that describe the quality of the stream received by the endpoint and (2) forward reports that are based on the feedback reports received by the endpoint and that describe the quality of the stream received by the other, remote endpoint. The forward reports are used by routers to re-route packets around problems in the network that are located between the router and the remote endpoint.
Successive scheduled requests for transmission
Methods and apparatuses are presented for conducting communications over a shared communication medium, involving (a) sending an initial request from a first node, the shared communication medium organized to include (i) a request signal space including a plurality of request segments each having a different location within the request signal space and (ii) a scheduled transmission signal space including a plurality of scheduled transmission segments each having a different location within the scheduled transmission signal space, the initial request sent in an initial request segment, (b) obtaining a request assignment associating the initial request with at least one follow-up request segment, (c) from the first node, sending a follow-up request in the at least one follow-up request segment, (d) obtaining a scheduled transmission assignment specifying a scheduled transmission segment, and (e) from the first node, sending a data transmission in the scheduled transmission segment.
Interaction in a communication system
The present invention relates to a gateway between two networks of a communication system. A plurality of communication service classes is available for the communication between the networks. In the method a call is routed from a network to another network via the gateway. The type of the call is defined. A gateway controller also determines the communication service class that is to be used for the call. The gateway controller communicates information that associates with the determined service class to the gateway. The communication is based on a communication protocol message that has been adapted to transport the information between the gateway controller and the gateway. The call is then processed based on the information.
Dynamic assignment of traffic classes to a priority queue in a packet forwarding device
An apparatus and method for dynamic assignment of classes of traffic to a priority queue. Bandwidth consumption by one or more types of packet traffic received in the packet forwarding device is monitored to determine whether the bandwidth consumption exceeds a threshold. If the bandwidth consumption exceeds the threshold, assignment of at least one type of packet traffic of the one or more types of packet traffic is changed from a queue having a first priority to a queue having a second priority.
Method and apparatus for controlling congestion of nodes in ad-hoc network
Provided is a method and apparatus for controlling congestion of a node in an ad-hoc network comprising: classifying a channel state into a busy channel state and an idle channel state and then monitoring the channel state; performing contention for acquiring a channel with neighboring nodes when data to be transmitted is present during the monitoring of the channel state; calculating an available bandwidth on the basis of the channel state when wins the contention; and determining the amount of data to be transmitted on the basis of the available bandwidth. The nodes in the ah-hoc network monitor their own wireless channel state so as to obtain channel contention information, calculate an available bandwidth from the channel contention information, and control a transmission amount on the basis of the available bandwidth. Accordingly, the nodes can avoid excessive traffic which exceeds channel capacity. Channel contention, which is the most immediate and important cause of a decrease in network performance, can be loosened.
Coherent detection for differentially encoded OFDM systems
A method and system for coherent detection in which an OFDM symbol is multiplied by the complex conjugate of the previous OFDM symbol, which is obtained by one OFDM symbol delay and a complex conjugation circuit. This soft decision is passed through a QPSK slicer to obtain a hard decision. The soft decision is then divided by the hard decisions. The channel phase change between the two OFDM symbols is then obtained. For the first OFDM symbol, the channel is computed. A channel estimate for each ODFM symbol is computed from corresponding channel estimates and channel phase difference estimates. The channel phase difference between each two OFDM symbols is computed. The channel phase difference is passed through an exponent operation and multiplied by the soft decision to obtain a refined soft decision that is then passed through another QPSK slicer to obtain the final hard decision.
Methods and systems for implementing a pseudo-noise signaling mechanism in wireless communication
In at least some embodiments, a system may comprise one or more devices configurable to communicate according to a first protocol that implements a first data packet, and one or more devices configurable to communicate according to a second protocol that implements a second data packet having a predetermined quadrature component. The one or more devices configurable to communicate according to the second protocol associate detection of the predetermined quadrature component with a function that is not supported by the one or more devices that communicate according to the first protocol.
Method and apparatus for supporting fast finalization for a recording medium
The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for finalizing a dual layer disc medium. The present invention checks whether particular areas on each recording layer of a dual layer recording medium separated from each other, e.g., the innermost circumference of data zone and around an area of radius 4 cm, are unrecorded and records null data in a particular area found to be unrecorded and carries out finalization. The present invention has an advantage in that time needed for finalization is considerably reduced compared with a traditional procedure of recording null data throughout the entire unrecorded data section.
A disk device includes: an optical pick-up, operable to reproduce data recorded in a disk; a flaw detector, operable to output a flaw detecting signal when a flaw formed on the disk is detected; and a jump controller, operable to control a track jump of the optical pick-up including a first track jump and a second track jump subsequent to the first track jump. A timing of starting to control the track jump corresponding to a still reproduction mode is determined based on a rotational position of the disk. When the flaw detecting signal is outputted in a time period in which the jump controller controls the first track jump corresponding to the still reproduction mode, the jump controller sets a timing for stating the second track jump to a timing different from a timing for starting the first track jump.
Information processing apparatus and control method therefor
An information processing apparatus and method for controlling the information processing apparatus where the information processing apparatus stores a plurality of start programs in a first or second storage area, and if a selected start program is not already stored in the first storage area, the start program is transferred from the second storage area to the first storage area.
Focus out detecting apparatus and optical disc apparatus using the same
An object of the present invention is to provide a focus out detecting apparatus which detects focus out with accuracy during reproducing or recording of data from/on an optical disc having a plurality of recording layers. Further, another object of the present invention is to provide an optical disc apparatus in which a recording or reproducing performance of data is improved by use of the focus out detecting apparatus. A focus out detection signal is output when a level of a focus error signal exceeds a first predetermined level, then reflected light quantity from the optical disc becomes lower than a third predetermined level in a predetermined period, and then the level of the focus error signal exceeds a second predetermined level of an opposite polarity to the first predetermined level.
Pace calculation watch
A watch that advantageously allows an athlete, such as a runner, to conveniently and instantly calculate a pace at which a distance was traveled. The watch includes a chronographic process and a pace calculation process. In order to determine a pace, the athlete enters the travel distance into the pace calculation process. The athlete then initiates a count by the chronographic process when he or she starts traveling the designated distance. When the athlete finishes traveling the designated distance, he or she stops the count, so that the chronographic process measures the total elapsed time required to travel the designated distance. The pace calculation process then obtains the total elapsed time from the chronographic process, and divides the designated travel distance by the total elapsed time to calculate the pace at which the distance was traveled.
Single day alarm clock
A single day alarm clock radio includes a plurality of music setting buttons for setting different types of music; and having alarm buttons for setting an alarm for a radio mode, a buzzer mode, or an alarm off mode. A preset locking switch is provided for locking or unlocking the clock radio to allow the time to be preset, or the alarm time to be preset, or the radio station to be preset, or the type of music to be preset. Also provided is software for automatically cancelling a preset alarm time once it has sounded to change the alarm setting to the “off” mode so that a new hotel guest is not subject to the preset alarm time of the previous hotel guest.
Method and apparatus for measuring sound source distance using microphone array
A method and apparatus for measuring a distance to a sound source. The method includes combining sound source signals input through at least two microphones and generating at least two microphone output signals, and performing an operation on the generated microphone output signals and calculating a distance to a sound source by using the relationship between a result of the operation and a frequency of the input sound source signals. Accordingly, regardless of the strength of a sound source, the distance to a sound source can be measured.
Fast read port for register file
Separate read and write ports in a memory system allow simultaneous access to a memory cell array by read and write operations. A single cycle operation of a central processing unit coupled to a memory array depends on a memory access capability providing simultaneous reading and writing to different locations. A pair of pull-down transistor stacks connected to memory cell latch loops allows a single selected pull-down stack of the pair to toggle a memory cell latch loop to a desired data content without any requirement for a precharge scheme. A single pull-down stack of transistors connected to a memory cell latch loop provides a read port with low input loading. A sense amplifier provides a mid-supply-level precharging capability provided by a feedback device within a front-end inversion stage. When not in a feedback mode, the front-end inversion stage cascaded with a second inversion stage provides a rapid read response.
Self refresh operation of semiconductor memory device
A method for driving a semiconductor memory device, includes initializing first data corresponding to a refresh time of each corresponding row included in a cell array; storing second data corresponding to column data included in the first row after entering a self refresh mode; setting the first data corresponding to the first row by detecting the refresh time of the first row while performing refresh operations on the other rows in the cell array according to a refresh period selected based on the corresponding first data for predetermined refresh cycles, wherein the refresh operation is not performed on the first row during the predetermined refresh cycles; restoring the second data to the first row; and repeating the above steps for the other rows to thereby set the corresponding first data until the setting step is completed for all rows or the self refresh mode expires.
Memory device and method for improving speed at which data is read from non-volatile memory
A memory device and method for improving speed at which data is read from non-volatile memory are provided, where the memory device including the non-volatile memory precharges all word lines with a predetermined precharge voltage during standby for a read operation, in which data is read from the non-volatile memory, and then, during the read operation, pulls up a voltage of only a word line selected by a row address to a read voltage and pulls down a voltage of remaining unselected word lines down to a ground voltage, such that data reading speed of the memory device is increased.
Maintenance of amplified signals using high-voltage-threshold transistors
Systems, apparatus, memory devices, sense amplifiers and methods are provided, such as a system that includes an input node, a first transistor having a gate that couples to the input node, and a second transistor having another gate that couples to the input node. In one or more embodiments, the second transistor has a greater activation voltage threshold than does the first transistor and the first transistor amplifies a signal that is present on the input node. In one such embodiment, after the first transistor amplifies the signal, the second transistor maintains the amplified signal on the input node while the first transistor is deactivated.
Auto precharge circuit sharing a write auto precharge signal generating unit
In the auto precharge circuit, a plurality of read auto precharge signal generating units and a plurality of auto precharge signal output units share a single write auto precharge signal generating unit. Each read auto precharge signal generating unit logically combines an internal CAS command signal, an internal address signal and a pre auto precharge signal to generate an auto precharge detect signal and a read auto precharge signal. The write auto precharge signal generating unit delays the read auto precharge signal by a predetermined time to generate a write auto precharge signal. Each auto precharge signal output unit logically combines the internal CAS command signal, an internal address signal, a read auto precharge signal, and a write auto precharge signal to output an auto precharge signal.
Circuit for generating data strobe in DDR memory device, and method therefor
The present invention discloses a circuit for generating a data strobe signal in a DDR memory device and a method therefor which can precisely distinguish preamble and postamble periods of the data strobe signal by generating pulses for generating the data strobe signal only in a data strobe signal input period by using an internal clock signal according to CAS latency under a read command, and generating the data strobe signal by using the pulses, and which can improve reliability of the circuit operation by precisely controlling operation timing with the internal clock signal.
State storage with defined retention time
A state storage device for use in an RFID tag includes, in at least one embodiment, a capacitor coupled to a high impedance node. The storage device can be configured to indicate a high or low bit condition. The high impedance node can be designed to dissipate the stored electrical charge at a user-controlled, predefined, or known rate. The state storage device can be configured to store the bit condition for no more than four seconds. In some embodiments, the high impedance node can be formed from an electrically trimmed transistor.
Semiconductor memory device and method for driving the same
A semiconductor memory device stably performs a write operation with reduced current consumption. The semiconductor memory device includes a global data, a control unit, a termination resistor unit, and a storage unit. The global data line transmits data. The control unit generates a global control signal during a read operation or a write operation. The termination resistance unit supplies termination resistance to the global data line in response to the global control signal. The storage unit stores the data transmitted to the global data line while the termination resistance unit is inactivated. A method for driving the semiconductor memory device includes detecting a read operation or a write operation and supplying termination resistance when the read or write operation is detected.
Level shifter for boosting wordline voltage and memory cell performance
A circuit and method includes first circuits powered by a first supply voltage and second circuits powered by a second supply voltage. A level shifter is coupled between the first circuits and the second circuits. The level shifter is configured to select a supply voltage output for a circuit including one of the first supply voltage and the second supply voltage in accordance an input signal, where the input signal depends on at least one of an operation to be performed and component performing the operation.
Disclosed is a semiconductor device comprising: a signal selecting circuit for receiving, at first and second inputs thereof, respectively, a first signal output from a first initial-stage circuit that receives a data strobe signal from a first terminal, which is an input/output terminal, and a second signal output from a second initial-stage circuit that receives a data mask signal from a second terminal, which is an input terminal, and based upon a control signal that is supplied thereto, outputting the first and second signals from first and second outputs or interchanging the first and second signals and outputting the interchanged first and second signals from the second and first outputs; a buffer circuit for receiving an output signal from a third initial-stage circuit that receives a data signal from a data terminal; and a data latch circuit for latching a signal from the buffer circuit. The signal from the first output of the signal selecting circuit is supplied to the data latch circuit as a latch timing signal.
Input circuit of a non-volatile semiconductor memory device
A non-volatile semiconductor memory device may include a memory cell array that may include a plurality of memory transistors; a input circuit that may control a voltage level of an internal reference voltage and a delay time of an internal clock signal in response to an MRS trim code or an electric fuse trim code, and that may generate a first buffered input signal; a column gate that may gate the first buffered input signal in response to a decoded column address signal; and a sense amplifier that may amplify an output signal of the memory cell array to output to the column gate, and that may receive an output signal of the column gate to output to the memory cell array. The non-volatile semiconductor memory device may properly buffer an input signal of a small swing range.
Synchronous address and data multiplexed mode for SRAM
A synchronous memory system configurable in a multiplexed or non-multiplexed mode. In the multiplexed mode, address and data are provided on a shared bus, and accesses to the memory system are qualified by memory access control signals, including an address strobe signal, a counter enable signal and a counter repeat signal. A read/write control signal is maintained for one cycle after the last valid access command to avoid bus turn-around problems. In the multiplexed mode, chip enable and output enable signals may be constantly activated, thereby simplifying associated printed circuit board design. Different ports of the synchronous memory system can be independently configured to operate in either the multiplexed or non-multiplexed mode.
Flash memory device and method of testing a flash memory device
A flash memory device includes a flash fuse cell array, a trim code processing unit, a flash memory array, and a regulator. The fuse cell array, which includes multiple nonvolatile fuse cells, is configured to store a first trim code. The trim code processor is configured to generate a second trim code based on the first trim code provided by the fuse cell array and a voltage control code. The flash memory array includes multiple flash memory cells. The regulator is configured to generate a high voltage in response to the second trim code and to provide the high voltage to the flash memory array. The high voltage varies according to erase, program and read operations of the flash memory cells.
NAND flash memory programming
A method of charging a floating gate in a nonvolatile memory cell comprises bringing a substrate channel within the memory cell to a first voltage, bringing a control gate to a programming voltage, and floating the substrate channel voltage while the control gate is at the programming voltage. Memory devices include state machines or controllers operable to perform the described method, and operation of such a state machine, memory device, and information handling system are described.
Method of reading the bits of nitride read-only memory cell
A nitride trapping memory device includes a comparator, a bias unit, a memory cell, a cycling cell, a compensation cell and a control unit. The comparator has a reference voltage. The bias unit is for outputting a bias voltage to the comparator, and the comparator outputs a bit value according to comparison of the bias voltage and the reference voltage. The memory cell is connected to the bias unit via a first switch. The cycling cell is connected to the bias unit via a second switch. The compensation cell is connected to the bias unit via a third switch. The control unit is for controlling the cycling cell and the compensation cell according to the bit value.
Sense amplifier and data sensing method thereof
A data sensing method for sensing data stored in first and second memory cells includes the steps of: setting a first voltage according to a bit-line voltage corresponding to the first memory cell in response to an enabled level of a first clock signal; providing the first voltage as a sensing voltage in response to a disabled level of the first clock signal; comparing the sensing voltage with a reference voltage to generate a first output voltage; setting a second voltage according to a bit-line voltage corresponding to the second memory cell in response to an enabled level of a second clock signal, a phase difference between the first and second clock signals being 180 degrees; providing the second voltage as the sensing voltage in response to a disabled level of the second clock signal; and comparing the sensing voltage with the reference voltage to generate a second output voltage.
NAND flash memory with reduced programming disturbance
An embodiment of a flash memory device with NAND architecture, including a matrix of data storage memory cells each one having a programmable threshold voltage, wherein the matrix is arranged in a plurality of rows and columns with the memory cells of each row being connected to a corresponding word line and the memory cells of each column being arranged in a plurality of strings of memory cells, the memory cells in each string being connected in series, the strings of each column being coupled to a reference voltage distribution line distributing a reference voltage by means of a first selector, wherein each string further includes at least one first shielding element interposed between the memory cells of the string and said first selector, the first shielding element being adapted to shield the memory cells from electric fields that, in operation, arise between the string of memory cells and the first selector.
NAND type multi-bit charge storage memory array and methods for operating and fabricating the same
A NAND type multi-bit charge storage memory array comprises a first and a second memory strings each of which includes one or more charge storage memory cells and two select transistors. The charge storage memory cells are connected in series to form a memory cell string. The two select transistors are connected in series to both ends of the memory cell string, respectively. The NAND type multi-bit charge storage memory array further comprises a shared bit line and a first and a second bit lines. The shared bit line is connected with the first ends of the first and the second memory strings. The first and the second bit lines are connected to the second ends of the first and the second memory strings, respectively. The first select transistor and the second select transistor of each memory string are controlled by a first and a second select transistor control lines, respectively.
Nonvolatile memory devices that support virtual page storage using odd-state memory cells
A nonvolatile memory array includes first and second blocks of three-state memory cells therein. These first and second blocks are configured to operate individually as first and second blocks of physical memory cells, respectively, and collectively as an additional block of virtual memory cells. The first and second blocks of memory cells and the additional block of virtual memory cells may be read independently to provide a total of three blocks of read data.
Method of managing a multilevel memory device and related device
A memory has an array of k-level cells, organized into pages of words, each storing a string of bits. The memory device includes a coding circuit input with strings of N bits, and generates corresponding k-level strings. A program circuit is input with the k-level strings to stores in groups of c cells with k levels. A read circuit reads data stored in groups of c cells with k levels and generates k-level strings. A read decoding circuit is input with k-level strings read from groups of c cells with k levels to generate strings of N bits. The words of each page are grouped in groups of words, each word including groups of c cells with k levels, and at least one remaining bit of the word being stored, with corresponding remaining bits of other words of the page, in a group of c cells with k levels.
Electromechanical memory, electric circuit using the same, and method of driving electromechanical memory
A memory element which has high affinity with a conventional semiconductor process, which has a switching function of completely interrupting electric conduction paths by in a mechanical manner, and in which nonvolatile information recording is enabled is realized. An electromechanical memory which is formed on a substrate, which is formed by interposing a memory cell by electrodes, and which has a movable electrode that is a beam stretched in the air via a post portion is realized. According to the configuration, a nonvolatile memory can be realized by a simple structure, and it is possible to realize a high-performance electromechanical memory which is conventionally difficult to be realized, and in which the power consumption is low and the cost is low, and an electric apparatus using it.
Memory cell array biasing method and a semiconductor memory device
A method of biasing a memory cell array during a data writing operation and a semiconductor memory device, in which the semiconductor memory device includes: a memory cell array including a plurality of memory cells in which a first terminal of a memory cell is connected to a corresponding first line among a plurality of first lines and a second terminal of a memory cell is connected to a corresponding second line among a plurality of second lines; and a bias circuit for biasing a selected second line to a first voltage and non-selected second lines to a second voltage.
Device for protecting SRAM data
A device for protecting data stored in a static random access memory (SRAM) is provided. More particularly, a device for protecting SRAM data including an SRAM data erasing circuit, which erases memory stored in an SRAM at once when illegal separation from a system is detected. The device for protecting SRAM data includes: a power switching circuit for outputting electrical power supplied from an external power supply or a back-up battery power supply depending on whether the external power supply is supplying the electrical power or not; and an SRAM data erasing circuit for supplying the electrical power output from the power switching circuit to a power input terminal of a SRAM or grounding the power input terminal of the SRAM, in response to a connecter connection signal. The device can prevent illegal leakage of SRAM data by erasing the data stored in the SRAM when the SRAM is illegally separated from a system according to the switch setting of the SRAM data erasing circuit.
Multichip system and method of transferring data therein
Disclosed is a multichip system and method of transferring data between memory chips in direct. The multichip system includes first and second memory chips, and a host system to control operations of the first and second memory chips. The first memory chip controls the second memory chip to transfer data to the second memory chip in response to local transfer information provided from the host system. The first memory chip controls the host system not to access the first and second memory chips while conducting a local transfer operation. According to the invention, since the data is able to be directly transferred between the memory chips without the host system, it enhances the efficiency of the multichip system and improves a data transfer speed.
Semiconductor device using magnetic domain wall moving
A semiconductor device includes a magnetic wire having a plurality of magnetic domains, wherein the magnetic wire comprises a magnetic domain wall that is moved by either a pulse field or a pulse current. The magnetic wire of the semiconductor device does not require an additional notch since the magnetic wire includes a magnetic domain wall, the moving distance of which is controlled by a pulse field or a pulse current.
In one embodiment, a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) is provided that includes: a plurality of memory cells arranged into rows and columns, wherein each memory cell comprises an access transistor coupled to a storage transistor, each access transistor being arranged in a rectangular shape having a length greater than a width, the length being aligned with a corresponding column, the access transistor coupling to a storage transistor having a width greater than the width of the rectangular shape, the access transistor having a length aligned with a corresponding row such that each memory cell is L-shaped, and wherein the L-shaped memory cells in each column are staggered with respect to neighboring columns such that the L-shaped memory cells in a given column are interlocked with the L-shaped memory cells in an adjacent column.
Method for operating a converter circuit
A method and arrangement are disclosed for operating a converter circuit. Such a converter circuit has a converter unit having a multiplicity of drivable power semiconductor switches. The converter unit is connected to an electrical AC voltage supply system on the AC voltage side. The drivable power semiconductor switches are driven by means of a drive signal formed from reference voltages (u*Na, u*Nb, u*Nc). The reference voltages (u*Na, u*Nb, u*Nc) are formed from a periodic modulation index and from a periodic modulation angle.
AC/DC converter comprising plural converters in cascade
The present invention relates to an AC/DC converter (1) of the type having an AC/DC conversion stage (2) and a DC/DC conversion stage (3), the AC/DC conversion stage (2) comprising an input filter stage (4), an input rectifier stage (5) and a tracking boost converter stage. The boost converter stage in turn comprises an input choke (10), a boost diode (16) and a bulk capacitor (17). The bulk capacitor (17) is arranged to store a range of voltages substantially proportional to the input voltage of the converter. The DC/DC stage (3) is arranged to receive the range of voltages from the bulk capacitor (17) and is controllable to provide a desired DC output regardless of the voltage received from the bulk capacitor (17). This is achieved through careful combination of components and use of output feedback control to control the voltage applied to an isolated transformer (41) in the DC/DC stage.
Voltage-source inverter apparatus utilizing ripple voltage
An inverter apparatus that can lengthen a lift span provides only a noise absorption film capacitor in a DC intermediate circuit between rectifying and inverter circuits, instead of a conventional electrolytic capacitor. In a voltage command generating unit, when a frequency set by a frequency setting unit is within a predetermined range including the frequency of an AC input power supply, PLL control is performed to make the frequency set by an output voltage command signal equal to the frequency of the AC input power supply voltage, and to substantially synchronize the peak value of the inverter circuit output voltage with the peak value of a voltage formed between both ends of the film capacitor. Accordingly, output voltage amplitude is generated when the frequency set by the output voltage command signal equals the frequency of the voltage of the AC input power supply.
Switching mode power supply and driving method thereof
A switching mode power supply includes: a power supply unit that comprises a switch that is coupled to a primary coil at a primary side of a transformer for converting an input DC voltage, and that supplies power to a secondary coil and a tertiary coil at a secondary side of the transformer according to an operation of the switch; a switching controller that receives a feedback voltage corresponding to a first voltage generated in the secondary coil at the secondary side of the transformer, and receives a detection signal corresponding to a current flowing to the switch to control an on/off operation of the switch; and a feedback signal generator that receives the first voltage and the switching control signal, samples the first voltage by using first pulse strings, and generates the feedback voltage according to a level of the first voltage sampled by a first pulse in the first pulse strings, wherein a toggling time of the first pulse strings is changed in a first period for sampling the first voltage, and a time for sampling the first voltage is changed.
Assembly structure of flexible board and rigid board
An assembly structure of flexible board and rigid board includes a rigid board, a sub-board and a flexible board. The rigid board defines a locking gap having two side surfaces projecting toward each other to form two resisting portions. The sub-board has a standing portion inserted in the locking gap. Bilateral sides of the standing portion extend outward to form two preventing arms against a bottom surface of the rigid board. The flexible board has a base portion inserted in the locking gap of the rigid board. The base portion has a front surface and a back surface located to a front surface of the sub-board. The front surface of the base portion is against the resisting portions.
Semiconductor device and display device
If misalignment in a line width direction of an electrode (pad) of a connection terminal is caused in attachment of a substrate and an FPC, a connection area of the FPC terminal and the connection terminal becomes smaller and contact resistance is increased. In particular, an increase in contact resistance of the connection terminal to which a power supply potential serving as a power source is inputted is a cause of defective display. In view of the above, an object of the present invention is to decrease the resistance of a power supply line, to suppress a voltage drop in the power supply line, and to prevent defective display. A connection terminal portion includes a plurality of connection terminals. The plurality of connection terminals is provided with a plurality of connection pads which is part of the connection terminal. The plurality of connection pads includes a first connection pad and a second connection pad having a line width different from that of the first connection pad. Pitches between the plurality of connection pads are equal to each other.
Stiffening plate for circuit board and switch assembly
This invention is directed to a support plate for reinforcing a portion of a circuit board. The support plate may be coupled to a portion of the circuit board that is subject to forces (e.g., portions of the circuit board having switches) to prevent flexing of the board. The support plate may be coupled to the circuit board. This invention is also directed to a switch constructed from a button, a label plate, and a backer plate. The label plate and the backer plate may include apertures operative to receive a protrusion extending from the button, where the protrusion is welded to the backer plate. Labels may be printed or attached to the bottom surface of the label plate to protect the labels. In some embodiments, the protrusion may be welded to the backer plate. The protrusion may be operative to engage an electrical switch of an electronic device in which the switch is placed.
Multichip package system
A multichip integrated circuit package system is provided attaching a first integrated circuit die on a substrate top surface, mounting a second integrated circuit die over the first integrated circuit die, connecting an external interconnect on a substrate bottom surface, and forming a first encapsulation having a recess to expose a portion of the substrate bottom surface and the external interconnect.
Connecting module to be used in telecommunication and data technology
A connecting module includes a housing, electric contacts for connecting wires and/or cables, and at least one fastening element that allows the connecting module to be fixed to an assembly frame. The fastening element is embodied at least in two parts, encompassing a first fastening piece and a second fastening piece. The connecting module can be put on the assembly frame by means of the first fastening piece and can be locked on the assembly frame with the aid of the second fastening piece.
According to one embodiment, an electronic apparatus has a housing, a first heat emitter and a second heat emitter which are accommodated in the housing, and a cooling device accommodated in the housing. The cooling device includes a heat sink to cool the first heat emitter, a first heat pipe which thermally connects the first heat emitter with the heat sink, a second heat pipe, and a fan unit which cools the heat sink and the second heat pipe. The second heat pipe has a first end portion which is thermally connected to the second heat emitter, and a second end portion which is located near the heat sink.
Method and apparatus for enforcing of power control in a blade center chassis
A mechanism for changing ownership over the physical power to a blade server in a blade center chassis that prevents a malfunctioning blade from jeopardizing other components in the chassis. When the management module is not present, control over power to the blade is switched to a service processor on the blade. This arbitration of control over power to a blade is accomplished by implementing a watchdog timer mechanism. The management module is responsible for tickling the watchdog timer when the present in the chassis and operating normally. This mechanism provides the management module with control over power. If the management module malfunctions or is removed, control over power is switched to the local service processor on the blade server as soon as the watchdog timer is not tickled.
According to one embodiment, an electronic apparatus includes: a case having an upper wall and a lower wall; a connector housed in the case; a duct portion having a first opening that opens in the upper wall, the duct portion protruding from a peripheral edge of the first opening and more than a lower end of the connector toward the lower wall, the duct portion having a second opening that opens in the case at a protruding end; and a cable passed through the duct portion and electrically connected to the connector.
Assembly and method for enhancing structural integrity and improving serviceability of electronic card disposed in a computing environment
Securing and supporting electronic components in a computer node disposed on a computer rack. The method comprises the steps of first disposing a tray having one or more wedge block assemblies in the rear of said rack such that each wedge block assembly can be moved under and engaged with each node. The wedge block mechanism is retained from side to side using guide brackets. The mechanism and the tray are then torqued into place by using incorporated hard stop feature on said tray. The nodes can then be engaged and disengaged through the engaging and disengaging of the wedge block assembly. This is done by using a rod that is connected to a fastener one end and to a pivot at another end and is integrated into the wedge block mechanism. Once the fastener is moved the pivot is also moved causing the mating and unmating of the node.
Multi-layer ceramic capacitor
A multi-layer ceramic capacitor capable of being sintered at 1,080° C. or lower in a reducing atmosphere, having a permittivity of 2,000 or more, a temperature characteristic of X7R characteristic or X8R characteristic, and favorable life time property, in which the internal electrodes are formed of Cu or a Cu alloy, the dielectric ceramics are constituted with grains each of an average value for the diameter of 400 nm or less as viewed on the cross section and grain boundaries, the grain comprises a dielectric substance having a domain pattern and shells formed on the surface of the dielectric substance and with t/D from 2% to 10% where D represents an average value for the diameter of the grains as viewed on the cross section and t represents the average value for the thickness of the shells.
A first terminal electrode has a first electrode portion disposed on a first face and connected to a first internal electrode, and a second electrode portion disposed on a third face and connected to the first electrode portion. A second terminal electrode has a first electrode portion disposed on a second face and connected to a second internal electrode, and a second electrode portion disposed on the third face and connected to the first electrode portion. Each of the second electrode portions of the first and second terminal electrodes, when viewed along a second direction perpendicular to the third face, is arranged with a gap in a third direction perpendicular to the second directions so as to sandwich at least a portion of an end in the first direction of an element body region sandwiched between the first internal electrode and the second internal electrode, at an end in the first direction of the second electrode portion.
Transient detection circuit for ESD protection
A transient detection circuit including a detecting unit, a setting unit, and a memory unit. The transient detection circuit provides an information signal to an external instrument when an electrostatic discharge (ESD) event occurs. The detecting unit is coupled between a first power line and a second power line for detecting the ESD event. The setting unit sets a level of a first node according to the detection result. The memory unit controls the information signal according to the level of the first node. The information signal is at a first level when the ESD event occurs in the first power line.
Three terminal magnetic sensor having an in-stack longitudinal biasing layer structure in the collector region and a pinned layer structure in the emitter region
In one illustrative example, a three terminal magnetic sensor (TTM) suitable for use in a magnetic head has a sensor stack structure which includes a base region, a collector region, and an emitter region. A first barrier layer separates the emitter region from the base region, and a second barrier layer separates the collector region from the base region. A plurality of terminals of the TTM include a base lead coupled to the base region, a collector lead coupled to the collector region, and an emitter lead coupled to the emitter region. Preferably, the base region consists of a free layer structure so as to have a relatively small thickness. A pinned layer structure is made part of the emitter region. An in-stack longitudinal biasing layer (LBL) structure is formed in stack with the sensor stack structure and has a magnetic moment that is parallel to a sensing plane of the TTM for magnetically biasing the free layer structure. The in-stack LBL structure is made part of the collector region which also includes a layer of semiconductor material. In one variation, the emitter region has the in-stack LBL structure and the collector region has the pinned layer structure. The TTM may comprise a spin valve transistor (SVT), a magnetic tunnel transistor (MTT), or a double junction structure.
Magneto-resistance effect element capable of obtaining a reproducing signal with a high quality
A magneto-resistance effect element can obtain a high output and makes it possible to stabilize magnetization in a magnetization free layer therein even if a sense current is caused to flow. The magneto-resistance effect element is provided with a magnetization free layer whose magnetization direction is variable, a magnetization pinned layer whose magnetization direction is pinned, and an intermediate layer provided between the magnetization free layer and the magnetization pinned layer, where when no external magnetic field is present and no current flows, the magnetization direction in the magnetization free layer is anti-parallel to the magnetization direction pinned in the magnetization pinned layer, an easy axis of magnetization in the magnetization free layer is parallel to the magnetization direction pinned in the magnetization pinned layer, and a sense current flows from the magnetization free layer to the magnetization pinned layer.
Magnetic head main pole with leading and trailing edges of different lengths and progessively increasing cross-sectional area in a height-direction
If the length of a track-defining section from an air bearing surface varies due to tolerance during a head manufacturing process, the recording magnetic field changes, which involves the variation of the track width to be recorded on the medium. In accordance with an embodiment of the present invention, the main magnetic pole of a magnetic head includes a track-defining section shaped in trapezoid and a magnetic flux guiding section formed in trapezoid, as viewed from above. The track-defining section is formed such that its width parallel to the air bearing surface (ABS) increases at the rate of 10 to 20% with respect to its height-direction length. The rate of 10 to 20% is a range in which the shape is properly controllable taking into account the variations resulting from the tolerance of the head manufacturing process.
Library apparatus with cartridge type sensor
A library apparatus includes a cartridge type sensor and a robot. The cartridge type sensor includes a cartridge having the same shape as that of each recording medium stored in a cell, an optical reader for reading a medium identification code, and a medium detector for detecting the presence or absence of a recording medium in a target cell. The optical reader and the medium detector are disposed in the cartridge of the cartridge type sensor. The robot picks up the cartridge type sensor from a cell which stores the cartridge type sensor and positions the cartridge type sensor at a predetermined location in the library apparatus while holding the cartridge type sensor.
Optimizing tape speed for a sync operation
Provided are techniques for determining a tape speed for a next sync operation. A sync command is received. An average transaction size and an average host transfer rate of a set of previous sync operations are calculated. The tape speed for the next sync operation is determined using the average transaction size, the average host transfer rate, and a backhitch time. Data is written to a tape cartridge using the determined tape speed.
Thermally assisted magnetic head
A thermally assisted magnetic head has a medium-facing surface facing a medium, and comprises: a waveguide an end face of which is exposed in the medium-facing surface; an electroconductive near-field light generator plate disposed on a medium-facing surface of the waveguide so that a principal face thereof faces the medium; and an electroconductive near-field light scatter plate disposed on the medium-facing surface of the thermally assisted magnetic head so that a principal face thereof faces the medium; when viewed from a direction perpendicular to the medium-facing surface, the near-field light generator plate has a cusp portion at an end; when viewed from the direction perpendicular to the medium-facing surface, the near-field light scatter plate is arranged along the other end opposite to the cusp portion of the near-field light generator plate; when viewed from the direction perpendicular to the medium-facing surface, a width of the near-field light scatter plate in a first direction perpendicular to a direction connecting the cusp portion and the other end of the near-field light generator plate is larger than a width in the first direction of the near-field light generator plate.
Disk drive comprising gray code implemented with servo bursts
A disk drive is disclosed comprising a disk including a plurality of servo tracks defined by a plurality of servo sectors, wherein each servo sector comprises a plurality of servo bursts. The disk drive further comprises a head actuated over the disk. A servo sector is read to generate a read signal which is processed to demodulate the servo bursts into a position error signal (PES) representing an offset of the head from a target radial location on the disk. The read signal is also processed to decode the servo bursts into a Gray codeword representing at least part of a servo track address, wherein the servo track address represents a servo track the head is over.
Laminated electrically tintable windows
A method of manufacturing electrically tintable window glass with a variety of sizes and functionalities is described. The method comprises: (a) providing a large format glass substrate; (b) fabricating a plurality of electrically tintable thin film devices on the large format glass substrate; (c) cutting the large format glass substrate into a plurality of electrically tintable pieces, each electrically tintable piece including one of the plurality of electrically tintable thin film devices; (d) providing a plurality of window glass pieces; (e) matching each one of the plurality of electrically tintable pieces with a corresponding one of the plurality of window glass pieces; and (f) laminating each of the matched electrically tintable pieces and window glass pieces. The lamination may result in the electrically tintable device either being sandwiched between the glass substrate and the window glass piece or on the surface of the laminated pieces. The electrically tintable device is an electrochromic device.
Etendue efficient combination of multiple light sources
A multi-colored illumination system including a beam combiner. The beam combiner includes two triangular prisms and a filter for transmitting a first light and reflecting a second light, each light having a different wavelength. The beam combiner combines the transmitted first light and the reflected light to provide a combined beam. The six surfaces of each of the triangular prism of the beam combiner are polished, thereby combining the lights without increasing etendue of the multi-colored illumination system.
Lens barrel and imaging apparatus
A lens barrel includes: a plurality of lenses disposed in an outer enclosure; an imaging device that converts image light introduced through the plurality of lenses into an image signal; a movable unit including a movable lens and a lens holder that holds the movable lens; a lead screw rotated by a drive motor; a nut member made of a metal material threadably engaging the lead screw and connected to the lens holder, the nut member moved by the rotation of the lead screw in the optical axis direction moving the movable unit in the optical axis direction; a guide shaft that guides the movable unit in the optical axis direction, both axial ends of the guide shaft held by the outer enclosure; and an urging spring that presses part of the lens holder against the nut member when the movable unit moves in the optical axis direction.
Image pickup lens and image pickup device
In an image pickup lens 1 composed three glass lenses, the glass lenses are composed of a first lens L1 having a convex surface facing a subject side and positive refracting power, an aperture S, a second lens L2 having a convex surface facing an image side and negative refracting power, and a third lens L3 having a concave surface facing the image side and positive refracting power which are disposed sequentially from the subject side as well as all the lens surfaces are composed of aspheric surfaces and the following conditional formulas (A0) and (A1) are satisfied. f/f2<−0.9 (A0) 2<|R21+R22|/|R21−R22|<5 (A1) With this arrangement, there is provided a compact and less expensive image pickup lens having a good optical performance and used to a solid image pickup device and an image pickup device using the image pickup lens.
Projection zoom lens system and projection type display apparatus
A projection zoom lens includes a first lens group having a negative reflecting power and a second to fifth lens groups each having a positive reflecting power are provided in the order from the magnification side. Nine lenses are distributed in a manner that the first lens group has one lens, the second lens group has one lens, the third lens group has two lenses, the fourth lens group has four lenses and the fifth lens group has one lens. Since the second lens group, the third lens group and the fourth lens group are moved at the time of the power-varying operation, various kinds of aberrations may be made despite of simple configuration. The first lens group is an aspherical lens which concave surface is directed to the reduction side.
Zoom lens systems with wavefront coding
Zoom lens systems and methods for imaging incoming rays over a range of ray angles are disclosed. The incoming rays are characterized by at least phase. The zoom lens system includes an optical axis and is characterized by a plurality of modulation transfer functions (MTFs) corresponding at least to the range of ray angles. The zoom lens system includes an optical group disposed along the optical axis, including at least one variable optical element that has a variable focal length selectable between at least two distinct focal length values. The optical group also includes a wavefront coding element. The wavefront coding element alters at least the phase of the incoming rays, such that the plurality of MTFs corresponding to the range of ray angles, for each one of the two distinct focal length values, are less sensitive to misfocus-like aberrations than a corresponding system without the wavefront coding element.
Distributed refractive index lens and method for manufacturing the same
A distributed refractive index lens and method of producing the lens are disclosed. The lens has a plurality of areas having refractive index distributions, and includes a plate-like member containing polysilane. The refractive index distribution of these areas is a distribution that includes a change in a refractive index in a direction parallel to a plane of the plate-like member, and includes a substantial uniform refractive index in a direction perpendicular to the plane.
Contacting two-layer diffractive optical element
The diffractive optical element includes two diffraction gratings made of different materials and being in contact with each other at their grating surfaces. The materials satisfy the following conditions, and the second material is obtained by mixing a resin material with a particulate material satisfying the following conditions: nd1≧1.48, νd1≧40, (−1.665E−07×νd13+5.213E−05×νd12−5.656E−03×νd1+0.675)≦θg,F1≦(−1.665E−07×νd13+5.213E−05×νd12−5.656E−03×νd1+0.825), (−1.687E−07×νd13+5.702E−05×νd12−6.603E−03×νd1+1.400)≦θg,d1≦(−1.687E−07×νd13+5.702E−05×νd12−6.603E−03×νd1+1.580), nd2≦1.6, νd2≦30, θg,F2≦(−1.665E−07×νd23+5.213E−05×νd22−5.656E−03×νd2+0.675), θg,d2≦(−1.687E−07×νd23+5.702E−05×νd22−6.603E−03×νd2+1.400), nd1−nd2>0, ndb2≧1.70, νdb2≦20.The element achieves a high diffraction efficiency in a specific diffraction order over a wide wavelength range.
Anti-bulging projection screen structure
A home cinema theater projection screen structure and method of making same are provided wherein a sheet of projection screen material of selected size is formed to a configuration having concave top and/or bottom edges, the projection screen material then being attached under tension to a mounting structure that defines an inwardly curved projection surface in the mounted condition whereby bulging of the projection surface of the screen is substantially eliminated. Movable side masking panels are included the structure in order to define a selected aspect ratio for the projection surface.
Method for producing mold for use in duplicating light diffusion sheet, light diffusion sheet and method for producing the same, and screen
A method of producing a mold for use in duplicating a light diffusion sheet is provided. The method includes a step of conducting sand blasting for blasting abrasive material from a blast gun to a surface of a mold base material to form unevenness in the surface of the mold base material, wherein the abrasive material is blasted to the surface of the mold base material at a blast angle of less than 90°.
Solid state fluorescence light assembly and microscope
An illumination system for a fluorescence microscope is provided. The illumination system includes a carriage removably receivable within the microscope and a plurality of filter cubes movably arranged on the carriage, wherein each filter cube is moveable between an active position and an inactive position. Each filter cube includes a housing having first and second openings and a solid state light source secured to the housing. The solid state light source emits light when the filter cube is moved into the active position. Each filter cube further comprises at least one optical filter disposed within the housing, wherein the optical filter corresponds to the solid state light source.