Interactive key control system and method of managing access to secured locations
An interactive method and system for managing access to one or more secured locations by one of more users via a global communication network which comprises software made up of a plurality of databases, each of the databases requiring a different level of access to the secured locations as well as being able to perform one or more functions at each different level of access, and a key or other entry control device is assigned to each user for use in gaining access to one or more of the locations at a predetermined level of access assigned to hat user, the system as described being capable of being added to, deleted in whole or in part, or modified, and the databases are capable of maintaining the status of the entry control devices, locations and users in a real time mode for instantaneous access, maintenance and control anywhere in the world.
Segmentation based content alteration techniques
The subject invention provides a unique system and method that facilitates creating HIP challenges (HIPs) that can be readily segmented and solved by human users but that are too difficult for non-human users. More specifically, the system and method utilize a variety of unique alteration techniques that are segmentation-based. For example, the system and method employ thicker arcs or occlusions that do not intersect characters already placed in the HIP. The thickness of the arc can be measured or determined by the thickness of the characters in the HIP. In addition to increasing the thickness, the arcs can be lengthened because longer arcs tend to resemble pieces of characters and may be harder to erode. Usability maps can be generated and used to selectively place clutter or occlusions and to selectively warp characters or the character sequence to facilitate human recognition of the characters.
Secure media path methods, systems, and architectures
Methods, systems and architectures for processing renderable digital content are described. The various embodiments can protect against unauthorized access or duplication of unprotected content (i.e. decrypted content) once the content has reached a rendering device such as a user's computer. A flexible framework includes an architecture that allows for general media sources to provide virtually any type of multimedia content to any suitably configured rendering device. Content can be protected and rendered locally and/or across networks such as the Internet. The various embodiments can provide a standard platform that can that can be leveraged to protect content across a wide variety of rendering environments, content types, and DRM techniques.
System and method for detecting an infective element in a network environment
A method for detecting an infective element in a network environment is provided that includes detecting, by a first computer, an infective element within a second computer. A signal is generated and communicated that identifies the second computer as being associated with the infective element. The signal includes an address associated with the second computer. The signal is received and, in response to the signal, a communicating capability of the second computer is disabled.
Tracing and identifying piracy in wireless digital rights management system
Provides methods for tracing and identifying a piracy in a wireless rights management system, wherein the content provider allow the protected digital content to be super-distributed, when unauthorized holding a pirated copy of the protected digital content is detected, based on the gateway controlling ability of the wireless operator within the wireless digital rights management system, a specific fingerprint is embedded in or removed from the protected digital content so as to trace the suspected persons and further identify the pirate. The fingerprint is related to information of a suspected person holding the protected digital content without authorization. A process of screening singles out highly suspected persons. Therefore the operator can determine whether the suspected person is a real pirate by comparing the similarity of the pirated version of content and the version held by the suspected person, and the exact tracing and identifying is achieved.
Data processing system, data processing method, data processing apparatus, license system, and program providing medium
An authentication key is presented to a data processing device by an enable key block (EKB). Even in a case where a memory device does not have an executing function for a mutual authentication processing, an establishment of the mutual authentication processing with a virtual memory device constructed in the data processing device is made as a condition for a data reproduction processing from the memory device or a data recording processing to the memory device. In an unfair data processing device, it is so constructed to present the authentication key by non-decodable enabling key block (EKB), so that only a fair data processing device is able to be authenticated with the virtual memory device and to utilize the contents data.
System and method for user login and tracking
The disclosure provides for systems that generate random strings of objects corresponding to elements of a login code. The disclosure also provides for methods for training individuals in remembering the elements of the login code. Those login code elements, in certain embodiments, are taught to its user by way of a puzzle or game-like environment. That game-like environment, in one embodiment, does not require the use of language-based instructions, which make learning the elements of the login code simple and easy for a wide range and variety of persons. In addition, the login code elements are taught to its user, in certain embodiments, by way of a multi-staged training process, wherein each stage includes a plurality of training sessions. Those training sessions may use a process of spatial and visual recognition. That process may help assist a login code user to remember the elements of the code even if the login code is only periodically used.
System and method for selecting a pay per view program to be transmitted to a program receiver
The present invention may be regarded as personal video recorder and a method of selecting a pay per view program to be transmitted to a personal video recorder having a program receiver. A schedule of pay per view programs is obtained. Each of the pay per view programs has a title and at least one transmission time and an associated transmission channel for each transmission time. A title list comprising the titles of at least one pay per view program is generated based on the schedule. The title list is provided to a display device for display to a user. A selection by title of the pay per view program to be received by the program receiver is received from the user. A potential transmission time of the pay per view program to be received by the program receiver is determined based on the at least one transmission time. Alternatively, selection of the pay per view program to be received by the program receiver may be based on user's preferences or a pre-selected list of titles.
Remote control device with event notifier
A system including a remote control device. The remote control device includes a processor, a remote control receiver in communication with the processor, an input device in communication with the processor, and an output device in communication with the processor. The system also includes an electronic device. The electronic device includes a receiver for receiving signals from the remote control device, a telephonic device, and a transmitter in communication with the telephonic device, the transmitter for transmitting data from the telephonic device to the remote control device.
Digital television signal for receiving PSIP data, method of processing digital television signal, and digital television receiver
A digital television signal for receiving program and system information protocol (PSIP) data, a method for processing the digital television signal, and a digital television receiver are disclosed. The digital television signal used in the digital television receiver in order to receive a program system information protocol (PSIP) data from a broadcast transmitter includes a rating region table containing the PSIP data. Herein, the rating region table includes a global rating value field defining a global rating value which is valid for all graphical rating regions, a rating region field defining a specific graphical rating region to be associated with the rating region table, and at least one local rating value field identifying a local rating value which is valid for the specific graphical rating region only.
Uniform resource discovery
An input including information specifying criteria for selecting computer resources is processed to produce an output comprising one or more function instances associated with computer resources satisfying the criteria. Included in each of the one or more function instances are metadata and information that specifies a mechanism for accessing a computer resource associated with the function instance.
N X M platform combination
According to some embodiments, a technique for storing data comprises providing an application-specific module, wherein the application-specific module communicates with an application; providing a storage-specific module, wherein the storage-specific module communicates with a storage; and providing a common interface, wherein the common interface communicates with the application-specific module and the storage-specific module.
Method and apparatus for creating templates
A template creator creates a template class that stores at least one template parameter. The template creator also specifies at least one additional object to be created when an instance of the template class is created. A template user initiates the creation of a new instance of the template class. If an error occurs during the creation of the new instance of the template class, the template user receives a report identifying the error.
Grouping processors and assigning shared memory space to a group in a heterogeneous computer environment
Grouping processors is presented. A processing unit (PU) initiates an application and identifies the application's requirements. The PU assigns one or more synergistic processing units (SPUs) and a memory space to the application in the form of a group. The application specifies whether the task requires shared memory or private memory. Shared memory is a memory space that is accessible by the SPUs and the PU. Private memory, however, is a memory space that is only accessible by the SPUs that are included in the group. When the application executes, the resources within the group are allocated to the application's execution thread. Each group has its own group properties, such as address space, policies (i.e. real-time, FIFO, run-to-completion, etc.) and priority (i.e. low or high). These group properties are used during thread execution to determine which groups take precedence over other tasks.
System and method for management of requests
The present invention provides an online messaging architecture configured to process incoming request messages and provide reply messages in an efficient manner. The invention reduces processing overhead within a mainframe computing environment were individual requests are treated as individual transactions by instead storing requests within a queue, spawning necessary processes according to the queue and processing multiple transactions in a pseudo batch manner.
Quick deployment method
Provided is a deployment method for a server system that includes a storage system having logical disks where disk images are stored and plural servers connected to the storage system via a storage network, the method including the step of causing a deploy management module to copy the logical disks which store the disk images to a free area of the storage system before a deployment command is received. According to this invention, disk images are quickly deployed to servers.
Post-execution software debugger with performance display
A method for finding an error in a computer program is disclosed. A sequence of machine instructions performed by a processor is recorded as trace data. A mapping file is accessed. A source code instruction is translated into a machine code instruction according to a mapping found in the mapping file. Further, at least a portion of the trace data is searched through until the machine code instruction is found. In addition, a first execution time of the machine code instruction is determined by reviewing the trace data in a first vicinity that an address of the machine code instruction is located. Further, a second execution time of the next machine code instruction is determined by reviewing the trace data in a second vicinity that an address of the next machine code instruction is located. Accordingly, performance data is calculated by subtracting the first execution time from the second execution time. The performance data is displayed.
Memory arrangement for message processing by a plurality of threads
Various approaches for preparing a system for multi-thread processing of messages are disclosed. In one approach, respective portions of a message accessed by a plurality of threads are determined from a high-level language programming specification of the threads. A plurality of input elements are generated and respectively coupled to the plurality of threads. Each input element is configured to select from the message received by the input element the portion of the message accessed by the respective thread and provide each selected portion to the respective thread. A plurality of output elements are generated and configured with storage for data output by a respective thread. From a definition of an output message, a concentrator element is generated and is configured to read data from the output elements and assemble the data into an output message according to the definition of the output message.
Method and apparatus for classifying and modeling operating system image for data center management
A method, apparatus, and computer instructions are provided for classifying and modeling operating system images for data center management. An operating system image may be classified as a golden master image, a snapshot image, or a scripted operating system image. A software model is provided to abstract operating system and platform detail, and provide a consistent and scalable way of dealing with operating system images. An installation mechanism is provided to install images based on priorities. Software installables are attached with a software definition that may either be a software stack or a software module. A software stack comprises at least one software module.
Methods and apparatus for implementing checkin policies in source code control systems
In one embodiment, a method and apparatus for automatically evaluating compliance of at least one source code file against at least one checkin policy. In a further embodiment, providing information about the compliance or non-compliance of the at least one source code file with the at least one checkin policy. In another embodiment, providing an option to override a policy failure and submit the at least one source code file to a source code repository. In one embodiment, in response to an override of a policy failure, providing a notification about the override of the policy failure. In some embodiments, an extensible framework enabling the installation of at least one checkin policy plugin, and providing a notification that at least one checkin policy plugin is not installed. In further embodiments, providing and using a work item association policy plugin, a unit tests policy plugin, and a static analysis policy plugin.
System and method for implementing image-based design rules
Systems and methods for creating and implementing two-dimensional (2D), image-based design rules (IBDRs) are disclosed. Techniques for creating 2D IBDR can include identifying a search pattern that is representative of a 2D pattern of interest of a design, creating a pattern representation based on the search pattern, defining an anchor point for the pattern representation, and assigning weights to elements of the pattern representation. The 2D IBDR can be used in systems and method for searching a design by comparing the 2D IBDR to the design. A number of 2D IBDRs can be merged into a subset of similar 2D IBDRs by characterizing desired rule geometries, sorting the 2D IBDRs into groups according to the desired rule geometries, merging the groups of 2D IBDRs into a single representative search pattern. Additionally, standard design rules can be created from the disclosed 2D IBDRs. The standard design rule can be created from a 2D pattern of interest by defining an origin of a shape within the 2D pattern of interest, identifying features within the 2D pattern of interest, deriving parameters relative to the origin for each of the identified features, and writing the standard design rule script using the derived parameters.
Method and apparatus for repeat execution of delay analysis in circuit design
An apparatus includes: a detecting unit that detects a target path from among a plurality of paths in a target circuit based on a result of a delay analysis of the target circuit, wherein the result of the delay analysis includes delay data of a first circuit component of the target path; an extracting unit that extracts delay data of a second circuit component having an identical type to that of the first circuit component; and a generating unit that generates a directive for replacing the first circuit component with the second circuit component.
Crosslinking of netlists
In one embodiment, a method for determining crosslinking between netlists is provided. The first netlist and second netlist may have nets that have different net names but may be the same net. It is also possible that the content of individual nets in one list may need to be split or combined to accurately match the other list. Complete results will not be obtained if only 1 to 1 content matches are considered. The method determines an exploded list of one of the netlists, such as the second netlist, where the netlist is reversed such that the pins of the netlist are used as keys to an associated net name. A pin in the first netlist is then determined. The pin may be associated with a first net name in the first netlist. The pin is looked up in the exploded list using it as a key to determine a second net name for the pin. The process continues using each pin in the first netlist to determine the net name associated with the pin in the second netlist. When this process is finished, crosslinks between net names that match across netlists are determined.
Proximity detector in handheld device
Proximity based systems and methods that are implemented on an electronic device are disclosed. The method includes sensing an object spaced away and in close proximity to the electronic device. The method also includes performing an action in the electronic device when an object is sensed.
User interface for context sensitive creation of electronic mail message handling rules
A contextually sensitive user interface for defining an e-mail message handling rule is provided. The user interface includes one or more user interface objects for specifying conditions for the rule and one or more user interface objects for defining the actions to be performed if the specified conditions are met. The conditions that are displayed within the user interface for selection are chosen, at least in part, based upon the context in which a request to create the e-mail handling rule is received. The displayed conditions may be based, in part, upon the contexts of reading an e-mail message, creating an e-mail message, creating an alert subscription, or selecting a user name.
Visually organizing and highlighting a list of items to show how they satisfy multiple criteria selected by a user
Techniques are described for displaying a list of items while simultaneously depicting how the items satisfy multiple criteria. A list of visual indicators is displayed in an order. The order indicates how the items satisfy a first criteria. For example, the list of items may be books displayed in alphabetical order. The order indicates how the titles rank alphabetically. While retaining the order, information is displayed to visually indicate how the items satisfy other criteria selected by the user. The user may select other criteria, and information is displayed to indicate how the items satisfy the other criteria. A page is downloaded by a browser on a client. The browser executing a page generates visual indications of how items satisfy the multiple criteria in response to user selection of the criteria.
Information processing apparatus and method, and storage medium
Disclosed is an information processing apparatus for controlling an application object moving autonomously in shared virtual space in which avatars representing users of other information processing apparatuses are active. The apparatus comprises a distribution examining element for examining distribution of the active avatars in the shared virtual space, a coordinate controlling element for controlling coordinates of the application object in accordance with results of the examination by the distribution examining element and a display controlling element for controlling display of information by the application object controlled in coordinates by the coordinate controlling element.
System and user interface supporting task schedule configuration
In an embodiment of the present inventions, a work flow process may be generated by decomposing functions of a clinical information system into discrete tasks including an individual task associated with a first pre-configured executable procedure for implementing the individual task and associating a user selectable image element with the pre-configured first executable procedure used in implementing the individual task. In a currently envisioned embodiment, integratable work flow processes according to the present invention may be provided to a vertical application system.
System and method of dynamically generating index information
A system and method of generating index information for electronic documents. The system includes a client and one or more information retrieval (IR) engines, such as a search engine, which are each in communication with each other via a network.
Data recording method, recording medium and reproduction apparatus
A recording medium for storing a data stream is comprised of first error correcting codes obtained by encoding first information, second error correcting codes obtained by encoding second information, and synchronization signals. In the data stream, the second error correcting codes and the synchronization signals alternatively interleave the first error correcting codes. The second error correcting codes have the same number of corrections as the first error correcting codes. A code length of the second error correcting codes is shorter than a code length of the first error correcting codes.
Decoding method and device
A symbol sequence in a received DS-CDMA signal is decoded in an efficient manner in order to reduce the processing needs in a receiver when, e.g., processing acquisition indicators (AI) in a UMTS system. The decoding comprises iterative calculation of a hard-decision vector, using a decision threshold having a value based on the probability of each ternary alphabet element of each symbol in the hard-decision vector.
Data storing method for a non-volatile memory cell array having an error correction code
An array of non-volatile memory cells includes a row with N cells and M cells. In a partial-storage step, a datum is stored in a first portion of the N cells of the row. A second portion of the N cells of the row are in an “erase” state. A first error correction code associated with the datum is stored in the M cells along with a first enable bit or guard-cell which is indicative of whether the first error correction code is active. The number of M cells, adjacent to the N cells of the row, is defined on the basis of the number N of cells. In the event the datum stored in the first portion of the N cells of the row is subsequently updated or manipulated, a second error correction code associated with the updated or manipulated datum is determined and stored in the second portion of the N cells of the row along with a second guard-cell which is indicative of whether the second error correction code is active. At that point, the first guard-cell is modified to indicate that the first error correction code is not active.
Error detection and correction for encoded data
Embodiments of the present invention provide techniques for detecting and correcting encoded data. In one embodiment, a system for detecting and correcting errors in a plurality of data bits comprises a static memory configured to store a plurality of data bits; a systematic encoder configured to convert the plurality of data bits into a codeword; a systematic parity check encoder configured to convert the codeword into a syndrome; and a syndrome decoder configured to evaluate the syndrome based on preset criteria used to determine whether the syndrome corresponds to an uncorrectable error. A binary [16, 8, 5] code is used to encode the plurality of data bits.
Access control apparatus, access control system, processor, access control method, memory access control apparatus, memory access control system, and memory access control method
An access control apparatus includes a writer syndrome generator that generates a writer syndrome of writer mask data to mask the parity-added data, the writer syndrome being associated with a writer access ID used when a writer that requests writing of the write data in the memory accesses the memory; a write mask generator that generates the writer mask data based on the writer syndrome, the writer access ID, and a write address in the memory at which the writer writes the write data; a first XOR calculator that obtains first post-operation data by calculating an XOR between the parity-added data and the writer mask data; and a write address converter that converts the write address into another address determined by the writer access ID.
System, apparatus and method for transmitting and receiving data coded by low density parity check code having variable coding rate
A system, an apparatus and a method for transmitting/receiving data coded by a low density parity check matrix code are provided. The apparatus for transmitting data coded by a low density parity check code includes: a low density parity check encoder for encoding input data based on the low density parity check code; and a bit puncturer for puncturing columns in an order of columns which least degrade a performance caused by puncturing in the low density check code according to a code rate of an output data. Accordingly, the low density parity check code having superior performance can be implemented to the next generation mobile communication system supporting various code rates.
Method and apparatus for transmitting acknowledgement signals
The present invention relates to a power controlling method in a mobile radio communication system using Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) scheme, and more particularly to a power controlling method of response (ACK/NACK) signals for transmitting the ACK/NACK signals in different power based on the permissible probabilities of reception error that the system requires. When the ACK/NACK signals are transmitted and received in the automatic repeat request (ARQ) system, since the ACK/NACK signals can be transmitted in accordance with the transmission power satisfying an error rate required in each signal by differentiating the transmission power of the signal according to each ACK/NACK, the power consumption required in the transmission of the ACK/NACK signals can be reduced.
Phase shifter with reduced linear dependency
A method is disclosed for the automated synthesis of phase shifters—circuits used to remove effects of structural dependencies featured by pseudo-random test pattern generators driving parallel scan chains. Using a concept of duality, the method relates the logical states of linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs) and circuits spacing their inputs to each of the output channels. The method generates a phase shifter network balancing the loads of successive stages of LFSRs and satisfying criteria of reduced linear dependency, channel separation and circuit complexity.
Input-output device testing including embedded tests
Integrated circuits may include at least an instruction processor and input-output subsystems. Each input-output subsystem includes a wrapper circuit a wrapper circuit controlled by the instruction processor. The wrapper circuit includes two or more scan registers, where a data value stored in each scan register can be shifted out for analysis. The wrapper circuit also includes two or more update registers to transfer stored data values between itself and an associated scan register. The wrapper circuit also includes a set of combinatorial logic coupled to the scan registers, the update registers and the instruction test processor, wherein at least two I/Os of the plurality of I/Os but less than all of the plurality of I/Os couple to an external tester.
Selectively engaging optional data reduction mechanisms for capturing trace data
An on-chip trace engine stores trace data in on-chip trace arrays and routes the trace data to output pins. An external trace capture device captures the trace data. The on-chip trace engine streams the trace data through the debug output pins at a slower rate that can be supported by external trace capture device. If compression is insufficient for the required data rate reduction, the on-chip trace engine includes selectable data reduction mechanisms. Responsive to an overflow condition, meaning trace data is captured in on-chip trace arrays faster than it can be routed off chip, the on-chip trace engine enters an overflow mode in which one or more of the data reduction mechanisms are selected. The data reduction mechanisms may include, for example, a data width reduction component, a pattern match data elimination component, a priority source select component, an under-sampling component, or various combinations thereof.
Methods and structure for field flawscan in a dynamically mapped mass storage device
Methods and structures for performing field flawscan to reduce manufacturing costs of a dynamic mapped storage device. In a dynamic mapped storage device in which all user supplied logical blocks are dynamically mapped by the storage device controller to physical disk blocks, features and aspects hereof permit flawscan testing of a storage device to be completed substantially concurrently with processing write requests for its intended application. A fraction of the storage device may be certified by an initial flawscan performed during manufacturing testing. Statistical sampling sufficient to assure a high probability of achieving specified capacity may be performed to reduce manufacturing time and costs in testing. Final flawscan of the remainder of the storage locations may be performed substantially concurrently with processing of write requests after the device is installed for its intended application. Mapping features and aspects hereof allow the storage device controller to perform flawscan and write operations concurrently.
Memory cell bit valve loss detection and restoration
For one embodiment, an apparatus may include a memory cell to store a bit value, wherein the memory cell may lose the bit value in response to a memory access operation. The apparatus may also include first circuitry to detect whether the memory cell loses the bit value in response to the memory access operation and second circuitry to restore the bit value in the memory cell in response to detection that the memory cell loses the bit value. Other embodiments include other apparatuses, methods, and systems.
Communication apparatus and communication system
In a communication system based on OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Reference Model, a pattern body generation circuit of a transmitting device generates and outputs a jitter test pattern body for jitter test. A selector selects an output (frame data) of a transmitting-end upper circuit during normal communication and selects an output (pattern body) of the pattern body generation circuit during jitter test. A transmitting-end MAC circuit performs transmitting-end processing of a MAC layer on the data selected by the selector to thereby obtain a MAC frame. A receiving-end MAC circuit performs receiving-end processing of a MAC layer on a received frame in MAC frame format to thereby obtain a payload. A pattern body verification circuit verifies a pattern body that is a payload obtained by the receiving-end MAC circuit during jitter test against a corresponding pattern body before transmission.
Method and arrangement to estimate transmission channel characteristics
A channel characteristic of a transmission channel between a remote terminal and a central office is estimated by collecting information in the remote terminal, transferring this information from the remote terminal to the central office and matching the received information at the central office with a channel and remote terminal simulation model. The values of parameters of the latter simulation model, which define the channel characteristic to be estimated, are determined as a result of the matching process. The information collected by the remote terminal typically is information that is automatically collected by the remote terminal for operational purposes, such as equalizer setting and bit allocation.
Apparatus and methods for improved computer system error reporting and management
A client computer system is provided with two operating systems, one of which is a user operating system (UOS) and the other of which is a service operating system (SOS), and a hypervisor. In the event of a hang in the first operating system, the second operating system remains active, out of the awareness of the user of the system, and has reporting and command response capabilities beyond those of prior technology.
Storage array virtualization using a storage block mapping protocol client and server
A cached disk array includes a disk storage array, a global cache memory, disk directors coupling the cache memory to the disk storage array, and front-end directors for linking host computers to the cache memory. The front-end directors service storage access requests from the host computers, and the disk directors stage requested data from the disk storage array to the cache memory and write new data to the disk storage. At least one of the front-end directors or disk directors is programmed for block resolution of virtual logical units of the disk storage, and for obtaining, from a storage allocation server, space allocation and mapping information for pre-allocated blocks of the disk storage, and for returning to the storage allocation server requests to commit the pre-allocated blocks of storage once data is first written to the pre-allocated blocks of storage.
Storage system and data guarantee method
Proposed is a storage system and a data guarantee method capable of guaranteeing and verifying the reliability of data in a short period of time even with the heavy usage of inexpensive hard disk drives. This storage system having a storage apparatus that provides a storage extent for reading and writing data from and in a host system, and a storage controller for controlling the storage apparatus includes a first generation unit for generating a guarantee number in data from a host system to be stored in the storage apparatus showing the guarantee of the data, a second generation unit for generating a guarantee number showing the guarantee of parity data corresponding to data from the host system, and a verification unit for verifying the guarantee number showing the guarantee of data from the host system and the guarantee number showing the guarantee of the parity data.
Embodiments include a timeout event management system that registers timeout events and checks for and corrects inaccuracies in timing caused by hibernation or system time changes. The timeout event management system may trigger an event after an intended delay time or at an intended expiration time. A handler program may be called in response to the triggered timeout. In an additional embodiment, the timeout system may track timeout events in a priority queue data structure.
Method and apparatus for adaptive power consumption
A method for adapting power consumption of a processor based upon an application demand is provided. The method initiates with determining an application demand based upon a current processing operation. Then, a time interval associated with the application demand is determined. Next, unnecessary power consuming functions for the application demand are determined. Then, a clock frequency for the unnecessary power consuming functions is reduced for the time interval. In one embodiment, the power is terminated to the unnecessary power consuming functions. In another embodiment, the clock frequency of the processor is adjusted for at least a portion of the time interval. A program interface for adapting power consumption of a computer system, processor instructions for adapting power consumption of a computer system and a processor are included.
Method and apparatus for informing computer of power environment
A power adaptor for a computer discovers the power environment when it is plugged into a socket and sends a signal to the computer along the power line indicating the environment, so that the computer can configure operations accordingly.
System and method for virtual tape management with remote archival and retrieval via an encrypted validation communication protocol
Remote configuration and utilization of a virtual tape management system via communication of encrypted data. At least one security administrator CPU is communicably attached to a virtual tape management CPU. At least one remote data storage CPU is communicably attached to the virtual tape management CPU and to the security administrator. First software within the virtual tape management CPU validates authorized remote access to at least one remote data storage CPU and encrypts the data. Second software facilitates remote configuration and utilization of the virtual tape management CPU. At least one hardware adaptor card connects the virtual tape management CPU to a host.
E-mail certification service
A method is provided to handle an electronic mail message such that the receiver of the e-mail message can verify the integrity of the message. A request is provided from a sender's side to a service. The request includes information regarding the e-mail message. The service processes at least a portion of the request to generate a result. For example, the service may encrypt the portion of the request, according to a public/private key encryption scheme, to generate a digital signature as the result. The service provides the result to the sender's side. At the sender's side, the result is incorporated into the e-mail message and the result-incorporated message is transmitted via an e-mail system. At the receiver's side, the result-incorporated e-mail message is processed to assess the integrity of the received e-mail message.
Method and apparatus for address creation and validation
All nodes within a communication system (100) will create an IP address based on a shared-secret key. The shared-secret key is unique for every node within the communication system and is known only to the node (102) and a server (103). The router (101) can validate that the node (102) owns the IP address.
Method and system for evaluating confidence in a sending domain to accurately assign a trust that a communication is not unwanted
A method and system for identifying whether an electronic communication is likely to be unwanted by the recipient is provided. A trust system relies on a trust provider, such as a sending domain, to indicate whether an electronic communication is likely to be unwanted. The sending domain may assign its trust level to the electronic communications based on various factors. Upon receiving the electronic communication and the trust level assigned by the sending domain, the receiving domain may determine whether to forward the electronic communication to the recipient based on the trust level. If a sending domain consistently provides trust levels that are accurate assessments of whether electronic communications are unwanted, then the receiving domain learns to trust the trust levels assigned by the sending domain. In contrast, if the assigned trust levels are not accurate, then the receiving domain learns not to trust the sending domain and may discard all message from the receiving domain without forwarding them to the recipients.
Address translation for input/output (I/O) devices and interrupt remapping for I/O devices in an I/O memory management unit (IOMMU)
In an embodiment, an input/output (I/O) memory management unit (IOMMU) comprises at least one memory configured to store translation data; and control logic coupled to the memory and configured to translate an I/O device-generated memory request using the translation data. The translation data corresponds to one or more device table entries in a device table stored in a memory system of a computer system that includes the IOMMU, wherein the device table entry for a given request is selected by an identifier corresponding to the I/O device that generates the request. The translation data further corresponds to one or more I/O page tables, wherein the selected device table entry for the given request includes a pointer to a set of I/O page tables to be used to translate the given request.
Method and apparatus for managing memory for dynamic promotion of virtual memory page sizes
A computer implemented method, apparatus, and computer usable program code for managing real memory. In response to a request for a page to be moved into real memory, a contiguous range of real memory is reserved for the page corresponding to a contiguous virtual memory range to form a reservation within a plurality of reservations for the real memory. This reservation enables efficient promotion of pages to a larger page size. The page only occupies a portion of the contiguous range of real memory for the reservation. In response to a need for real memory, a selected reservation is released within the plurality of reservations based on an age of the selected reservation within the plurality of reservations.
Optimizing a marking phase in mark-sweep garbage collectors by reducing paging activity
A garbage collector can initialize a garbage collection cycle. The cycle can include a mark phase and a sweep phase. The mark phase can traverses a complete set of objects in a heap. The heap can be associated with a virtual application memory including a primary memory and a secondary memory. The virtual application memory can be managed by a virtual memory manager, which moves pages between the primary memory and the secondary memory. Information can be bidirectionally communicated between a garbage collector and the virtual memory manager. A default order in which the objects are evaluated during the mark phase can be altered to minimize paging activity. The altering of the order can be based at least in part upon information obtained from the virtual memory manager.
Information recording medium and region management method for a plurality of recording regions each managed by independent file system
A region management method for an information recording medium capable of maintaining data interchangeability among devices and preventing malfunction when one information recording medium shared among devices different in type or number of file systems that can be interpreted by devices is provided. A recording region of the information recording medium is divided into a plurality of regions, and region information such as position and size of each region is held in the information recording medium. Different file systems are constructed in individual data recording regions. In response to a command from an information processing apparatus, accessible regions by the information processing apparatus are changed over by, for example, referring to validity flag information that indicates a presently valid region.
Use of memory protection to implement replicating collection in an incremental, copying garbage collector
An incremental collector can include memory pages, preferably virtual memory (VM) pages containing objects. A bit or byte map is created with one entry corresponding to each VM page. The VM page being collected is first write-protected and then the reachable objects are copied or relocated. Application induced changes to objects that have already been relocated are flagged in the map. Later the collector will suspend the application, scan the map and update the relocated objects that were changed and update the references to these objects. In one embodiment aimed at concurrent collecting, the map is copied to a second map, and the second map is scanned for changes that are propagated as before. The application may be suspended on the last pass through the map for the updating of remaining relocated objects by scanning the first map. The incremental collector can be a Train algorithm.
Cache coherency in a shared-memory multiprocessor system
A method of making cache memories of a plurality of processors coherent with a shared memory includes one of the processors determining whether an external memory operation is needed for data that is to be maintained coherent. If so, the processor transmits a cache coherency request to a traffic-monitoring device. The traffic-monitoring device transmits memory operation information to the plurality of processors, which includes an address of the data. Each of the processors determines whether the data is in its cache memory and whether a memory operation is needed to make the data coherent. Each processor also transmits to the traffic-monitoring device a message that indicates a state of the data and the memory operation that it will perform on the data. The processors then perform the memory operations on the data. The traffic-monitoring device performs the transmitted memory operations in a fixed order that is based on the states of the data in the processors' cache memories.
Reconfigurable cache controller utilizing multiple ASIC SRAMS
An application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is configured to perform image processing tasks on a printer or other multi-function device. The ASIC includes a processor, a dedicated cache memory, a cache controller and additional Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) normally employed in image processing tasks. This additional SRAM may be dynamically allocated as a cache memory when not otherwise occupied.
Management computer, power supply control method and computer system
This management computer for managing a plurality of storage apparatuses having a volume storing data sent from a host computer has a schedule information acquisition unit for acquiring schedule information as a schedule of a time frame in which the host computer accesses the volume of the plurality of storage apparatuses, and a power supply control command unit for sending to a corresponding storage apparatus a power supply control command for turning off a main power supply of the storage apparatus of a time frame in which the volume is not accessed based on a referral result of the schedule information acquired with the schedule acquisition unit.
Ping-pong state machine for storage-device array
In one embodiment, an apparatus for reading from a physical storage-device array including a plurality of storage devices. The physical storage-device array has a plurality of sector levels, each sector level containing one sector on each storage device in the array at corresponding addresses on across the storage devices. The apparatus includes: (1) a memory adapted to store two or more profiles, each profile defining (i) a virtual array associated with a selected set of the storage devices and (ii) one or more parameters used for accessing information from the virtual array; (2) a buffer (i) having a first portion and a second portion and (ii) coupled to receive data from the storage devices; and (3) a state machine (i) coupled to the buffer and the memory and (ii) adapted to generate two or more successive pairs of instructions. The first instruction of each pair of instructions (i) is based on one or more parameters of a first profile and (ii) is an instruction to read, into the first portion of the buffer, one sector of data from each storage device of a first virtual array; and the second instruction of each pair of instructions (i) is based on one or more parameters of a second profile and (ii) is an instruction to read, into the second portion of the buffer, one sector of data from each storage device of a second virtual array.
Semiconductor memory device and control method thereof
A semiconductor memory device that does not delay read/write access due to a refresh and can be interface compatible with a high-speed SRAM such as a QDR SRAM, comprises a plurality of subarrays each having a plurality of dynamic memory cells; at least one cache memory for the plurality of subarrays; a circuit to check whether data read from the subarray selected by a read address is present in the cache memory or not; and a circuit performing control so that the check result indicates that the data is present in the cache memory, the data is read from the cache memory and refreshing of the subarray is performed concurrently with a read cycle.
Portable data storage device using a memory address mapping table
A portable data storage device includes a USB controller, a master control unit and a NAND flash memory device. The master control unit receives data to be written to logical addresses, and instructions to read data from logical addresses. It uses a memory address mapping table to associate the logical addresses with the physical addresses in the memory device, and writes data to or reads data from the physical address corresponding to the logical address. The mapping is changed at intervals, so that different ones of the physical address regions are associated at different times with the logical addresses. This increases the speed of the device, and also means that no physical addresses are rapidly worn out by being permanently associated with logical addresses to which data is written relatively often.
Enhancing performance of SATA disk drives in SAS domains
Methods and apparatus to enhance performance of Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) disk drives in Serial-Attached Small Computer System Interface (SAS) domains are described. In one embodiment, a data packets and/or commands communicated in accordance with SAS protocol may be converted into SATA protocol. Other embodiments are also described.
Control system, electronic device and image forming apparatus
A control system comprising an electronic device equipped with a port, a hub being connectable to multiple external devices and to be connected to the port of the electronic device, and one or more external devices to be connected to the hub, the operation of the external devices connected via the hub being controlled using the electronic device, wherein the electronic device comprises a supplying section for supplying currents to the hub connected to the port and the external devices connected via the hub, and a storage section for storing the magnitude of the total current supplied from the supplying section.
Time multiplexed bidirectional bus
A system for providing bidirectional communication for a data bus includes a datalink interface component configured to interface into a datalink. The datalink interface component is configured to operate in at least one of a first data communication state, a second data communication state, and a wholly inactive state. The first data communication state causes a first data communication component to communicate via the datalink interface and a second data communication component to be in an inactive state. The second data communication state causes the first data communication component to exist in an inactive state and the second communication component to communicate via the datalink interface. The wholly inactive state causes the first and second data communication components to exist in the inactive state.
Management of devices connected to infiniband ports
Methods and systems for discovering and managing devices connected to InfiniBand ports are provided. The discovery may be performed by an end node, such that the end node interoperates with all standard InfiniBand components. Specific actions that are vendor unique, and potentially not compliant with the InfiniBand architecture, may not be done until after the discovery is complete and it has been verified that the noncompliant action will only be directed to entities known to be capable of processing them. These actions may include assuming the configuration responsibilities that would have been performed by the Subnet Manager in a standard InfiniBand network.
Hierarchical enclosure management services
A configuration of an array of storage devices compliant with a fiber-channel arbitrated loop (FC-AL) specification includes first and second controllers having integrated first and second SCSI enclosure services (SES) processing devices acting as leader processors. Third and fourth controllers are coupled to the first and second controllers and act as subordinate processors. The third and fourth controllers have integrated third and fourth SCSI enclosure services (SES) processing devices. Each of the SES processing devices synchronizes and merges data to create a single control image for the entire configuration, presenting a single SES instance to a storage device interconnect network and to host controller software.
Time-gap defect detection apparatus and method
A programmatic time-gap defect correction apparatus and method corrects errors which may go undetected by a computer system. Buffer underruns or overruns, which may incur errors in data transfers, yet remain undetected and uncorrected in a computer system, are corrected by an error avoidance module in accordance with the invention. Bytes transferred to and from buffers, used by an I/O controllers to temporarily store data while being transferred between synchronous and asynchronous devices, are counted and an error condition is forced based on the count. If the count exceeds the capacity of the buffer, an error condition is forced, thereby reducing chances that errors are incurred into the data transfer.
Automatic delivery of personalized content to a portable media player with feedback
Automatic download of personalized media content to a portable media device based on user preferences is disclosed. A media service can evaluate content on a user's media device as well as user action related thereto to infer the user's preferences, and can automatically aggregate and download content that is relevant to the user's tastes. The user can subscribe to, for example, playlists generated by the media service, another user's playlist(s), a simulated radio station, etc., and can receive content updates thereto at predefined intervals and/or upon release of the updates. In this manner, the user can periodically receive media content that is personalized to the user without requiring the user to explicitly request the content or synchronize to a PC.
Method for using a multi-master multi-slave bus for power management
In one set of embodiments, a power management system comprises two or more devices, such as POL devices, configured to transmit and receive data over a shared bus, such as an I2C bus, according to the bus protocol of the shared bus. Each device may be configured with at least one respective address register, which may be programmed with an address uniquely identifying the device, and a mask register that may be configured to mask select bits of the respective address register, thereby enabling the device to identify device groups. In one embodiment, one of the devices identifying itself as a master device may distribute information to any of the other devices by transmitting the information, which may include commands and/or data, to itself, in effect targeting the address programmed into its own address register. The devices on the shared bus may be configured to monitor the bus for events, and respond to each event according to the requirements inherent within a transmitted command, thereby performing the necessary tasks to enable power management functions without the need for interconnecting analog signal lines.
Remote protocol support for communication of large objects in arbitrary format
A server computer provides objects such as bitmaps representing graphics image for processing by a client computer or device. The object may be of any arbitrary size or format, and is converted to a data structure that can be received by the client computer. Synchronized metadata may be included in the data structure, where such metadata data is used by an application in the client computer or device.
Systems, methods and computer program products for integrating advertising within web content
Systems, methods, and computer program products that facilitate the integration and accounting of advertising within audio Web content requested by users via telephone devices are provided. Upon receiving a request from a user for Web content via a telephone device, a Web server retrieves an advertisement from an advertisement server, inserts the retrieved advertisement within the user requested Web content, and forwards the user requested Web content and advertisement to a text-to-speech transcoder for conversion to an audio format. The text-to-speech transcoder converts the Web content and advertisement from a text-based format to an audio format and serves the Web content and advertisement in the audio format to the user client device via a telephone link established with the user client device. If an advertisement is interactive, a text-to-speech transcoder may be configured to notify an advertisement server of user interaction with the advertisement. Information such as an identification of a requesting client device, user, as well as time and date information, may be recorded by an advertisement server for use in measuring effectiveness of a particular marketing and/or advertising campaign. Information associated with providing a user with additional information associated with an advertisement may also be stored.
Resolving virtual network names
An apparatus and method is provided for resolving virtual network names using one or more name routers. A conventional Uniform Resource Locator (URL) naming scheme is extended by allowing any component to be mapped to an address. The resolution process occurs recursively through a plurality of name routers. Resolution can be contextual, such that the same virtual network name may be resolved differently depending on the identity of the client or other parameters.
Routable network subnet relocation systems and methods
A system and method for relocating a subnet to a remote location includes a tether router coupled to an anchor router via a link. The tether router is coupled to a plurality of nodes, each node corresponding to a network address of a plurality of network addresses allocated to a user. The plurality of network addresses is allocated to the user by a lease broker. The link may include a private tunnel for traversing a mechanism that otherwise hinders communication from the tether router to the anchor router, such as a network address translation (NAT) mechanism.
Defining and detecting network application business activities
Network applications are monitored by defining and detecting activities associated with the applications. Such activities are referred to as “business activities” in the sense that the activities are performed in the process of conducting business using applications. Each business activity of interest is associated with a unique “business signature” which can be used to identify the activity from streams or collections of information. In one embodiment, each business signature of interest to a business is defined as a set of one or more parameter name-value pairs. Once defined, network traffic to and from an application is monitored to detect business signatures, to detect that a corresponding business activity was started. Detecting an activity is based on real-time matching of business signature character patterns within a stream of characters with a repository of character patterns that each represents a business signature defined for the application.
Method and system for bandwidth allocation tracking in a packet data network
In a metropolitan area network, a method and system for maintaining an accurate total of the amount of allocated bandwidth on the network. A plurality of incoming packets are assigned to a respective plurality of queues of a metropolitan area network switch. Using a fair arbitration scheme, the respective queues are configured to empty at a specified output rate. A finish time for each respective queue is computed, the finish time describing a time at which the respective queue will be emptied using the output rate. The plurality of queues are grouped into multiple groups in accordance with their respective finish times. The earliest group includes the reserved rates of those queues having a finish time indicating an empty condition at a first time increment. The second earliest group includes the reserved rates of those queues having a finish time indicating an empty condition at a second time increment later than the first time increment, and so on. The amount of allocated bandwidth on the network is determined by tracking the sum of the reserved rates of all the multiple groups. The first time increment, second time increment, and the like are indexed with respect to a schedule clock. The earliest group thus indicates those queues that will have an empty condition at a next time increment of the schedule clock. The determination of the amount of allocated bandwidth can be accomplished in real time, thereby allowing the efficient allocation of unallocated bandwidth in real time.
Content display monitor
The invention can enable monitoring of the display of content by a computer system. Moreover, the invention can enable monitoring of the displayed content to produce monitoring information from which conclusions may be deduced regarding the observation of the displayed content by an observer. The invention can also enable monitoring of the display at a content display site of content that is provided by a content provider site over a network to the content display site. Additionally, the invention can enable the expeditious provision of updated and/or tailored content over a network from a content provider site to a content display site so that the content provider's current and appropriately tailored content is always displayed at the content display site. Aspects of the invention related to transfer of content over a network are generally applicable to any type of network. However, it is contemplated that the invention can be particularly useful with a computer network, including private computer networks (e.g., America Online™) and public computer networks (e.g., the Internet). In particular, the invention can be advantageously used with computer networks or portions of computer networks over which video and/or audio content are transferred from one network site to another network site for observation, such as the World Wide Web portion of the Internet.
Server monitoring framework
A novel software framework monitors server statistics for a plurality of software modules and makes its collected statistics available to those modules. Unlike prior implementations, the framework provides shared server-monitoring code through which the plurality of software modules can monitor various types of servers, such as authentication servers, ICAP servers, origin servers, hierarchical proxy servers and so forth. Because the same server-monitoring code is accessed by each of the software modules, the overall amount of code that is written, compiled and executed may be reduced. Moreover, the shared server-monitoring code is not protocol-dependant and therefore may be coded outside of the kernel-level protocol engines. Preferably, the shared server-monitoring code is implemented as a user-level thread or process.
Method of measuring round trip time and proximity checking method using the same
A method of measuring round trip time (RTT) and a proximity checking method using the same. The method of measuring RTT includes: transmitting a hashed second random number and starting the RTT measurement; and receiving a hashed first random number from a device that received the hashed second random number and ending the RTT measurement, thereby greatly reducing repetitive encryption and decryption operations in the proximity check using a repetitive RTT measurement.
Methods and apparatus for processing configuration data
An agent of a storage area network generates a first checksum value for a first set of zone configuration data used to at least initially configure the storage area network. At a later time, after a potential change to the first zone configuration data of the storage area network, the agent generates a checksum value based on current zone configuration data presently used to configure the zone in the storage area network. The agent then compares the first checksum value and the second checksum value to identify whether there has been a change to the first zone configuration data. That is, if the first checksum value does not equal the second checksum value, the agent flags that there has been a change to zone configuration data of the storage area network. Users can control behavior of zoning importation and activation depending on whether current zone configuration data has been changed.
Method for remote interrogation of SNMP agents
The invention relates to a method for processing a complex request addressed to at least one SNMP agent (5) of a resource machine (2b) from an SNMP manager (4) of an application machine (2a). The complex request is processed so as to enable an integrating agent (6) to translate the complex request into SNMP requests and to optimize the number of SNMP requests transmitted through the network (3), particularly the number of GETNEXT requests.
System and method for streaming of dynamic weather content to the desktop
A method, system and program product for streaming of dynamic information content over an interactive media such as the Internet. The dynamic content, such as dynamic weather data, is collected from a plurality of collection sources such as geographically distributed local weather reporting stations. The data information can be relatively static or dynamic, constantly changing data. The dynamic content is stored in databases maintained on a direct access storage device at the dynamic content server. The selection of dynamic content to be transmitted to the end user client is based on a demographic profile that is completed at the time of end user client registration and which precedes delivery of any selected content in response to end user client requests. An application resident on the dynamic content server streams selected content simultaneously to a plurality of end user client devices for each end user client request. An application resident on each end user client device generates a plurality of processing threads for a series of independent commands, each of which is transmitted to the dynamic content server at specified preset intervals and generates a server-selected response. In a weather content collection and delivery embodiment, local, real-time weather data can be received continuously from thousands of weather reporting stations, and transmitted simultaneously by the weather content server to millions of end user desktop clients, with each user receiving current weather data that is generated from a nearby weather collection station.
Dynamic image delivery system
A dynamic image delivery system receives a client request for an image at an image caching server. The image caching server measures the client's network access speed and looks for an appropriate pre-rendered copy of the requested image that is rendered for the client's network access speed in local storage. If the appropriate rendered copy is found, then the image caching server sends the rendered image to the client. If it is not found, then the image caching server dynamically renders a copy of the image and sends it to the client.
System, method, and article of manufacture for seamless integrated searching
A search system (10) employing a scheme of meta-folders (14) in which conventional objects (18) and search objects (20) may be stored in an intermingling manner. Upon opening a meta-folder (14) the search objects (20) are resolved into conventional static pointers, and thus into conventional objects (18). Optionally, an unresolved meta-folder (14a) may very fleetingly appear while this occurs. A resolved meta-folder (14a) then results, presenting only conventional objects (18). In particular, the search objects (20) may be search criteria which the process of resolving causes to produce only such searched out conventional objects (18) which are currently available. Users (80) of the search system (10) my employ it in large network environments (82), including the Internet (96).
Network system and method for automatically transferring data in a plurality of input and output formats to a computer network
A network device configured to be coupled to a network includes a plurality of input/output ports configured to be coupled to a plurality of input sources and receive a plurality of input data items. The network device includes an input device for entering destination information and output format information for each of the plurality of input data items. An interface bridge coupled to the plurality of input/output ports receives the plurality of input data items from the plurality of input/output ports and outputs the plurality of input data items using a single output protocol. A controller coupled to the interface bridges receives the plurality of input data items. The controller automatically converts each of the input data items to an output data item based on the entered destination and output format information, and automatically outputs the output data items to the network.
System, method and apparatus for communicating via sound messages and personal sound identifiers
A system, method and apparatus for facilitating communication among a number of distributed clients in a distributed network is disclosed. A user, such as through a personal digital assistant device, may select one or more sound messages for transmission to one or more other users in the network. Each sound message may be preceded by a sound identifier which identifies the sending user. Users may select or create their sounds message and/or person sound identifiers. The sound messages will typically be abbreviated melodies or note strings which are associated with certain conversational messages.
Method and apparatus for electronic postcard communication
A method and an apparatus for communicating with electronic postcards include a server for processing electronic postcards. Input sites remote from the server are selected based upon exposure to significant numbers of business travelers and tourists and provided with input devices. A verified communication link is established between the input devices and the server. A sender generated postcard request received at one of the input devices including an addressee e-mail address (38), a sender message (36) and a scene selection (33) transmits an electronic postcard (30) to the addressee.
Intelligent virtual content distribution network system and method
A method and system of use of a Content Distribution Network (CDN), wherein server functionality and client functionality are unbundled. Client software, which governs the accesses and request of the information from the CDN (i.e., server) is provided by a “thin” client architecture. The thin client software is capable of running on an as needed basis, therefore not allocating significant portions of available memory, except when being accessed. The server functionality retains the bulk of the software functionality to manage locally stored content, process content requests, and forward the requested data to content requesters running the client software.
Role-based portal to a workplace system
A method includes storing a plurality of role data entries on a storage device coupled to a computer system, each role data entry corresponding to an assigned role of at least one of a plurality of individuals, each role corresponding to an enterprise with which the individual is associated and corresponding to a set of resources accessible through the computer system, receiving at the computer a resource request from one of the individuals, determining whether the requested resource is included in the set of accessible resources corresponding to the assigned role of the requesting individual, and selectively permitting access to the requested resource if the resource is determined to be in the set of resources corresponding to the assigned role of the requesting individual.
Client failure fencing mechanism for fencing network file system data in a host-cluster environment
A method and system performs a fencing technique in a host cluster storage environment. The fence program executes on each cluster member in the cluster, and the cluster is coupled to a storage system by a network. When a cluster member fails or cluster membership changes, the fence program is invoked and a host fencing API message is sent via the network to the storage system. The storage system in turn modifies export lists to restrict further access by the failed cluster node to otherwise fence the failed cluster node off from that storage system or from certain directories within that storage system.
Systems and methods for multi-stage message brokering
A message brokering mechanism for performing a recovery operation in a transaction processing system including first and second stages operable to exchange message requests and responses. The first stage may receive a message request from a message source and may check whether the message request is a special message request. This may be by way of checking if a recovery attribute of the message request is set. A normal message request may have a recovery attribute that is not set. If the message request is a special message request, it may be dispatched to the second stage. If the message request is a normal message request, it may be dispatched to the second stage if the normal message request is not a repeat normal message request.
Digital logic circuit for adding three binary words and method of implementing same
A digital logic circuit includes at least one stage. Each stage includes sum logic, combinatorial logic, and carry chain logic. The sum logic is configured to generate a first sum signal from a first set of three input signals. The combinatorial logic includes a carry generation portion and a sum generation portion. The carry generation portion is configured to generate a first carry signal from a second set of three input signals. The sum generation portion is configured to generate a second sum signal from the first sum signal and the first carry signal. The carry chain logic is configured to process the first sum signal, the second sum signal, and a carry-in signal to generate a carry-out signal and a third sum signal.
Efficient mapping of FFT to a reconfigurable parallel and pipeline data flow machine
A system comprises first and second local memory banks; and a reconfigurable ALU array having multiple configurations including: a first for performing an inverse butterfly operation, a second for performing a multiplication operation, a third for performing parallel subtraction and addition, and a fourth for performing an inverse N-point shuffle. The ALU array may obtain input for the inverse butterfly operation from the first bank and store output in the second bank. The ALU array may obtain input for the multiplication operation from the second bank and store output in the first bank. The ALU array may obtain input for the parallel subtraction and addition operation from the first bank and store output in the second bank. The ALU array may obtain input for the N-point inverse shuffle from the second bank and store output in the first bank. The system may further comprise a bit reversal block.
Wide area distributed storage system for checking erasure of worm files
A wide area distributed storage system checks for erasure of WORM (Write-Once Read-Many) files. A first management server acquires a storage location of a second file on a second disk apparatus which corresponds to a first file stored on a first disk apparatus, of which a retention period has expired, and queries a second management server about a retention period of the second file whose storage location has been acquired. The queried second management server refers to a file table and indicates existence or non-existence of the second file on the second disk apparatus and whether the retention period of the second file has expired or not. The system avoids unintended deletion of files by querying a plurality of file management servers about whether a file with an expired retention period should be set as a deletable object.
Methods and systems for data moving using locks
Methods, computer readable medium and systems are provided for moving data objects from a first storage location to a second storage location. One or more data objects may be selected having an identifier from a first storage location. The ID may be stored in at least one transactional type lock object. Systems and methods consistent with the invention may determine whether a permanent type lock exists for a data object. If the permanent type lock does exist, systems and methods consistent with the invention may store the data object, the ID of which is contained in the at least one transactional type lock object, at the second storage location, store the ID of that data object in a permanent type lock object, assign the second storage location to the ID in the at least one permanent type lock object, and delete the ID of that data object in the transactional type lock object.
Method and system for data processing with data distribution managing
It is judged whether the reference data is the latest and if not the latest, the data is updated to the latest in a short time. A program in which data creation procedure is pre-defined creates requested secondary data according to primary data. The primary data, the secondary data, and data update information including the primary data update time and the secondary data update time are stored in a storage device. When the relationship between data update information on the primary data and the secondary data used for creating the requested secondary data when generation of the secondary data is requested and the data update information on the requested secondary data does not satisfy a predetermined condition, a program for creating the requested secondary data is executed. Furthermore, the primary data and the secondary data are outputted to the output unit while correlating them to each other.
Monitoring connection between computer system layers
Monitoring a connection between computer system layers includes detecting that an aspect is being modified in a transactional layer of an enterprise resource computing system that further includes an analytical layer configured to receive data from the transactional layer. In response to the detection, it is determined whether at least one of several decoupling components, configured for use by the analytical layer in receiving the data, is implicated by the aspect. A predefined output is made to a user based on the determination. An enterprise resource computing system includes a transactional layer and an analytical layer, and decoupling components for use by the analytical layer in receiving the data. Upon an aspect of the transactional layer being modified, a predefined output is made to a user based on a determination of whether any of several decoupling components is implicated by the aspect.
Data communication system, data communication apparatus, and data communication method for generating or detecting an event
In general, those who are right in front of each other can share actual world events that are generated in the same working space. For example, when an audio or a light of a wave form pattern is generated, by recognizing such an actual world event, both communication apparatuses share the actual world event. Also, a shock wave generated when one communication apparatus is hit with the other is shared by both. One of the communication partners searches a network for a communication partner who is right in front with the actual world event as a clue. Thus, it is possible to perform data communications with a communication partner whose location in the actual world is clear, such as being right in front, but whose identification information in the communication medium is unknown.
Method and system for selectively accessing files accessible through a network
A method (and system) for periodically searching through files accessible through a network, at an interval based on previously accessed data. The method includes accessing and download data from a first file on the network. An accessing time is set to access a second file on the network based on the data downloaded from the first file. In one further embodiment, the first file is a Channel Definition Format (CDF) file.
Permissions using a namespace
Permissions using a namespace is described. In an embodiment, a namespace system includes a network resource that has a resource permission, and includes a namespace that has one or more members associated with the namespace. The namespace system also includes a namespace permission to permission the network resource to one or more of the members of the namespace.
System and method for determining file system data integrity
A system and method for determining file system data integrity. In one embodiment, the system includes a storage device configured to store data and a file system configured to manage access to the storage device, to store plurality of files, to store a respective signature of each of the plurality of files, and to compare a respective signature of a given file against a corresponding validation signature. In one specific implementation, the system further includes a validation signature inventory including a plurality of validation signatures, and the file system is further configured to validate a particular file by retrieving a corresponding particular validation signature from the validation signature inventory and comparing the corresponding particular validation signature against the respective signature of the particular file. In another specific implementation, the file system is further configured to store the corresponding validation signature of the given file in a write-once storage attribute.
Method and apparatus for quantum clustering
A method of determining clusters of data within a dataset, the dataset is represented by a plurality of multidimensional data entries, the method comprises (a) spanning a space, represented by a plurality of points; (b) determining a density function over the space;(c) associating a potential to the density function; (d) locating a plurality of local minima of the potential; and (e) for each of the plurality of local minima, attributing at least one of the points; thereby determining clusters of data within the dataset.
Multi-epoch method for saving and exporting file system events
As things happen on a volume, the file system forwards events to an event list manager. The event list manager stores the events and associates them with epochs that were active at the time the event occurred. Event consumers can independently declare epochs at any time. When event consumers end an epoch, they can request events that occurred during the epoch, which are reported to the event consumer using the event list manager.
Method and apparatus for compressing a data set
A configuration management system that uses a data compression method to compress entries in a data set. An entry is selected as a prefix value and prefix compression of the data set is performed. The entry to serve as the prefix value is quickly selected using an iterative approach. In each iteration, subgroups of entries are formed from groups formed in prior iterations based on the values of characters at successive positions in the entries. The approach is readily implemented using data structures represented as lists.
Abstraction control solution
A scaleable abstraction control solution including an abstraction process and an abstraction system. The abstraction solution permits extraction, tracking, and management of data defined in one or more documents. The abstraction process can include double blind data abstraction. The abstracted data can be verified using a quality assurance process that can include statistical sampling, tracked random error insertion, and abstraction auditing. Data from documents can be abstracted into one or more customizable databases, forms, templates, or software.
Indirect persistent storage for plugin in container
Indirect persistent storage of data in a file that is associated with an application program and is capable of having an embedded OLEObject includes creating the OLEObject by way of a Component Object Model add-in that supplements the application program, and using the OLEObject to store the data in the file. The OLEObject is marked so that it is hidden from a user of the application program. After loading a file that was previously saved and closed, the OLEObject is initialized, and the stored data is retrieved. The add-in may be a reporting add-in that queries a database, such as an OLAP database.
Systems and methods for interoperable multimedia content descriptions
Systems and methods for generating standard description records from multimedia information are provided. The system includes at least one multimedia information input interface (180) receiving multimedia information, a computer processor, and a data storage system (150), operatively coupled to said processor, for storing said at least one description record. The processor performs object extraction processing to generate multimedia object descriptions (200, 201, 205) from the multimedia information, and object hierarchy processing (410, 420) to generate multimedia object hierarchy descriptions, to generate at least one description record including the multimedia object descriptions (200, 201, 205) and multimedia object hierarchy descriptions for content embedded within the multimedia information.
Persistent data management with different isolation levels
A method is described for managing an application's cached persistent data with different isolation levels. The different isolation levels include: 1) requesting a lock for a first item of database data in response to the first item of database data not being cached and not yet having been used by the application; 2) requesting a lock for a second item of cached database data in response to the second item of database data being updated for a first time by the application; and, 3) requesting a lock for a third item of cached database data in response to it being confirmed that the third item of database data will need to be updated in its database.
Method for validation of proper ownership for resale of goods
A method and apparatus is disclosed using the internet (or similar) to provide, publish and maintain a database for stolen items. The method and apparatus further disclose the utilization of this database as a backbone for an internet portal, providing for automated contact of interested parties, automated e-commerce for replacement of assets, and immediate distribution of published information. The preferred embodiment would provide a means for extracting the information from entered police reports to create an all encompassing database. The present invention provides a new mechanism for deterring the selling of stolen items, increasing the potential of recovering stolen or missing items, and simplifying the claim processing process.
Method of determining the similarity of two strings
Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of determining the similarity of two strings. The method comprises calculating a Levenshtein matrix of a first string and a second string. A Levenshtein distance is determined from the Levenshtein matrix. A largest common substring is also determined from the Levenshtein matrix. The method may farther comprise determining a numerical score as a function of the Levenshtein distance and the largest common substring.
Integrated search engine devices having pipelined search and tree maintenance sub-engines therein that support variable tree height
A pipelined search engine device, such as a longest prefix match (LPM) search engine device, includes a hierarchical memory and a pipelined tree maintenance engine therein. The hierarchical memory is configured to store a b-tree of search prefixes (and possibly span prefix masks) at multiple levels therein. The pipelined tree maintenance engine, which is embedded within the search engine device, includes a plurality of node maintenance sub-engines that are distributed with the multiple levels of the hierarchical memory. The search engine device may also include pipeline control and search logic that is distributed with the multiple levels of the hierarchical memory.
A method of analyzing documents or relationships between documents includes receiving a notification of an available metadata document containing information about one or more network-accessible documents, obtaining a document format indicator associated with the metadata document, selecting a document crawler using the document format indicator, and crawling at least some of the network-accessible documents using the selected document crawler.
Preserving privacy when statistically analyzing a large database
A database has a plurality of entries and a plurality of attributes common to each entry, where each entry corresponds to an individual. A query q is received from a querying entity query q and is passed to the database, and an answer a is received in response. An amount of noise e is generated and added to the answer a to result in an obscured answer o, and the obscured answer o is returned to the querying entity. Thus, a level of protection of privacy is provided to each individual represented within the database.
Method and apparatus for facilitating simultaneous modifications to financial-data by multiple users
One embodiment of the present invention provides a system that facilitates simultaneous modifications to financial-data by a first user and a second user. During operation, the system creates a copy of a financial-data file. The system then allows the first user to modify the financial-data file. The system also sends the copy of the financial-data file to the second user, thereby enabling the second user to modify the financial-data file to create a change file. Next, the system receives the change file from the second user, wherein the change file includes modifications to financial-data within the financial-data file. Finally, the system merges the change file into the financial-data file.
Data protection services offload using shallow files
A shallow file is adapted for intensive read-only access to data of a primary file. The primary file resides in another file system or file server. The shallow file includes the data block mapping metadata of the primary file and a link to the primary file. To open the shallow file, the file system manager of the shallow file obtains a read lock on the primary file from the file system manager of the primary file. Then the file system manager of the shallow file may use the data block mapping in the shallow file to access the file data from the primary file in storage without participation of the file system manager of the primary file. This permits offloading of data protection services for secure and efficient storage of a backup copy of the file data.
Diagnostic report improvement utilizing unobtrusive workflow logging
The subject invention leverages data logging of responses to diagnostic reports to provide data that can be mined for diagnostic report quality information. Instances of the subject invention provide an initial diagnostic report assessment means to facilitate review by an entity. The entity's responses to the sorted diagnostic reports are logged unobtrusively to create diagnostic report quality data. This data is then analyzed by an analysis means that can then adjust the assessment means to improve its performance. In this manner, the performance of the assessment means is increased while reducing the workload of the entity reviewing the diagnostic reports. Other instances of the subject invention facilitate to increase the performance of a diagnostic report generating means as well. Instances of the subject invention can also employ machine learning techniques to facilitate in analyzing the quality data and/or in assessing the diagnostic reports.
Network connected delivery box using access codes and methods for providing same
A network connected delivery box includes an input unit for inputting a user code. A communication unit communicates with a computer through the network so that an electrically controlled lock in the delivery box can be opened by a signal from the computer when the input user code matches a valid user code stored in the computer. Also provided is a method of managing purchase and delivery information associated with deliveries to a delivery box by storing, at a central computer, delivery information for each delivery by a delivery company. Aggregate and average delivery information is calculated and presented to a delivery box user to make an informed selection of a delivery company.
Centralized electronic commerce card transactions
A central transaction server in electronic commerce card authorization system enables the electronic commerce card association to manage and monitor the authentication system. The central transaction server acts as an intermediary for all communications between the access control server used for authentication. If any portion of the authentication system fails, the central transaction server compensates by providing appropriate responses to other portions of the system. The centralized transaction server translates all incoming traffic into a format compatible with the intended recipient, enabling portions of the system to be upgraded without breaking compatibility with the non-upgraded portions. The centralized transaction server also enables the integration of formally separate portions of the authentication system into a single unit. The directory and the authentication history servers can be integrated into the central transaction server, and the central transaction server can initiate charges to the electronic commerce card automatically, bypassing the card acquirer.
Automated document cashing system
An automated document cashing system is provided with an automated machine that cashes monetary transaction documents such as checks, money orders, and that makes deposit entries into the bank account of the user after validation of the user and monetary transaction document, without the aid of a bank teller. Validation of the identity of the user is performed with the use of a card associated with intelligence that identifies the user. A biometric device also may be used in identifying the validity of the user. Validation of the document involves one or more of: validating the presence of a signature; validating the amount of the monetary transaction document including a manual entry of the amount by the user; validating CAR against the LAR; and validating the banking system parameters and rules for the customer and/or the transaction. To assist in the automatic analysis of data on monetary transactional documents or on remittance documents, the user is prompted to provide a bounding box about the data. An image touch screen may be touched by the user to locate the bounding box and the user may magnify the data to fill the boundary box to exclude other data from this analysis. After document and person validation, the system will dispense money or transfer monies to a savings account, a checking account, a smart card, or the like. The system will also write money orders or wire transfer money. By supplying monies in the form of cash, credit card authorization, smart card balance, or the like to the machine, the user can pay bills such as a utility bill through the system or purchase items dispensed by the system.
Payment administration system
A payment administration system includes a system administrator, customer and merchant interfaces, and a database. The payment administrative system also includes bank interfaces, credit agency interfaces to facilitate automatic, paperless transactions rapidly. The customer is permitted to set a number of purchase and payment parameters, such as hours of use, goods or services category, and daily limits. The payment administration system generates real-time notification of any action occurring on the customer's account and permits continuous monitoring of the status of each transaction in real time.
Controlled entertainment spending account
A computer-based method for allocating parental funds in preestablished accounts for use by children, including the steps of: providing a bank or credit account containing parental funds for allocation to at least one child; creating a secondary account file with an internet video file supplier accessible by a child for spending on internet video file purchases; and periodically transferring directly and automatically to the secondary account file from the bank or credit account an allowance payment for use by the child to purchase and transfer video files over the internet using a personal computer; wherein the steps of creating a secondary account file and periodically transferring funds from the bank or credit account to the secondary account are performed using information supplied by the parent over the internet using a personal computer.
Late fee avoidance system
A method and apparatus are disclosed (a) which maintain credit card account and billing data including (i) data correlating credit card numbers, cardholders, and payment information such as mailing addresses or American Banking Association (ABA) routing numbers of the payee or his representative; (ii) data from which a payment due date can be determined; and (iii) means for estimating, receiving, or calculating a payment amount equal to or greater than a minimum payment amount due during a credit card's billing cycle; (b) which provide a mechanism for automatic funding of said payment amount payable during a billing cycle; and (c) which provide a mechanism for automatically issuing said payment amount to a designated payee or his representative whereby “late fees” are avoided.
System and method for randomizing orders in an electronic trading environment
When a trading application on a client terminal receives a trade order, a randomizer application may automatically randomize one or more order parameters to generate a randomized order. For example, an order quantity, a price level, and/or a time period between sending any two consecutive orders may be randomized. In another example, in a thin market randomized order quantities may be decreased and in a heavy market randomized order quantities may be increased. The randomized order is then automatically placed on the market.
Method and system for providing order routing to a virtual crowd in a hybrid trading system
A method of providing orders to a virtual trading crowd in an exchange prior to automatically linking the order to an away market is disclosed. The method may include receiving a marketable order for a security or derivative at the exchange, wherein the exchange has a price that differs from a national best bid or offer price, routing the marketable order to a trade engine, disseminating a request for price message to all market makers quoting a class in response to receiving the marketable order, the request for price message including a price equal to the national best bid or offer price, receiving a response message at the electronic trade engine in response to the request for price message from at least one market maker, initiating a quote trigger, wherein the quote trigger occurs for a period of N seconds, and allocating the order according to an allocation algorithm, wherein an order size of each market maker is capped to prevent inflation of an allocated portion of the order.
Computer-implemented trading in freight derivatives and techniques therefor
Computer-implemented techniques via a computer network for allowing freight industry participants, including shippers, forwarders, carriers, and market makers to securely and conveniently trade in freight capacity, which is destined to be transported via a plurality of transportation modes, are disclosed. Trading is enhanced by providing user-appropriate forecast data and rating data to traders, while various data display restrictions are imposed to achieve security and to respect the confidentiality needs of the freight industry participants.
Automated execution system having participation
A method and system is provided for allowing a participant that generates order flow to participate in automated execution trades that are generated by the participant's order flow, without affecting the price of execution to the retail customer. The method and system automatically assigns a stated percentage of the contra-side of each customer trade to the participant that sent in the order flow.
Method and apparatus for filtering and/or sorting responses to electronic requests for quote
A method and apparatus for filtering and/or sorting responses to electronic requests for quotes for a product or products offered for sale includes comparing first data of each of a plurality electronic quotes to first data of an electronic request for quote. Each of the plurality of electronic quotes is classified as either a matching quote or a non-matching quote. After the quotes are classified, each classified quote is ranked, for example, by the total price of the product or products offered for sale. Classification into distinct categories is used to apply techniques to make quotes comparable. Inexact matches can be adjusted to allow comparison between exact matching quotes and the adjusted inexact matching quotes.
Method and system for derivatives pricing
A method and system of calculating a net present value of an average spot basket option is provided. The method includes calculating a first and second moment of a sum of spot values of all underlyings of a basket and applying a Black-Scholes formalism to the first and second moments to determine the net present value of an average spot basket option. The method further includes calculating a modified forward spot, a modified strike value, and first and second modified normal distribution functions for application in the Black-Scholes formalism. A system in accordance with the invention includes a memory that stores data that is exercised in connection with determining the net present value, a processor that executes code to determine the net present value in accordance with the a first and second moment of the sum of spot values of all underlyings of a basket and the application of a Black-Scholes formalism to the first and second moments to determine the net present value of the average spot basket option.
Method for evaluating differences in the past performance of an asset-class population of book-valued investments
The method of evaluating differences in the past performance of an asset class population of book valued investments. The analysis period that is of a length to include a significant portion of a market cycle is defined. A series of evaluation-period and selection-period performance statistics are calculated for the asset class population. Testing is conducted to find the correlation, performance and risk axes of the population as revealed during the analysis period. The dividing lines are calculated for subsequent evaluation-period populations of the asset class and use the groupings so identified to assign a value to each of the members of the asset class. This value will be the expected average performance strength of the investments within each group for a subsequent selection period. Findings of subsequent evaluation-period and selection periods can be included as they become available in the analysis period populations for re-execution of the method.
Apparatus and methods for handling trading data
A manually-assisted computer and communications apparatus is provided for periodically fixing a price of a currency or commodity. Successive rate samples of said currency/stock/commodity are received from a plurality of sources (80) over a period of time, recorded and filtered automatically (90) by reference to said historical record and predetermined validation criteria so as to categorize certain samples as valid or erroneous. The received & filtered samples are combined periodically (105-115) so as to derive a fixed rate, which is then released (120) to users. The filtering means distinguishes between rate samples of different contributors within the samples received from a given source, and also receives (OTR1) trading rates generated by an online trading system, in addition to rates quoted by other contributors. Trading rates are applied in said fixed rate in preference to quoted rates. Traders and clients contract (450, 455) to buy and sell currency at rates to be fixed by the apparatus at a future time.
Portfolio accounting system and method for handling uncertainty in accounting information
Portfolio accounting systems and methods are adapted to handle uncertainty in accounting information due to time delay in information issuance. Accounting information is represented by streams of sequenced simple transaction states, each individual state describing the state of an account or its changes as known at a certain point in time while the stream ties the consecutive states into a life cycle of the information improving over time. A first simple transaction state attribute corresponds to the traditional value date. A second attribute corresponds to a reporting date. A third attribute corresponds to the traditional account value or relative/absolute changes thereof.
Auction negotiation support systems and methods
Methods for auction negotiation support executed by a negotiator agent module are provided. The best bid corresponding to a product/service and a total number of negotiator agent modules placing the best bid are received. It is determined that a bid is placed by a following strategy or an exceeding strategy. The following strategy indicates that, when the received best bid is not equal to the prior bid placed by the negotiator agent module, the negotiator agent module places the bid equal to the received best bid. The exceeding strategy indicates that, when the inverse of the total number of negotiator agent modules placing the best bid is lower than a predetermined threshold, the negotiator agent module places the bid advanced to the received best bid.
Systems and methods for the selection and purchase of digital assets
The present invention provides systems and methods for enabling a customer to sample content and select content for purchasing while the customer is in a retail store. Advantageously, the customer may be given one or more options for the delivery of the content.
Methods and systems for providing a rebate program
The present invention relates to methods and systems for funding a college education by accumulating and managing merchant rebates. The present invention also relates to methods and systems for enrolling and registering members in an organization through the organization provision of topical information and materials, useful links to, and information on, Internet and non-Internet based merchants, related to a college education. In particular, the present invention relates to facilitating retail transactions between an organization registered members and selected merchants who offer rebates on the transactions between themselves and the organization members so that the rebates are accumulated and provided for funding a college education.
System and method for generating price-per-gallon discounts for fuel
A fuel rewards program wherein awards received from the purchase of discount-triggering items at a first transaction are redeemed for a price-per-unit (PPU) discount on fuel. A scanner scans product codes and inputs the information to a POS system through a comparator such that a product may be determined to be a discount-triggering item. Information regarding the discount-triggering item is first stored in a potential buffer. A rewards process processes the information in the potential buffer and stores that information in a filtered potential buffer. A potential file accumulates basic information about one or more transactions. A purchase buffer stores all of the information, which is ultimately printed on a cash register receipt. The receipt may be scanned at a fuel dispenser to begin the redemption of the PPU discount on the fuel.
Systems and methods for delivering advertisements
A system for retrieving information about an advertisement that was viewed or heard by an individual. The system includes an advertisement content server having at least one file containing information about the advertisement and a device for accessing the information via a communications network. The content server enables the individual, using the device, to retrieve a subset of the information based on a limited knowledge of the individual concerning the advertisement.
Systems and methods for automating a process of business decision making and workflow
A system and method for automating a business procedure is disclosed. The workflow management system includes an administrator, a process designer, a workflow database, a process engine and a web client. The system may interact with a form generator and a business application program. The system first analyzes the business process and models the process as a combination of detailed activities. The system assigns the properties to each activity according to the business rules. After modeling the business process and after the business process is initiated, the process engine allocates the workitems to the participant. The system can automate a very complicated business process and can be expanded and adapted to ever-changing business environments.
Processing program edition conferencing method and system
An initial contractor (5) that receives a request from an ordering customer (3) to manufacture a product performs a process edition conference via an outsourcing service using a computer (11) of the initial contractor. The initial contractor (5) receives a request from an ordering customer (3) to manufacture a sheet metal product. For manufacturing the product, the initial contractor (5) performs a processing edition conference to decide the method for processing the product and to estimate the price required and the delivery schedule. In the performance of the processing edition conference, the initial contractor (5) requests the services of an outsourcing service center (7). A CAD/CAM operator of the outsourcing service center (7) logs in to a computer (11) of the initial contractor from a computer (13) of the outsourcing service center, such that the operator participates in the processing edition conference while operating the computer (11) of the initial contractor, so that the processing method, price estimate and delivery schedule are decided by work performed on the computer (11) of the initial contractor.
Independent annuity placement system and method
A system and method for facilitating annuity transactions between annuity purchasers and providers via an annuities placement program accessible to the purchasers and providers. Purchasers enter quote solicitation information used by the annuity providers to establish a quote for an annuity. Annuity providers enter a quote in response to the quote solicitation information, and the quote is provided to the purchaser via the annuities placement program. The quote is customized to the annuity purchaser's quote solicitation information. Multiple quotes from multiple providers may be presented to the purchaser for ease of quote comparison. To facilitate such transactions, a discretionary group is established to be a contract holder for each participating annuity provider. A master group contract is established for each of the participating providers, each of which is written by a respective one of the participating annuity providers to the discretionary group to allow the discretionary group to be the contract holder for annuities purchased by the annuity purchasers. In response to an annuity purchase, a certificate of participation is issued to the purchaser from the provider under the terms of the master group contract of that annuity provider, which reflects annuity terms customized to the annuity purchaser.
Computer architecture and process of patient generation, evolution, and simulation for computer based testing system
A computer implemented simulation and evaluation method simulates interventions to a patient by a user, and evaluates the interventions responsive to predetermined criteria and the interventions. The method includes defining a test area to evaluate the user to at least one of predetermined criteria and a user profile, selecting genetic information of the patient responsive to the test area, and generating a patient history responsive to the test area and the genetic information. The method also includes receiving at least one intervention input by the user, and evaluating the user responsive to the intervention and predetermined criteria.
Valuation using credit score
A method of appraising the value of a property based on obtaining a credit score of an owner of a property and assigning an ownership responsibility indicator to the property. The ownership responsibility indicator provides insight into the condition of the property without performing a complete inspection. A more accurate value of the property can then be determined.
Method and system for searching and submitting online via an aggregation portal
A method and system is disclosed for searching and submitting intellectual property listings, goods and services offered for sale online. Tailored searching is provided in a convenient and efficient manner on the Internet via an Aggregation Portal. The Aggregation Portal provides a uniform and user-friendly interface, whereby intermediary services are provided to facilitate transactions utilizing the Internet. Such services include legal, valuation, insurance, escrow, brokering, consulting and other professional services. Further, a multiple-listing type of commission sharing is created between the Aggregation Portal and various Internet auctions and exchanges. In one embodiment, a software application is downloaded on a user's personal computer (or network terminal) for searching, marketing and transacting goods and services, especially intellectual property.
System and method for facilitating call routing using speech recognition
A computer-implemented method is described for optimizing prompts for a speech-enabled application. The speech-enabled application is operable to receive communications from a number of users and communicate one or more prompts to each user to illicit a response from the user that indicates the purpose of the user's communication. The method includes determining a number of prompt alternatives (each including one or more prompts) to evaluate and determining an evaluation period for each prompt alternative. The method also includes automatically presenting each prompt alternative to users during the associated evaluation period and automatically recording the results of user responses to each prompt alternative. Furthermore, the method includes automatically analyzing the recorded results for each prompt alternative based on one or more performance criteria and automatically implementing one of the prompt alternatives based on the analysis of the recorded results.
Method for testing a speech server
One aspect of the present invention relates to simulating an interaction between a client and a server. A session is established between the client and the server to conduct a test. Testing data is transmitted from the client to the server. The server processes the testing data and provides an in-band signal indicative of a response based on the testing data. The server also provides an out-of-band signal indicative of testing synchronization information related to the test.
Method and system for efficient voice-based programming
Provided is a system and method for creating program code via voice input. The method includes providing a client application configured to compare a voice input to a grammar specified in a document; mapping a plurality of commands specified in the grammar to programming language commands; and enhancing the mapped programming language commands to enable compiling. The enhancing can include creating programming code by inserting at least implicit parentheses, punctuation, and default variable values. The programming language commands can be associated with Java or another language. The document can be a VoiceXML file that can be altered to permit a number of different programming language. A voice programming system includes a receiver to receive voice commands; a voice programming processor configured to process the voice commands to create code; and an enhancement block configured to alter the code into compilable code. The enhancement block inserts implicit parentheses, punctuation and variables appropriate for a predetermined code.
Method and apparatus for website navigation by the visually impaired
The present invention is a server-side method and apparatus that enables visually-impaired users to navigate websites and hear high-quality streaming audio of narration and descriptions of each website. The system involves creating an audible website corresponding to an original website by utilizing voice talent to read and describe web content and create audio files for each section within an original website, then assigning a hierarchy and navigation system based on the original website design. To implement the system, a small program is installed on the home page of an original website which plays a tone upon a user's visit indicating that the website is accessible with the present invention. Upon hearing the tone, a user presses a key on the keyboard to exit the original website and enter the audible website. Audible narration is played through the user's computer, reading text and describing non-text information. The narration includes menus for navigating the site which have a hierarchy substantially similar to that of the original website. Users navigate the website menus and move from website to website by making keystroke commands.
Speech processing device and method, and program for recognition of out-of-vocabulary words in continuous speech
A speech processing device and a speech processing method, a storage medium, and a program decreases deletion errors and increases a speech recognition rate. A network of words and syllables is generated, and the network has two kinds of paths: paths that do not contain a particular syllable and paths that contain the syllable at a position corresponding to a boundary between words. Thus, an optimal sub-word sequence on the network is selected for an input utterance.
Voice and data exchange over a packet based network with voice detection
A signal processing system which discriminates between voice signals and data signals modulated by a voiceband carrier. The signal processing system includes a voice exchange, a data exchange and a call discriminator. The voice exchange is capable of exchanging voice signals between a switched circuit network and a packet based network. The signal processing system also includes a data exchange capable of exchanging data signals modulated by a voiceband carrier on the switched circuit network with unmodulated data signal packets on the packet based network. The data exchange is performed by demodulating data signals from the switched circuit network for transmission on the packet based network, and modulating data signal packets from the packet based network for transmission on the switched circuit network. The call discriminator is used to selectively enable the voice exchange and data exchange.
Method for calculating high-resolution wafer parameter profiles
An embodiment of the present invention provides a method to utilize data from many different die sizes and products so that highly detailed wafer profiles can be generated that have an improved signal to noise ratio and spatial resolution. Instead of being limited to single die size like normal wafer maps, this method takes advantage of multiple die sizes and their variation in placement on the wafer to increase the information available about the wafer patterns.
Robustness optimization system
Assume a decision strategy that is optimal for a primary objective function(s). Without unacceptably affecting the value of the primary objective function(s), Robustness Enhancing Optimizer (REO) modifies the optimal strategy's decision variable values to maximize the likelihood that implementing the new strategy in the real world will be satisfactory (will satisfy optimization problem constraints in the real world). Modification is via linked system parameter sensitivity analysis and multi-realization optimization. REO creates new realizations by changing system parameter(s) in a selected manner (for example, multiplying by a selected factor smaller or larger than 1 proportionally reduces or increases the parameter). REO is especially valuable where probability density functions or statistically-based realizations are unavailable, or where one wants to increase the robustness of satisfying constraints for multiple realities in a particular setting.
System and method of establishing a reliability characteristic
The present invention includes a method and system configured to establish a reliability characteristic associated with a part type. The method includes the step of establishing a use associated with a part, the part being of the part type, establishing an amount of usage associated with the part, establishing a service characteristic associated with said part, and establishing the reliability characteristic associated with the part type in response to said part use the part usage, and the part service characteristic.
Expert knowledge methods and systems for data analysis
A method for adjusting a data set defining a set of process runs, each process run having a set of data corresponding to a set of variables for a wafer processing operation is provided. A model derived from a data set is received. A new data set corresponding to one process run is received. The new data set is projected to the model. An outlier data point produced as a result of the projecting is identified. A variable corresponding to the one outlier data point is identified, the identified variable exhibiting a high contribution. A value for the variable from the new data set is identified. Whether the value for the variable is unimportant is determined. A normalized matrix of data is created, using random data and the variable that was determined to be unimportant from each of the new data set and the data set. The data set is updated with the normalized matrix of data.
High bandwidth oscilloscope for digitizing an analog signal having a bandwidth greater than the bandwidth of digitizing components of the oscilloscope
A method for improving bandwidth of an oscilloscope involves, in preferred embodiments, the use of frequency up-conversion and down-conversion techniques. In an illustrative embodiment the technique involves separating an input signal into a high frequency content and a low frequency content, down-converting the high frequency content in the analog domain so that it may be processed by the oscilloscope's analog front end, digitizing the low frequency content and the down-converted high frequency content, and forming a digital representation of the received analog signal from the digitized low frequency content and high frequency content.
Human activity monitoring device
A method for monitoring human activity using an inertial sensor includes continuously determining an orientation of the inertial sensor, assigning a dominant axis, updating the dominant axis as the orientation of the inertial sensor changes, and counting periodic human motions by monitoring accelerations relative to the dominant axis.
Acceleration measuring device
The present invention relates to an acceleration measuring device capable of acquiring the offset for correcting the output of a triaxial acceleration sensor. The invention is provided with an acceleration sensor for detecting the acceleration in a triaxial direction, a data acquisition portion for acquiring the triaxial output data, a data selecting portion for judging whether repeatedly acquired triaxial output data are appropriate to make a selection, a data accumulating portion for accumulating the thus selected triaxial output data, a reference point estimating portion estimating coordinate values of the reference point determined in the three-dimensional cartesian space by referring to the distribution of a predetermined number of accumulated triaxial output data in a three-dimensional cartesian space when each axial component is given as a coordinate value, and an offset correction/calculation portion for correcting the offset of the triaxial output data of the acceleration sensor.
Method and apparatus for testing a controlled impedance buffer
A method and apparatus is provided to utilize the configurability of a programmable logic device (PLD), so as to reduce the complexity of special test equipment (STE) fixtures that are required to test the PLD. The output drivers of certain I/O buffers of the PLD that are not under test may be configured to exhibit a particular impedance magnitude. The impedance magnitude of the output drivers that are not under test may then be used to supply the reference impedance that is required by the digitally controlled impedance (DCI) controllers of the I/O buffers that are under test. The DCI controllers may then correctly configure the impedance magnitude of the respective I/O buffers under test, so as to test the functionality of the controlled impedance buffers for I/O standards that require controlled impedance.
Apparatus for determining diameter of parabolic antenna and method therefor
Provided are an apparatus and method for determining a diameter of a reflector antenna. The apparatus includes a setting unit for setting up electrical characteristic values of the reflector antenna upon receipt thereof from outside, a parameter input unit for receiving a frequency, an antenna diameter variable value, antenna efficiency, Edge Taper (ET), and an Edge Of Coverage (EOC) angle as parameters for each of multiple frequencies to be accommodated in the reflector antenna, a graph generator for generating, on one rectangular coordinate, a graph representing the relationship between an antenna diameter and EOC directivity with respect to the EOC angle based on the parameters for each frequency received through the parameter input unit, an antenna diameter determination unit for determining an antenna diameter that simultaneously meets the preset EOC directivities for the frequencies to be accommodated in the reflector antenna by using the graph generated by the graph generation unit, and a graph output unit for mapping and outputting the graph generated by the graph generation unit on one rectangular coordinate with an antenna diameter axis and an EOC directivity axis to thereby represent the antenna diameter determined by the antenna diameter determination unit on the graph.
Cavity induced allosteric modification of intermolecular interactions and methods of identifying compounds that effect the same
Method of identifying compounds that modulate intermolecular interactions between a target protein and a modifier are disclosed. Pharmaceutical composition comprising compounds that inhibit intermolecular interactions between a target protein and a modifier are disclosed. Methods of treating individual suffering from inflammatory conditions, undesirable immune responses, immunological conditions and bacterial infections are disclosed.
Method and machine for identifying a chemical compound
The present invention is designed to efficiently calculate isotopic distribution in order to simulate mass spectra data for any chemical compound of interest. The simulated spectra considers the various isotopes of the compound based upon a probability calculation that takes into consideration the natural abundance of each isotope of individual elements of the compound. The probability calculation generates a relative probability associated with each isotope species of the subject compound. The simulated spectra are displayed on an x-y coordinate illustrating the calculated formula weight on the abscissa (x-axis) and the intensity of the specific species on the ordinate (y-axis). This theoretical data is then compared to experimental data taken from a mass spectrometer in order to identify the chemical compound at issue.
Method of reducing the effect of direct interference current in an electrochemical test strip
This invention describes a method of reducing the effect of interfering compounds in a bodily fluid when measuring an analyte using an electrochemical sensor. In particular, the present method is applicable to electrochemical sensors where the sensor includes a substrate, first and second working electrodes, and a reference electrode and either the first and second or only the second working electrode include regions which are bare of reagent. In this invention, an algorithm is described with mathematically corrects for the interference effect using the test strip embodiments of the present invention.
Determination of point of sand production initiation in wellbores using residual deformation characteristics and real time monitoring of sand production
Predicting sand production in a wellbore. A first set of characteristics is determined for a formation in the wellbore, wherein determining uses a plastic model of the formation, and wherein the first set of characteristics comprises a yield surface, a failure surface, a stress total strain, an elastic strain, and a plastic-strain relationship. A relationship among a second set of characteristics of the wellbore is determined using an effective stress model, wherein the second set comprises a drawdown pressure, a production rate, pore pressure, a temperature and a viscosity of a fluid in the wellbore, a fluid flow pressure in the wellbore, a drag force of fluid flow in the wellbore, and a type of fluid flow in the wellbore. A critical total strain is determined for the formation using the first set of characteristics and the relationship. The critical total strain is calibrated using a thick wall test.
Object detection apparatus and method
A method and apparatus for determining the position of an object relative to a moving vehicle. While the vehicle is moving in a first direction, successive sensor pulses are transmitted from a vehicle sensor and toward the object. The echo or reflection from the sensor pulse is then received while a processor determines the transit time between the transmission of each pulse and the receipt of its echo. An angle factor is then calculated which represents the difference between the elapsed time of two sequential sensor pulses and the distance traveled by the vehicle between those two pulses. Whenever the absolute value of the angle factor exceeds a preset threshold, an angle is selected from a predefined lookup table contained in memory. Conversely, when the absolute value of the factor is less than the preset threshold, the angle is calculated as a function of the factor. The distance is then calculated between the sensor and the object as a function of the angle and the transit time for the sensor pulse and the appropriate signal is provided to the occupant of the vehicle.
On-vehicle navigation apparatus and subject vehicle position correction method
An on-vehicle navigation apparatus comprises a subject vehicle position detection unit that detects a position of a subject vehicle and a direction along which the subject vehicle is advancing, a road marker line detection unit that detects a road marker line in an image of a road captured with a camera, a map matching candidate identifying unit that identifies a road to be designated as a map matching candidate, a decision-making unit that makes a decision as to whether or not the subject vehicle is traveling on the road identified by the map matching candidate identifying unit, a map matching unit that correct the detected subject vehicle position so as to set the subject vehicle position onto the road on which the subject vehicle is determined to be traveling, and a subject vehicle position indicating unit that indicates the subject vehicle position having been corrected.
In-transit two-way route communication between a handheld positioning device and a service provider
A system, method, and article for in-transit communication and exchange of routing data between a service provider and a vehicle's onboard computer, facilitating the exchange and updating of information on a positioning device, such as a global positioning satellite positioning device.
Method and system for continuously controlling an internal combustion engine on an engine bench testing unit
The present invention relates to a system and a method for continuous operation of an internal-combustion engine (2), comprising at least an actuator connected to a working device of the engine, an electronic circuit board or card (3) comprising a programmable logic FPGA component, means (9, 10) for synchronizing the card according to the engine cycle, and a central processing unit (CPU). The invention comprises: generating, through the component, a plurality of actuator control pulses, the pulses being parameterizable in phase and in duration, being independent, linked with a single cylinder and synchronized by an angular reference point in the engine cycle for each cylinder; determining pulse parameters and assigning these parameters to the pulses by means of a computing program included in the CPU of the microcomputer at each physical output; and controlling at least one of the actuators by a logic output signal of the circuit board corresponding to at least one of the control pulses.
Method of determining engine output power in a hybrid electric vehicle
This novel silent operating mode for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) reduces noise and emissions compared to traditional HEV operating modes. It is a complementary series of software control functions that allows the vehicle to operate with reduced noise and emissions where specifically needed, while phasing-in engine power where allowed. The method utilizes an energy storage system budget associated with a modal quantity of energy allocated for the mode, and is adapted to automatically adjust the operation of the vehicle to accommodate deviations from the budgeted energy amount. The method which implements the mode also adjusts the vehicle operation in conjunction with changes in the parametric conditions of the ESS, including the selective use of the engine output power. In particular, the silent operating mode comprises a method of selecting an engine output power from a speed-based engine output power and a grade-based engine output power. The grade-based engine output power may be determined from a plurality of vehicle state parameters.
Control unit and acceleration sensor system
Described is a control unit and an acceleration sensor system, the control unit having an electronic safety switch which, as a function of a signal of an acceleration sensor system, releases output stages for actuating passenger protection means independently of a processor and the processor actuates the output stages as a function of the signal. The safety switch analyzes an integrated acceleration signal.
Regenerative hybrid system for position-adaptive sensor applications
A hybrid air-ground vehicle design that cycles through a regenerative energy phase during a ground-based trajectory. The regenerative ground-based trajectory, in turn, produces energy for purposes of implementing another air-based trajectory cycle. The design significantly improves the versatility and endurance of robotic position-adaptive sensor designs. The radar (or electro-optic) sensors on the platform perform surveillance operations during both the ground and air trajectories of the hybrid air/ground vehicle.
Multi-range remote transmitter for a vehicle
A remote transmitter, including: an input unit configured to receive programming inputs and function inputs, wherein the programming inputs identify a first function to be transmitted in a first range of the transmitter when a first input of the input unit is selected and a second function to be transmitted in a second range of the transmitter when a second input of the input unit is selected, wherein the function inputs select the first input and the second input; a processor configured to output a first signal along a first path and a second signal along a second path in response to the first and second function inputs, respectively, wherein the first signal corresponds to the first function and the second signal corresponds to the second function; and an output configured to transmit the first signal in the first range and the second signal in the second range, wherein the first range is smaller than the second range.
VAV flow velocity calibration and balancing system
A variable velocity calibration and balancing system having a basis in a function block engine. It pertains to variable air volume systems and particularly to balancing systems as they relate to heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Balancing may be addressed using functional blocks to represent actual control and connections in an HVAC application for a variable air volume application.
Method and system for efficient package delivery and storage
A method and system for efficient package delivery in bulk to pickup locations for recipients in which items ordered by different customers from one or more different retailers, suppliers, manufacturers, and the like can be sorted within and picked from an on-hand inventory at a distribution center and packed into a package for delivery to a specific pickup location for a specific recipient. A replenishment order for items to replace the on-hand inventory at the distribution center can be made to a fulfillment location to maintain inventory levels defined for an item at a distribution center. The items to replenish the on-hand inventory at the distribution center can be shipped in bulk from a fulfillment location in containers organized by item identifier. The items can be sorted at a different distribution center, still organized within containers of all the same item identifier, to reach the distribution center placing the replenishment order for the items.
Method and system for monitoring apparatus
There is provided with a monitoring method of monitoring plural apparatuses each having a sensor, including: selecting two or more sample apparatuses out of the plural apparatuses; calculating averages and standard deviations of sensor values detected by the sample apparatuses for each sample apparatus; calculating a confidence interval of the averages and an average of the standard deviations; and calculating an average of sensor values detected by an arbitrary apparatus among the plural apparatuses as an object average and calculating a normal range of the sensor of the arbitrary apparatus from the object average, the confidence interval, and the average of the standard deviations.
Electronic parts installation device and cassette control device
A cassette control device by which high-speed processing can be expected even by using an arithmetical unit with current processing capability, even when the number of cassettes increases simultaneously with an increase in the number of nozzles which can suck electronic parts. There is provided storage unit (18) having storage regions in which programs for respective operation patterns of the cassettes (3-1 to 3-M) are set for each of the nozzles. An arithmetic unit (19) extracts a specific program required for driving in a specific operation pattern based on a command (17) inputted according to the content of packaging, from a specific region which is provided in the storage unit (18) to correspond to a specific nozzle to be used, and the arithmetic unit (19) operates the specific cassette using the specific program.
Method for tracking characteristics in joined assemblies
A method for uniquely identifying an assembly of at least two components, comprising the steps of: reading a first identifier associated with a first component; reading a second identifier associated with a second component; joining the first component to the second component with a joinder process; associating the first identifier and the second identifier with the joint, yielding a joint identification, the joint identification being recalled upon the reading of either the first identifier or the second identifier; associating the first identifier and the second identifier with the assembly, yielding an assembly identification, the assembly identification being recalled upon the reading of either the first identifier or the second identifier; storing in a machine-accessible memory the joint identification, the assembly identification, and all associations.
Resource allocation technique
An improved resource allocation system comprising a reliability decision engine (323), which allocates the portfolio's assets as required for the desired reliability portfolio. The reliability decision engine including two reliability decision engines, a basic reliability decision engine (325) and a robust reliability decision engine (327). The use of robust optimization makes it possible to determine the sensitivity of the optimized portfolio. Scenarios can be specified directly by the user or automatically generated by the system in response to a selection by the user. Inputs (329, 331) are applied to basic the basic reliability decision engine (325) and inputs (311) are applied to robust reliability decision engine (327).
Apparatus and method for model-based control
Various methods and systems for the parametric control of a process include representing the process with a process model used to generate future predictions of a process variable. In one embodiment, the process exhibits integrating behavior that is represented by a non-integrating process model. In another embodiment, an inverse of the model is filtered using a filter that includes a lead time constant that is selected to minimize a steady state error of the predicted process variable. In yet another embodiment, an array of output model values is revised or reindexed in response to a change in a time-varying parameter related to the process.
Intravenous pacemaker electrode
An intravenous pacemaker electrode comprises an electrode tip provided for transmission of stimulation pulses to the heart as well as at least one fixing element provided for fixing the electrode tip to the heart, of which the form and/or arrangement can be changed relative to the electrode tip, as well as a suitable actuation element for magnetic actuation of the fixing element.
Method and apparatus for determining optimal pacing therapy timing intervals
A method for determining an optimal pacing timing control parameter setting is provided for use in an implantable medical device programmed to deliver a pacing pulse in response to the timing control parameter. The method includes storing a user-selected optimization metric, iteratively adjusting the timing control parameter setting, sensing a first signal that varies in response to left ventricular wall acceleration, measuring the user-selected optimization metric in response to the sensed first signal, and determining an optimal timing control parameter value in response to the measured user-selected optimization metric.
External defibrillator with multiple language prompting
A multilingual defibrillator is capable of concurrently providing audible prompts for the operation of the defibrillator in multiple languages. The defibrillator includes a memory for storing data files representative of audible prompts in a plurality of languages. A controller is coupled to the memory and configured to select data files of audible prompts in first and second languages and generate first electrical signals and second electrical signals representative of the audible prompts in the first and second languages, respectively. First and second audible sound generators are coupled to the controller to receive respective electrical signals and configured to generate audible output in response to the respective electrical signals.
Endoscopic image pickup method and magnetic resonance imaging device using the same
An endoscope-like image taking method includes providing at least one peculiar index, which can be discriminated from other portions on an MR image, at the tip of a catheter, previously inserting a metal guide wire for guiding the catheter into a body cavity of a patient inserting the catheter into the body cavity along the guide wire, executing an MR imaging sequence of a plurality of sliced images intersecting the guide wire, reconstructing three-dimensional image data based upon the nuclear magnetic resonance signals, which are received by the guide wire, and determining the tip position and the inserting direction of the catheter by detecting the peculiar index provided at the tip of the catheter based upon the three-dimensional image data, and reconstructing the center projected image using the three-dimensional image data and setting the tip position and the inserting direction of the catheter as a view point and a line-of-sight direction and displaying the center projected image on a display means.
Method and system for providing calibration of an analyte sensor in an analyte monitoring system
Method and apparatus for providing calibration of analyte sensor including applying a control signal, detecting a measured response to the control signal, determining a variance in the detected measured response, and estimating a sensor sensitivity based on the variance in the detected measured response is provided.
Method and apparatus for a sliding hinge
Disclosed is an apparatus and method for a slide and tilt hinge mechanism. The slide and tilt mechanism comprises an upper element (102) having a top (140) and a bottom (132) and an angled (130) portion located at an end (144) of the upper element, the angled portion angled relative to the top and the bottom of the upper element. A lower element (104) having a first lower element portion (122) and a second lower element portion (124) coupled together by a joint (126), the joint allowing the first lower element portion to fold relative to the second lower element portion and the upper element. A slide enabling member (302/304), coupling the upper element to the lower element such that when the upper element and the lower element are in a closed configuration (100), the upper element prevents the lower element from folding. A biasing member (128), biasing the lower element to fold about the joint when the upper element is slid to an extended position.
Portable wireless apparatus
According to an aspect of the invention, a portable wireless apparatus comprises a first housing and a second housing. The first housing comprises a first board having a first feeding portion; and a first antenna element connected to the first feeding portion and provided on a side of a first surface of the first board. The second housing foldably connected to the first housing comprises a second board having a surface opposite to the first surface of the first board when the second hosing is unfolded with respect to the first housing. The second board comprises a second feeding portion. A second antenna element is connected to the second feeding portion and provided on a side of the surface of the second board.
Mobile phone with power saving function
A mobile terminal includes a battery; a power supply block which supplies power of the battery; and a radio communication block which communicates with a base station when the power is supplied from the battery through the power supply block. The mobile terminal further includes a first switch which is interposed between the power supply block and the radio communication block; and a key operation section to which the power is always supplied from the battery through the power supply block. A control unit controls the first switch to stop the power supply from the battery to the radio communication block in response to a manual operation of the key operation section.
Wireless communication system, transmitter and receiver used therefor, and wireless communication method
A wireless communication system has a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter includes a transmission-data-processing device that generates items of data for a first series and items of data for a second series, a transmission-processing device that generates transmission signals for each series based on these items of data, and a wireless-signal-transmitting device that transmits the transmission signals generated by the items of data for the first series and the items of data for the second series as wireless signals of an anti-clockwise polarized scheme and of a clockwise polarized scheme, respectively. The receiver includes a wireless-signal-receiving device that receives the wireless signals of the anti-clockwise polarized scheme and the clockwise polarized scheme, a reception-signal-processing device that generates the items of data for the first series based on the received wireless signal of the anti-clockwise polarized scheme and that generates the items of data for the second series based on the received wireless signal of the clockwise polarized scheme, and a received-data-outputting device that reconfigures the generated items of data.
Wireless communication device
A wireless communication device is provided. The device comprises a digital circuit, an analog circuit, and a control circuit. The digital circuit is arranged to perform digital processing in a signal path. The analog circuit is arranged to perform analog processing in the signal path. The control circuit is arranged to receive control signals as input and arranged to provide output control signals for the analog circuit.
Radio base station apparatus and method for transmission power control of an uplink channel
To secure proper reception quality for the control signal of an EUDCH during a handover. A transmission power control unit 23 controls transmission power of a downlink control signal of an EUDCH based on at least one of the following information: the CQI in an HS-DPCCH transmitted from a mobile station 30 regarding HSDPA to the mobile station 30, information on the reflection timing of a control pointer of the EUDCH from the mobile station 30, and information on transmission power of the HS-DSCH regarding HSDPA to the mobile station 30. A transmission unit 12 transmits the downlink control signal of the EUDCH to the mobile station 30 with a controlled transmission power.
Self-adaptive transmit power control for wireless network
A wireless network apparatus includes a receive circuit, a transmit circuit, and a processor. The receive circuit receives a first signal over a wireless link. The first signal represents packets of first data. The transmit circuit transmits a second signal over the wireless link at a power level indicated by a transmit power control signal. The second signal represents packets of second data. The processor determines a link quality of the wireless link based on the first signal. The processor selects one of a plurality of link quality thresholds based on the power level. The processor compares the link quality to the selected one of the plurality of link quality thresholds. The processor generates the transmit power control signal based on the comparison.
Program for adjusting channel interference between devices in a wireless network
The performance and ease of management of wireless communications environments is improved by a mechanism that enables access points (APs) to perform automatic channel selection. A wireless network can therefore include multiple APs, each of which will automatically choose a channel such that channel usage is optimized. Furthermore, APs can perform automatic power adjustment so that multiple APs can operate on the same channel while minimizing interference with each other. Wireless stations are load balanced across APs so that user bandwidth is optimized. A movement detection scheme provides seamless roaming of stations between APs.
Communicating application control and data information using a traffic flow over a wireless link
To communicate information relating to an application over a wireless link, application control information and application data information are communicated over the wireless link between a mobile station and a base station system. The application data information is communicated over a traffic flow over the wireless link, and the application control information is communicated in a wireless control message carried in wireless signaling associated with the traffic flow.
Filtering of broadcast SMS messages
Techniques for filtering broadcast SMS messages at a mobile station based on network configuration, user configuration, and/or user preferences. In one method, a broadcast message is initially received, and one or more filtering criteria are applied to the received broadcast message. The filtering criteria are defined by settings stored in a removable module (e.g., the R-UIM) coupled to the receiver. The received broadcast message is then processed if it is not filtered out by the one or more filtering criteria. The one or more filtering criteria may include (1) those imposed by a service provider and defined in a network configuration setting, (2) those determined by the mobile user and defined in a user configuration setting, (3) those selected by the mobile user based on user preferences, which allow for filtering of broadcast messages based on service category, language, and priority, or (4) any combination of the above.
Method and system for forming and transmitting/receiving neighbor base station information in a BWA communication system
Disclosed is a method and system for forming and transmitting to an MS a broadcast message for notifying information of neighbor BSs in a BWA communication system. The method includes scanning neighbor base stations adjacent to the serving base station, collecting information of the scanned neighbor base stations, comparing a size of the information of the scanned neighbor base stations with a size of a frame for carrying the information of the neighbor base stations constructing at least one broadcast message that includes the information of the neighbor base stations according to a result of the comparison, setting up fields of the constructed broadcast message according to information included in the constructed broadcast message and broadcasting the broadcast message including the setup fields.
Methods and systems for heterogeneous wireless network discovery and selection
Embodiments of the present invention provide methods and systems for a mobile client device to discover and obtain the parameters of a heterogeneous wireless network via a fuzzy logic operation, within a plurality of heterogeneous wireless networks.
Call processing in mobile telecommunications networks
A mobile telephone network has a function (30) which interacts with the platform (40) or platforms processing a call, event or session to: a) determine the services and/or call handling operations to be applied to the call, event or session; and b) determine if the platform(s) (40) are capable of carrying out the services and/or call handling operations required by the call, event or session. The function may then arrange for the platform (40) to be provided with appropriate data or for the call, event or session to be transferred to another platform. Moreover, a call may have part of its data converted into a standard protocol, and the data in that standard protocol then be used to guarantee a trigger for processing the call at a transfer device.
Mobile radio communications method and mobile subscriber terminal
A mobile radio communications method that prevents a calling user from being billed for an expensive overseas call, which the user could make without knowing that the destination mobile terminal is currently roaming abroad. When a mobile terminal has moved from a first country to a second country, its home mobile switch is informed of the new terminal location. The home mobile switch consults this location information when a call request to the roaming mobile terminal is placed by another mobile terminal, so as to determine in which country the destination is. If it turns out to be in the second country, the home mobile switch so notifies the calling mobile terminal by sending an overseas destination notice to it. This notice warns the calling user that he/she is making eventually an international call, thus allowing him/her to reconsider whether to proceed with the call request or cancel it.
Wireless telecommunications signal inhibition
Wireless telecommunications is inhibited within a limited region by generating a noise signal within a frequency range of the wireless telecommunications and broadcasting the noise signal into the limited region. A system for inhibiting wireless communications includes a radio frequency noise generator generating a noise signal within a frequency range of the wireless telecommunication. At least one antenna broadcasts the noise signal into the region. Control logic initiates or suspends broadcasting of the noise signal based on at least one control input.
Remote service system for a vehicle
A control unit of a remote service terminal, for which a contract for using services is still valid, compares data of a vehicle inspection certificate with data in a user database to detect if an owner of a vehicle has changed. When the owner has changed, the control unit notifies the change of data to a management center through a cellular communication unit. The management center retrieves a contractor database based on the notified content to confirm if the owner of the vehicle has changed. When the owner change is confirmed, processing is executed through the remote service terminal to inquire if the contract for using services is canceled or the name of the contractor is changed. The contract is cancelled or the name of the contractor is changed based on a response by the user.
Method and apparatus for remote data access in a mobile communication device
A method and apparatus for remote data access in a mobile communication device. A voice call can be initiated between a first voice and data wireless device and a second voice and data wireless device. A data access request can be communicated between the first voice and data wireless device and the second voice and data wireless device. The voice call can be switched to a data call to establish a data access connection. Data can then be transferred between the first voice and data wireless device and the second voice and data wireless device.
Pre-paid wireless interactive voice response system with variable announcements
A wireless communications system providing interactive voice response is disclosed. The system is menu-driven, and can accept information and requests from customers. In response to one type of request, the system can provide the customer with information regarding one or more previous transactions. The system also includes provisions that permit customers to retrieve multiple previous transactions.
Real-time E911 location information in a consumer VOIP solution
An apparatus in one example has: a VOIP telecommunications network; a VOIP telecommunication device operatively coupled to the VOIP telecommunications network; and the VOIP telecommunication device having a detector that recognizes a predetermined pattern in a data stream from the VoIP telecommunication device, and a call processor that initiates a predetermined call in a cellular telecommunication network in response to recognition of the predetermined pattern.
Communication terminal, fixed-line phone, and computer readable medium
A communication terminal includes a communication interface configured to exchange data via a communication network, a memory, a first table stored in the memory and configured to store identifiers of communication terminals which are senders of received data, a second table stored in the memory and configured to store identifiers of communication terminals designated by a user, a user interface configured to receive an input of an identifier of a communication terminal with which a communication is to be initiated, and a processor configured to determine whether the identifier of the communication terminal input via the user interface is stored in the first table, determine whether the input identifier of the communication terminal is stored in the second table, and if a result of the determination is affirmative, instruct the communication network not to notify an identifier of its own terminal to the communication terminal.
Communication device, mixer and method thereof
An IQ mixer and a method thereof. The IQ mixer comprises a pair of Gilbert cells and a degeneration inductor. Each pair of Gilbert cells comprises a pair of first current generators and a pair of switching networks. The pair of first current generators converts an RF signal pair to currents respectively. The pair of switching networks, coupled to the first current generator, modulates the converted RF signal pair with an oscillation signal pair to generate a mixed signal pair. The degeneration inductor is coupled to all pairs of the first current generators, such that it is shared by the pair of Gilbert cells.
Selectable capacitance circuit
A voltage-controlled capacitor and methods for forming the same are described. A mechanical conductor membrane of the voltage-controlled capacitor is movable to and from a first position and a second position. An amount of capacitance can vary with the movement of the mechanical conductor membrane. A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) voltage-controlled capacitor can be used in a variety of applications, such as, but not limited to, RF switches and RF attenuators.
Offset signal phasing for a multiple frequency source system
A tunable multiple frequency source system employing offset signal phasing includes a first frequency source, a phase delay element, and a second frequency source configured to operate concurrently with the first frequency source. The first frequency source includes an input coupled to receive a reference input signal and an output for providing a first frequency source signal. The phase delay includes an input coupled to receive the input reference signal, and an output, the phase delay element operable to apply a predefined phase delay to the input reference signal to produce a phase-delayed input signal. The second frequency source includes an input coupled to receive the phase-delayed input signal and an output for providing a second frequency source signal.
Hybrid switched mode/linear power amplifier power supply for use in polar transmitter
In one aspect this invention provides a DC-DC converter that has a switch mode part for coupling between a DC source and a load, the switch mode part providing x amount of output power; and that further has a linear mode part coupled in parallel with the switch mode part between the DC source and the load, the linear mode part providing y amount of output power, where x is preferably greater than y, and the ratio of x to y may be optimized for particular application constraints. In a further aspect there is a radio frequency (RF) transmitter (TX) for coupling to an antenna, where the TX has a polar architecture having an amplitude modulation (AM) path coupled to a power supply of a power amplifier (PA) and a phase modulation (PM) path coupled to an input of the PA, where the power supply includes the switch mode part for coupling between a battery and the PA and the linear mode part coupled in parallel with the switch mode part between the battery and the PA.
Method for controlling signal power in transmitter of radio system by weighting, and transmitter therefor
The invention relates to a method and a transmitter implementing the method, wherein signal errors caused by high-rate power control commands are eliminated. The invention is based on weighting a signal to be supplied to an amplifier while the gain of a power amplifier is in a transition state.
Method and apparatus for on-chip measurement of power amplifier AM/AM and AM/PM non-linearity
An apparatus and method for characterizing an amplifier transmitting a band limited signal using a sample of the input signal to the amplifier and a sample of the output signal from the amplifier, where the output signal is sub-sampled. The sub-sampling frequency is chosen such that images of the band limited signal do not overlap. The input signal and the output signal in a polar format are processed to determine characteristics such AM/AM and AM/PM conversion nonlinearities.
High-frequency composite component
A high-frequency composite component for selectively switching a GSM-system signal path and a DCS-system signal path for a signal transmitted to or received from an antenna terminal by a diplexer. Transmission-side input terminals and reception-side balanced output terminals to be switched by high-frequency switches are included in the GSM and the DCS systems. Matching elements include inductors and capacitors that are inserted between the reception-side balanced output terminals and the output side of surface acoustic wave filters.
Techniques to decrease fractional spurs for wireless transceivers
Various embodiments are disclosed relating to techniques to reduce spurs in wireless transceivers. In an example embodiment, a first fractional-N divide ratio for a first frequency synthesizer may be set based on a selected channel. A second fractional-N divide ratio for a second frequency synthesizer may be set to a fixed value independent of the selected channel. The second fractional-N divide ratio may be set to a value that is sufficiently distant from an integer value so as to decrease the likelihood of at least some type(s) of spurs.
RF integrated circuit having an on-chip pressure sensing circuit
An integrated circuit includes a on-chip pressure sensing circuit that generates a pressure signal based on a pressure of the integrated circuit. An RF transceiver generates an outbound RF signal from outbound data and to generate inbound data from an inbound RF signal, based on the pressure signal.
System and method for reducing spurious emissions in a wireless communication device including a testing apparatus
A wireless communication device is disclosed wherein isolation buffers couple to respective active circuits or stages of the device to convey test information regarding such active circuits to a test data line from which status information may be collected. The communication device operates in two modes, namely a normal operational mode wherein the isolation buffers effectively short spurious emissions from the active circuits to a ground, and a test mode wherein the isolation buffers may convey test information from a selected active circuit to the test data line. The isolation buffers prevent spurious emissions from escaping the active circuits to which they are coupled and prevent spurious emissions from traveling from active circuit to active circuit over the test data line throughout the wireless device.
Receiver IC with saw-based oscillator
A receiver IC provided with a SAW-based oscillator with an external SAW device. The receiver IC comprises an oscillating circuit. The oscillating circuit comprises an inverter stage, a first capacitor, a second capacitor, and a resistor. The inverter stage has input and output terminals respectively coupled to two ends of the external SAW device. The first and second capacitors are respectively coupled between the input/output terminal and a ground. The resistor is coupled between the input and output terminals of the inverter stage.
Wireless terminals and methods for communicating over cellular and enhanced mode bluetooth communication links
A wireless terminal includes a Bluetooth module that communicates first information with a remote Bluetooth device, and a processor that selectively encodes the first information based on whether the remote Bluetooth device supports the enhanced communication mode. The wireless terminal can include a cellular transceiver that communicates second information with a cellular network according to a cellular communication protocol. In the enhanced communication mode, the processor may use one or more signal processing operations to encode the first information for transmission to the remote Bluetooth device that are also used to encode the second information for transmission to the cellular network.
Adaptive return link for two-way satellite communication systems
A method and apparatus for adaptively transmitting an uplink signal comprising information from a ground station to a satellite is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of receiving a transmitted downlink signal at a ground station from the satellite; measuring the quality of the transmitted signal; computing a prediction of a degradation of the uplink signal using the quality of the received signal, and transmitting the uplink signal according to the predicted degradation of the uplink signal. The apparatus comprises a tuner for receiving a transmitted downlink signal from the satellite; a signal analyzer, communicatively coupled to the tuner, for measuring a characteristic of the received downlink signal; an uplink degradation estimation module, communicatively coupled to the signal analyzer, for estimating the degradation of the uplink signal from the received downlink signal characteristic; and a controller, communicatively coupled to the uplink degradation module, for controlling the transmission of the uplink signal according to the estimated degradation of the uplink signal.
Entertainment system for use in a vehicle
An entertainment system for a vehicle comprises a console section mounted on a surface in the vehicle, a media source layer including a media source mounted on the console section, and a screen section mounted on the media source layer, wherein the screen section includes a display and is capable of being mounted on the console section when the media source layer is removed from the console section.
Providing content to a device when lost a connection to the broadcasting station
Providing content to a device. Content stored on a device can be examined or searched based on the programming of channels that are available to the device over various networks. The content can be searched using other rules related to user preferences or content characteristics. Based on the results of the examination of the content, playlists are generated. Each playlist includes content from the device that matches or partially matches the content associated with one of the channels. Using the playlists, a user can load content from their device that has a theme consistent with a particular channel. When signal loss is detected for a given channel, the playlist associated with that channel can be loaded and played by the device. The device can resume playing the channel when the signal is again adequately detected.
Image forming apparatus and image forming method
An image forming apparatus capable of carrying out color misregistration correction at an appropriate time and providing a high-quality image free from color misregistration. A toner image is formed on the basis of an input image information signal. A width of the toner image is determined on the basis of the input image information signal, before forming the toner image in a predetermined area. The width of the toner image formed in the predetermined area is detected. The detected width of the toner image is compared with the determined width of the toner image. It is judged on the basis of the comparison result whether or not color misregistration is present.
Developing apparatus and image forming apparatus
A compact development apparatus using a two-component developer and an image forming apparatus wherein carrier deterioration is prevented to ensure formation of a high-quality image for a long time. The development apparatus uses the developer made up of a mixture of toner, carrier, and opposite polarity particles to be charged oppositely to the toner wherein the opposite polarity particles contain the particles having a relative dielectric constant of 6.7 or more.
Paddle, developing device and image forming apparatus
A paddle includes a plurality of axially divided components that are connected together, each component including axially extending blades, wherein the blades overlap with blades provided on a component adjacent to the corresponding component in the circumferential direction.
Image forming apparatus having enhanced controlling method for reducing deviation of superimposed images
An image forming apparatus includes: image detectors to detect conditions of images, respectively, formed on a transfer member; sensors to detect rotational displacements of latent image carriers, respectively; and a controller to perform at least phase adjustment control and image-to-image displacement control before performing image forming operations on image carriers, respectively. Image-to-image displacement control includes adjusting image forming timing on the image carriers based upon conditions of a detection image (including images transferred from the image carrier) detected by the image detectors, respectively. Speed-variation detection control includes detecting a condition of a speed-variation detection image (including an image transferred from each of image carriers) via the image detectors, and determining speed variation of the image carriers, respectively, per one revolution based upon outputs of the image detectors and the sensors. Phase adjustment control includes determining phase adjustments for the image carriers, respectively, based on the corresponding speed-variations.
Transfer belt module steering to optimize contact forces at transfer belt and photoreceptor belt interface
According to aspects of the embodiments, there is provided methods of optimizing contact forces between transfer and photoreceptor belts in image forming devices. The method acquires initial and operational set point data for the photoreceptor and transfer belt at different stages of engagement. Yaw motion is applied to reduce any misalignment between the belts based on the acquired data. A processor is used to determine misalignment between the photoreceptor belt and the transfer belt, and an actuator can be used to apply yaw motion. The yaw motion can return the transfer belt and the photoreceptor belt to their initial set position, or return a steering subsystem actuator to its setting prior to engagement of the belts. Set point data can be from the respective transfer steering subsystem for the photoreceptor and the transfer belts.
Image forming apparatus to form an image using a display unit, and printing method thereof
An image forming apparatus includes a display unit which outputs image data in the form of a complete image, a photosensitive medium which forms an electrostatic latent image corresponding to the image outputted from the display unit, a developing unit which develops the electrostatic latent image formed on the photosensitive medium, a transfer unit which transfers the developed image of the photosensitive medium onto a printing medium, and a fixing unit which fixes the transferred developed image in the printing medium.
Developer recovering mechanism and image forming apparatus
A developer recovering mechanism used in a developing apparatus having a developer cartridge which houses developer, a developing unit in which the developer cartridge is installed and which can make a latent image of an image carrier visible by the developer, and a rotor at which the developing unit is loaded and which rotates and moves the developing unit successively to a developing region, the developer recovering mechanism having: a housing chamber provided at the developer cartridge, for housing recovered developer; a recovery opening for recovering developer, which is in the developing unit, into the housing chamber; and a shutter which is plate-shaped, one end side of the shutter being rotatably shaft-supported within the housing chamber, the shutter opening and closing the recovery opening in accordance with changes in gravity due to rotation of the rotor.
An electrostatic charger according to the present invention includes a needle electrode, a support, and a cleaning member. The needle electrode has a linear array of needles. The support can move along the linear array. The cleaning member is supported by the support rotatably on an axis perpendicular to the linear array. While the support is moving with the cleaning member along the linear array, the cleaning member rotates, with the needles sinking in order into and subsequently coming in order out of the cleaning member. When the cleaning member makes each rotation while moving with the support, some of the needles sink in positions into the cleaning member where any other needles did not sink when the cleaning member made the previous rotation.
Fixing apparatus and image processing apparatus
According to an embodiment, a heating device having a plurality of heating members which heat the heating roller, a first thermoelectric converting section having a plurality of thermoelectric converting elements, each of which has a heat-absorbing surface and a cooling surface and generates electromotive force by difference in temperature between the heat-absorbing surface and the cooling surface, and formed along a curved surface of the heating roller, in which the heat-absorbing surface is disposed with a predetermined space from an outer circumferential surface of the heating roller, an auxiliary power supply charged with electric power generated by the first thermoelectric converting section, and a switching section which switches the apparatus between a first state in which electric power is supplied from utility power to the heating members and a second state in which electric power is supplied from the auxiliary power supply to the heating members, based on a predetermined signal.
Fixing apparatus, image forming apparatus, temperature control method for fixing apparatus, temperature control program, and storage medium storing the program
Comparisons are made independently for a controlled target temperature and a detected temperature of an endless belt, and a controlled target temperature and a detected temperature of a fixing roller. The operation of a halogen lamp installed in an external heating section is controlled based on results of these comparisons. This allows a temperature of the fixing member to be controlled more appropriately in a fixing apparatus that includes an external heating section for heating the fixing member.
Image forming apparatus that adds a toner image to a non-image area of a photoreceptor to prevent warping of cleaning blade
An image forming apparatus includes a photoreceptor, a cleaning unit, an exposing unit, a developing unit, and a control section. On a circumferential surface thereof, the photoreceptor has an image area to have contact with a record medium in an image forming process, and a non-image area. The cleaning unit has a blade in contact with the image and non-image areas. The exposing unit forms an electrostatic latent image on the surface by irradiating the surface along a fast scanning direction with light modulated according to image data supplied by the control section. The data includes primary image data for modulating light to irradiate the image area with. The developing unit develops the latent image by applying developer to the surface. The control section performs an image addition processing in which secondary image data for modulating light to irradiate the non-image area with is added to the primary image data.
Bi-directional optical monitor interconnect
The present invention is directed to a bi-directional optical monitor interconnect. The bi-directional monitor interconnect of the present invention includes an optical conductor with a first and second end. Disposed on the first end of the optical conductor is a first optical communication device and a first optical receiving device. Disposed on the second end of the optical conductor is a second optical communication device and a second optical receiving device. The first and second optical communication devices are capable of transmitting data over an optical connection. The first optical communication device is suitable for communicating via a first wavelength and the second optical communication device is capable of communicating over a second wavelength. The first receiving device is capable converting the second wavelength into electrical signals and the second receiving device is capable of converting the first wavelength into electrical signals.
Optical transceiver with custom logging mechanism
An optical transceiver that custom logs information based on input from a host computing system (hereinafter referred to as a “host”). The optical transceiver receives input from the host concerning which operational information to log; the operational information may include statistical data about system operation, or measured parameters, or any other measurable system characteristic. The input from the host may also specify one or more storage locations corresponding to the identified operational information. If one or more storage locations are specified, the optical transceiver logs the information to the corresponding storage locations, which may be an on-transceiver persistent memory, the memory of the host or any other accessible logging location. Additionally, the input from the host may specify one or more actions to be performed when the identified information is logged. If one or more actions are specified, the optical transceiver performs the specified actions when the information is logged.
Path routing computation method and optical communication network applying path routing computation method
A path routing computation method enables reduction of the memory capacity for path routing computation. The method is characterized in that a wavelength convertible subnetwork in which paths are connected in a mesh form; a first and second wavelength inconvertible subnetworks have a starting point node and an end point node, respectively, and include a plurality of nodes and connected via the wavelength convertible subnetwork, and out of the nodes constituting the first and second wavelength inconvertible subnetworks, a node has a port connected to the wavelength convertible subnetwork is defined as a border node, and the method includes the steps of: obtaining, for the first wavelength inconvertible subnetwork, a path from the starting point node to a border node in the first subnetwork; and obtaining, for the second wavelength inconvertible subnetwork, a path from the end point node to a border node in the second wavelength inconvertible subnetwork.
Multiple port symmetric transmissive wavelength-selective mesh node
Transmissive WSS-based mesh nodes of degree N, N≧3, includes N node port apparatuses connected to provide a multiple wavelength channel signal with reciprocal connectivity between the N node ports. Each node port apparatus has an input port and N−1 output ports and comprises either (1) a coupler connected to said input port and having N−1 outputs, (2) a transmissive 1×(N−1) WSS connected to said input port and responsive to a control signal C for establishing a switching connection to one of its N−1 outputs, or (3) a coupler connected to said input port and having X+1 outputs including one output connected to an input of a transmissive 1×Y WSS having Y outputs, where X+Y equals N−1, the sum of the remaining X outputs of the coupler and the Y outputs of the transmissive 1×Y WSS being the N−1 output ports of the node port apparatus. Each of the N−1 output ports from each node port apparatus is connected to a different output port of each of the other N−1 node port apparatuses such that a connection made from one input port of a node port apparatus to an input port of a different node port apparatus always passes through only one WSS and at least one coupler, the connection being established in response to a control signal applied to said one WSS.
Collapsible lens barrel and optical instrument using the same
A collapsible lens barrel includes a first holding frame (2) for holding a first lens group (L1), a second holding frame (5) for holding a second lens group (L2) that is disposed on an image plane side with respect to the first lens group (L1), an actuator (6) for moving the second holding frame 5 in an optical axis direction, and a tubular cam frame (17) including a plurality of cam grooves that are formed at substantially equal intervals around a circumferential direction for moving the first holding frame (2) in the optical axis direction. The actuator (6) is attached to a portion in the cam frame (17) where the cam grooves are not formed. The first lens group (L1) is moved using the cam grooves, and the second lens group (L2) is moved using the actuator (6), so that a faster zooming speed and a lower zooming noise can be achieved.
Camera system with image stabilizing function, camera body thereof, and interchangeable lens thereof
A camera system used for shooting an image, determines whether or not a predetermined shake component due to a mechanical shutter is added to a shake component detected by a shake sensor in dependence upon the type of a shutter (a mechanical shutter or an electronic shutter), and selects the determined component accordingly.
Water proof case for digital camera
The present invention relates to a water proof case for a digital camera. The water proof case for a digital camera according to the present invention comprises a housing having an inner space to accommodate the digital camera, an upper and a lower transparent films formed, respectively, on an upper and a lower sides of the housing, a first attaching member formed on an upper surface of the housing at a side of the upper transparent film, a corrugated header extended from the housing at a side of the first attaching member, a cover connected to the housing at the side of the first attaching member and positioned at a back of the corrugated header, a second attaching member formed on an upper surface of the cover, and a light tube unit heat-fused to the upper transparent film. The water proof case for a digital camera of the present invention accomplishes enhanced sealing firstly by successive folding of the corrugated header or clip attachment to the corrugated header and secondly by binding of the second attaching member formed on the cover to the first attaching member of the housing. Further, the water proof case provides high quality image and can be prepared in a cost effective manner.
Stream converting method and apparatus thereof, and stream recording method and apparatus thereof
A packet separating section 103 separates TS packets having a designated PID from a first transport stream TS1 and outputs them as a first TS packet string P1 to a bit-rate converting section 104. On the other hand, the other TS packets are output as a second TS packet string P2 to a buffer section 107. The bit-rate converting section 104 converts the bit rate of the first TS packet string P1 for output as a third TS packet string P3. The third TS packet string P3 is re-multiplexed with the second TS packet string P2 by a packet multiplexing section 105, and recorded onto a recording medium.
Information storage medium storing multi-angle data and method and apparatus for reproducing the multi-angle data
An apparatus and method for reproducing multi-angle data in a seamless manner, even during a change of angle, and an information storage medium on which the multi-angle data is recorded. AV data divided into clips, which are recording units, is recorded on the information storage medium. Additional information regarding jump points is recorded on a space of the information storage medium other than where the clips are recorded. The apparatus for reproducing the multi-angle data includes a reading unit which reads data from the information storage medium, and a reproducing unit which reproduces the data read by the reading unit by searching for and reproducing clips corresponding to the read data when the read data is multi-angle data, and, if there is an angle change command, reproducing clips for a new angle from a jump point of the clip for the new angle.
File reproduction apparatus, file reproduction method, file reproduction method program and recording medium for recording file reproduction method program
The present invention is applied to reproduction of typically a fragment movie file having a QT format. In accordance with the present invention, management information associated with each block following a first block of the fragment movie file is modified to information compatible with management information associated with the first block and real data of the file is reproduced on the basis of the modified management information.
Light pipe mounting interface
In an example embodiment, a light pipe mounting interface may include a support strip and at least one light pipe projecting from the support strip. The light pipe is to extend through a housing. A hook projects from the support strip to engage with the housing, and a cantilever snap head projects from an extension of the support strip to engage with the housing. The cantilever snap head and the hook lock the light pipe in a predetermined position with respect to the housing.
Multi-port optical connection terminal
A multi-port optical connection terminal for use as a branch point in a fiber optic communications network at a distance from a mid-span access location provided on a distribution cable having a plurality of optical fibers. The multi-port terminal includes a base and a cover affixed to the base. A stub cable port formed through one of the base and the cover receives a stub cable having at least one optical fiber extending continuously from the multi-port terminal to the mid-span access location. A first end of the optical fiber is optically connected to a respective optical fiber of the distribution cable at the mid-span access location and a fiber optic connector is mounted upon the second end. At least one connector port is provided on the multi-port terminal for receiving the fiber optic connector and a connectorized end of a fiber optic drop cable extending from the multi-port terminal.
Embedded channels, embedded waveguides and methods of manufacturing and using the same
Waveguide(s) (130) including at least partially buried channels) (120) within substrate(s) (100) having at least one substantially planar surface (110) are disclosed. According to some embodiments at least part of the channel (120) is located beneath at least a portion of the substrate (100). According to some embodiments the waveguide channel (120) includes a substantially transparent core (140) and optional cladding (160) extending through the channel (120). Alternately, an inner surface of the channel (120) is highly reflective. Furthermore, structures for use as waveguides (130) and/or as microchannels for fluid flow are disclosed herein. Also disclosed are production methods for such waveguides and said structures (130) and said structures, and methods of using such waveguides (130).
Highly parallel optical communication system with intracard and intercard communications
An optical communications system including a method and apparatus with an electro-optical chip which includes optical interface elements in optical interface array configuration on a first side of the electro-optical chip, attached to or integrated with an optical circuit board which includes a plurality of layered optical wave guides, a plurality of coupling elements disposed relative to the electro-optical chip such that the plurality of coupling elements optically communicate with the first plurality of optical interface elements on the electro-optical chip, and wherein the coupling elements are further disposed to optically communicate with the plurality of optical wave guides.
Waveguide sensor for sensing
A waveguide sensor according to an embodiment of the present invention includes: a substrate; a first underclad arranged on one side of the substrate; a first sensing core arranged on outer side of the first underclad and having a stripe pattern which extends in one direction; a first overclad arranged on outer side of the first sensing core; a second underclad arranged on another side of the substrate; a second sensing core arranged on outer side of the second underclad and having a stripe pattern which extends in a direction not parallel to the direction in which the first sensing core extends; and a second overclad arranged on outer side of the second sensing core. A first grooved part which extends in a direction not parallel to the direction in which the first sensing core extends is formed on the first overclad, so that the first grooved part and the first sensing core together form a first grating in a plane view. Furthermore, a second grooved part which extends in a direction not parallel to the direction in which the second sensing core extends is formed on the second overclad, so that the second grooved part and the second sensing core together form a second grating in a plane view.
Substrate guided relay with polarization rotating apparatus
A substrate guided relay (600) includes an input coupler (601), an output coupler (603), and an optical substrate (602). Light is delivered from the input coupler (601) to the optical substrate (602), and then to the output coupler (603). Partially reflective coatings can be used at interfaces (606,607) between components. Partially reflective coatings or other devices (501) can be also used to create one or more copies of light. Light polarization alteration devices (661,662,663,664,665) can be used within the substrate guided relay (600), alone or in combination, to tailor the polarization of light to the designer's needs. Such devices, such as half-wave plates, provide the designer with increased flexibility regarding the design and manufacture of the substrate guided relay (600).
Electro-optic modulator with adjustable cavity size
A beam modulator (14) for modulating a beam (20) includes a modulator element (26) and a housing assembly (24). The modulator element (26) is positioned in the path of the beam (20). The housing assembly (24) retains the modulator element (26). Additionally, the housing assembly (24) defines a resonant cavity (328) with the modulator element (26) positioned therein. The housing assembly (24) includes a size adjuster (30) that can be moved to selectively adjust the size of the resonant cavity (328). As a result thereof, in certain embodiments, the resonant frequency of the beam modulator (14) can be easily tuned over a relatively large frequency range.
Method and system for volumetric comparative image analysis and diagnosis
A technique is provided for comparative image analysis and/or change detection using computer assisted detection and/or diagnosis (CAD) algorithms. The technique includes registering two or more images, comparing the images with one another to generate a change map, and detecting anomalies in the images based on the change map.
Enhancing video sequence sharpness by adaptive peaking
A method of selectively sharpening video data may include, for at least some pixels in the video data, generating a sharpening value for a pixel value in an image. The sharpening value may be amplified in a non-linear manner to produce an amplified value. The pixel value and the amplified value may then be combined.
Method and apparatus for boundary-based image compression
Compressing a data file representing an image wherein one or more regions within the image are identified. At least one of the regions is selected and the data corresponding to the selected region is compressed at a different rate that the data corresponding to non-selected regions of the image. The different compression rates are selected to maintain a desired fidelity in an image reconstructed from the compressed data file. The different compression rates can be predetermined, selected by a user, or automatically selected. Compression rates can be based upon the type of image to be compressed such as x-ray, CT scan or MRI images, the structure that is being analyzed, parameters regarding the use of the image, system parameters such as storage capacity available, or bandwidth of a communication channel used to transmit the compressed file.
Method, apparatus, system, and program for switching image coded data
A conversion server and a plurality of clients are connected via a transmission line. The conversion server that receives image coded data from the clients converts the image coding system in accordance with the coding system available to each client, the coding setting, and the status of the transmission line, and transmits the converted image coded data. For a client where the number of images that can be displayed is limited, the conversion server decodes a selected plurality items of image coded data, re-encodes the selected pieces into one composite image, and transmits the re-encoded image. The conversion server also comprises decoding processing units, one for each connected client, for decoding image coded data from each client. In response to a display image switching request from a client, the conversion server intraframe-codes the decoded image data of an image that will be used after the switching and transmits the intraframe-coded data. This enables an image to be switched quickly independently of the intraframe time of received image coded data that will be used after the switching.
System and method for extracting corner point in space using pixel information, and robot using the system
A system and method for extracting a corner point in a space using pixel information obtained from a camera are provided. The corner point extracting system includes a light generation module emitting light in a predetermined form (such as a plane form), an image acquisition module acquiring an image of a reflector reflecting the light emitted from the light generation module, and a control module obtaining distance data between the light generation module and the reflector using the acquired image and extracting a corner point by performing split-merge using a threshold proportional to the distance data. The threshold is a value proportional to the distance data which corresponds to pixel information of the image acquisition module.
System and method for coding and retrieval of a CAD drawing from a database
A method of coding a view in a CAD drawing comprises: identifying a feature of the view; extracting properties of the feature from the CAD drawing, the properties including vector properties associated with a graphic entity or group of entities which make up the feature; generating code bits representative of the extracted properties; adding the code bits to a view code for the view; and storing the view code.A CAD drawing is selected for retrieval from a database of drawings by producing a CAD source drawing having a source view, coding the source view to produce a source code as described above, comparing the source code with stored view codes, calculating a similarity index for each stored view code and selecting the drawing for retrieval from the database on the basis of the similarity index.
Intelligent importation of information from foreign applications user interface
A process for intelligent importation of information from a foreign application user interface includes extraction of raster data from a pre-designated region of a screen displayed in the foreign application, segmentation of the raster data into prospective sets of character raster data; application of the character raster data and a feature data set and a vector data set derived from the character raster data as inputs to respective raster, feature, and vector artificial neural networks to generate candidate characters; using a voting process to identify a character represented by the character raster data from the candidate characters; assembly of the remaining characters as recognized by the neural networks into a key; and association of the key with an external data file which may be stored and thereafter retrieved in association with the screen displayed in the foreign application.
System and method for 3D volume segmentation using exact minimal surfaces given a boundary
A method for 3D volume segmentation in digitized medical images includes providing a digitized medical image defined on an N-dimensional lattice, obtaining an oriented closed 2-dimensional contour on one or more 2-dimensional slices from said image, defining face weights w from said image intensities by forming a dual lattice of said image lattice, minimizing ∑ i w i z i summed over all faces subject to the constraint Bz=r wherein vector z is an indicator vector indicating whether a face is present in a minimum-weight surface, vector r is an indicator vector of said 2-D contour, and wherein B is an edge-face incidence matrix, and segmenting said 3-D image into distinct regions separated by the minimum-weight surface indicated by said vector z.
Color filter array and method
Color filter array demosaicing as is useful in digital cameras, still and video, using a single sensor includes blending of directional and non-directional interpolations. Directional interpolation uses edge detection with lowpass filtering with neighboring pixels for erroneous detection correction.
Surface inspection device and method
Disclosed is a surface inspection device that performs a defect inspection throughout a surface of a wafer. In the defect detection using a defect review SEM, an X-Y coordinate system is set throughout a surface (excluding a round end face) of a product wafer to allow the inspection throughout the surface of the product wafer. Therefore, the defect detection can be performed also in an area other than an effective chip area. Further, the inspection results of the area are stored in relation to the coordinates in a position where the inspection results are acquired. Therefore, the inspection results can be effectively used for an analysis and a defect cause can be investigated with a higher degree of accuracy. As a result, the quality and yield of chips can be improved.
Phase based digital imaging
The present invention relates to systems and methods for medical imaging. Digital images are processed to provide phase images of a region of interest to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of various conditions. A preferred embodiment of the invention provides improved mammography screening for cancerous or precancerous conditions.
Image processing method and computer readable medium
An image processing method is provided capable of improving a response to a user in a case where a series of images using volume data are displayed by volume rendering. When the images are displayed by animation in an oscillating manner with amplitude, the amplitude is gradually increased so as to spare time for image generation. That is, when the user specifies a parameter value, for example, a projection angle (initial value: θ=0°), for an object to be diagnosed, animation display of images C, D, and E of the object is performed with a small amplitude (θ=±5°) with the initial value as a center. During the animation display, an image B (θ=−10°) and an image F (θ=10°) are calculated in the background. After the calculation is completed, the amplitude is increased (θ=±10°) and animation display of the images B, C, D, E, and F is performed.
Methods and systems for image reconstruction using low noise kernel
Methods and systems for a system for visualizing relatively small structures within an object are provided. The system includes an image acquisition sub-system for acquiring a dataset for a volume of interest and processor for generating image data from the acquired data wherein the processor is programmed to execute a high resolution filter kernel algorithm that includes a weighting factor applied to a ramp filter that scales relatively high frequency regions of the image dataset by a factor greater than one. The high resolution filter kernel algorithm also includes a windowing function applied to the weighted ramp filter that facilitates reducing aliasing artifacts in reconstructed images generated from the image dataset.
Methods and apparatus for reconstruction of volume data from projection data
Some configurations of method for reconstructing a volumetric image of an object include obtaining a tomosynthesis projection dataset of an object. The method also includes utilizing the tomosynthesis projection dataset and additional information about the object to minimize a selected energy function or functions to satisfy a selected set of constraints. Alternatively, constraints are applied to a reconstructed volumetric image in order to obtain an updated volumetric image. A 3D volume representative of the imaged object is thereby obtained in which each voxel is reconstructed and a correspondence indicated to a single one of the component material classes.
Hierarchical modeling in medical abnormality detection
Hierarchal modeling is used to distinguish one state or class from three or more classes. In a first stage, a normal or other class is distinguished from a diseased or other groups of classes. If the results of the first stage classification indicate diseased or data within the groups of different classes, a subsequent stage of classification is performed. In a subsequent stage of classification, the data is classified to distinguish one or more other classes from the remaining classes. Using two or more stages, medical information is classified by eliminating one or more possible classes in each stage to finally identify a particular class most appropriate or probable for the data.
Method and device for identity check using frequency analysis
In a method for use in checking a person's identity, at least part of an image of a fingerprint from the person is transformed so that a representation of a frequency content in said part of the image is obtained. Based on the obtained representation of the frequency content, a frequency code is determined, which contains a predetermined number of frequency code values. A device for carrying out the method is also described.
Method and apparatus for automatic eyeglasses detection and removal
A method and an apparatus automatically detect and remove eyeglasses from an image. The method according to one embodiment accesses digital image data representing an image including a face; detects eyeglasses in the image to produce a report about presence or absence of eyeglasses in the image; normalizes illumination of the image to obtain a normalized image; and removes eyeglasses from the normalized image to obtain a face image without eyeglasses.
Face image creation device and method
A face image creation device 100 for creating a first face image where face parts for creating the first face image are arranged at positions based on a position of a corresponding face part in a second face image, comprises: a position calculation unit for extracting face parts from the input second face image and calculating the position of each face part in the second face image; a face feature storage unit for storing reference positions of the face parts in a reference image; a plot rule storage unit for storing default positions of the face parts for creating the first face image in the first face image; and a facial portrait synthesis unit for determining the positions of the face parts for creating the first face image, based on a comparison result between the calculated position of each of the face parts in the second face image and the reference position of a corresponding face part and a comparison result of a distance between default positions with a distance between reference positions for particular two face parts.
Image data processing apparatus and method using attribute information
An image processing apparatus for processing image data having attribute information for every pixel of the image data, includes a combining unit that combines component image data, which corresponds to each of a plurality of component images, into composite image data that corresponds to a single composite image, and an attribute appending unit that appends identification information, which indicates the component image data to which each pixel belongs, as attribute information of pixels of the composite image data. In addition, a processing unit applies common image processing to pixels having identical values as the identification information based on the attribute information.
System for controlling exterior vehicle lights
A system and method of automatically controlling exterior vehicle lights includes an image sensor and a controller to generate control signals. The control signals are derived based on information obtained from the image sensor as well as other detected parameters pertaining to the detected light source(s), the vehicle having the inventive control system, and the ambient environment. The control circuit may simply turn certain exterior lights on or off, or change the brightness, aim, focus, etc. to produce various beam patterns that maximize the illuminated area in front of the vehicle without causing excessive glare in the eyes of other drivers.
Eye tracking system and method
A method of tracking an expected location of a head in a computerized headtracking environment having a delayed processing requirement for locating a current head position, the method comprising the step of: utilizing previously tracked positions to estimate a likely future tracked position; outputting the likely future tracked position as the expected location of the head. Kalman filtering of the previously tracked positions can be utilized in estimating the likely future tracked position.
Method for monitoring internet dissemination of image, video, and/or audio files
An automated monitoring service downloads image files (including, e.g, graphic and video files) and audio files from various Internet sites, and checks these files for the presence of embedded digital watermark data. When found, such data is decoded and used to identify the proprietor of each watermarked file. The proprietors are alerted to the results of the monitoring operation, often apprising such proprietors of unknown distribution of their image/video/audio properties. Digital watermarks carry control flags used to control viewing or playback depending on content classification.
A speaker apparatus includes at least one of an inner flux applicator and an outer flux applicator includes an annular first member and an annular second member. The first member having a first surface that faces toward the magnetic gap, the first member satisfying L1>W1 where L1 is a length of the first surface in a direction parallel to the central axis and W1 is a width of the first member in a direction orthogonal to a central axis. The second member is magnetically coupled with the first member and arranged on an outer side of the first member, the second member satisfying W2>L2 where W2 is a width of the second member in a direction orthogonal to a central axis and L2 is a length of the second surface in a direction parallel to the central axis, and L1>L2.
Vehicle audio system surround modes
A surround audio system for a vehicle with a plurality of operating modes. The vehicle includes seating locations. The audio system includes a plurality of input channels including surround channels. The audio system further includes a plurality of operating modes. A first operating mode is characterized by substantially equal perceived loudnesses at each of said seating locations, an equalization pattern developed by weighting frequency responses at each of said seating locations substantially equally, and a balance pattern developed by weighting sound pressure level measurements at each of said seating locations substantially equally. A second operating mode is characterized by greater perceived loudness at one of said seating locations than at the other seating locations, an equalization pattern developed by weighting the frequency response at said one of said seating locations more heavily than the frequency responses at said other seating locations, and a balance pattern developed by weighting sound pressure level measurements at said one seating location more heavily than the weightings as said other seating locations.
Method and system for securing data utilizing redundant secure key storage
A system and method which protects a data processing system against encryption key errors by providing redundant encryption keys stored in different locations, and providing the software with the ability to select an alternate redundant key if there is any possibility that the encryption key being used may be corrupted. In the preferred embodiment, a memory control module in the data processing device is configured to accommodate the storage of multiple (for example up to four or more) independent password/key pairs, and the control module duplicates a password key at the time of creation. The redundant passwords and encryption keys are forced into different memory slots for later retrieval if necessary. The probability of redundant keys being corrupted simultaneously is infinitesimal, so the system and method of the invention ensures that there is always an uncorrupted encryption key available.
Accessing cellular networks from non-native local networks
A multiple entity gateway for supporting cellular authentication from a non-cellular network, the gateway comprising a plurality of entities each located at a different one of a plurality of secure zones and having at least one gap between said entities across said secure zones, said gateway being configured to predefine communication signals allowed across said gap between said entities, thereby to filter out non-allowed signals, and provide secure cellular authentication for a communication originating from said non-cellular network. The gateway allows cellular users to connect to a cellular network via a wireless local area network such as a hotspot, use the services of the cellular network, the Internet and the hotspot at will, and be securely authenticated and charged through the cellular infrastructure.
Apparatus, system, and method for disposing of a call
An apparatus, system, and method are disclosed for disposing of calls. The apparatus includes a call initiation module, a transfer module, and a presentation module. The call initiation module initiates a plurality of calls. The transfer module transfer a plurality of calls to at least one agent. The presentation module simultaneously presents a plurality of transferred calls to an agent for disposition.
Geographical call routing for a non-emergency calling service
A method for location-based communicating includes identifying a service provider based on information received from a requesting party at a networked communications apparatus. The method also includes determining whether a plurality of predefined service areas have been defined for the identified service provider. When the plurality of the at least one predefined service areas have been defined for the service provider, determinations are made as whether the requesting party is in one of the predefined service areas. When the requesting party is in a predefined service areas, information specified for a service location for the predefined service area is forwarded to the requesting party.
Voice call routing by dynamic personal profile
Dynamic telephone call routing. A voice service initiates a voice call session on a data communication network in response to an incoming telephone call directed to a user and generates a notification of the telephone call. An alerts service receiving and responsive to the notification executes a set of routing rules to select a computing device associated with the user. The alerts service also generates an alert directed to the computing device. If the computing device is online, a messaging service sends the alert to the computing device and receives a user request from the computing device in response thereto. The messaging service communicates the user request to the voice service for completing the voice call session to the computing device if specified by the user request. If the computing device is not online, the telephone call is routed to a telephone device.
Methods, system and article for providing a family telecommunication service using an originating dual-tone multi-frequency trigger
A menu is provided in a telephone call. The menu provides a plurality of destination options including a first destination option for a residence of a family, a second destination option for a first member of the family at a first location other than the residence, and a third destination option for a second member of the family at a second location other than the residence. A first selection of one of the destination options is received in the telephone call, and the telephone call is routed to a first telephone number corresponding to the first selection. Thereafter, an originating dual-tone multi-frequency trigger is detected. The telephone call to the first telephone number is interrupted, a second selection of the destination options is received, and the telephone call is routed to a second telephone number corresponding to the second selection.
Telephony extension attack detection, recording, and intelligent prevention
A system and method are provided for detecting extension attacks made to a communication enterprise, and taking appropriate remedial action to prevent ongoing attacks and future attacks. One or more attributes of a suspect call are analyzed, and a risk is associated with each analyzed attribute. An overall risk or assessment is then made of the analyzed attributes, attack attributes are logged, and one or more remedial actions may be triggered as a result of the analyzed call attributes. The remedial actions may include recording the call, notifying an administrator of a suspect call, or isolating the communication enterprise from the attack by terminating the call or shutting down selected communication endpoints to prevent calls being made to those extensions. Rules may be applied to the analyzed attributes in order to trigger the appropriate remedial action. The call attributes analyzed may include call destination, call direction, call type, time of day of the call, call duration, whether a call source is spoofed, call volume from a particular call source, and hash values created for a suspect media stream.
Method and system for presenting billing information according to a customer-defined hierarchal structure
A service for presenting billing information to a customer according to a hierarchal structure defined by the customer. The customer assigns telephone numbers to company units and defines how each of the units relate to each other in the hierarchal structure. The billing information associated with each assigned telephone number is processed in accordance with the hierarchal structure. Thereafter, the bill is presented to the customer.
Method and apparatus to provide data to an interactive voice response (IVR) system
A method and system is described to provide data to an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) System. The method may comprise accessing an image communicated from a voice-communication device and communicating the image to an optical character recognition (OCR) module. Thereafter, data extracted from the image by the OCR module may be accessed and communicated for use in one or more IVR processes. The extracted data may be communicated to the device and confirmation that the extracted data corresponds to data in the image may be monitored. For example, the method may discover capabilities of the device to identify different communication options to communicate the image from the device. The options may be communicated to the device for presentation to a user. Upon receiving an indication of an option selected by the user, the IVR system may be configured to allow receipt of the image via the user selected option.
Inspection of small features using X-ray fluorescence
A method for inspection includes irradiating a sample using an X-ray beam, which is focused so as to define a spot on a surface of the sample. At least one of the sample and the X-ray beam is shifted so as to scan the spot along a scan path that crosses a feature on the surface. Respective intensities of X-ray fluorescence emitted from the sample responsively to the X-ray beam are measured at a plurality of locations along the scan path, at which the spot has different, respective degrees of overlap with the feature. The intensities measured at the plurality of the locations are processed in order to compute an adjusted value of the emitted X-ray fluorescence over the scan path. A thickness of the feature is estimated based on the adjusted value.
Phase deglitch circuit for phase interpolator for high-speed serial I/O applications
Various embodiments provide a Phase Interpolator (PI) that receives input clocks, and outputs intersymbol interference-equalized, phase-shifted output clocks. In one embodiment, the Phase Interpolator comprises two PI Conditioners and a PI Mixer. In one embodiment, a PI Conditioner receives input clocks and is controlled by a different phase-shifted input clock by using a suitable circuit element, such as a flip-flop. Collectively, the input clock-controlled PI Conditioner and Mixer act in concert to control the band limiting effect of the PI Conditioner which, in turn, equalizes intersymbol interference.
Synchronization device and device for generating a synchronization signal
A synchronization device for determining a position of a synchronization signal in a receive signal, the synchronization signal being based on a coarse synchronization signal and a fine synchronization signal, includes a signal processing means configured to determine, based on the coarse synchronization signal, a section of the receive signal in which is located the fine synchronization signal, and to determine in the section of the receive signal, based on the fine synchronization signal, the position of the synchronization signal in the receive signal for a synchronization.
Systems for communicating using multiple frequency bands in a wireless network
Systems that communicate in a wireless network using a first and a second frequency band are described herein. The systems may use the first frequency band to transmit or receive a control signal, enabling subsequent communication using the second frequency band.
Method of and system for optimizing the capacity of a digital communication system in presence of both internal and external noise
A method of optimizing a communication system for receiving and processing an input communication signal includes selecting a first noise margin m to be applied against an external noise present on the input communication signal. The method further includes selecting a second noise margin mi to be applied against an internal noise introduced on the communications signal by the communication system. The second noise margin is a predetermined function of the first noise margin. The method also includes calculating a virtual noise to signal ratio that is a combination of an external noise to signal ratio NSRe, an internal noise to signal ratio NSRi, the first noise margin and the second noise margin. The method further includes adjusting one or more system parameters so as to maintain the virtual noise to signal ratio at a predetermined margin above a required noise to signal ratio.
Method for fine timing acquisition
A method of processing a timing synchronization signal includes selecting an initial sequence of complex numbers and modifying the initial sequence based upon a metric applied to the autocorrelation function to enhance its autocorrelation properties within a predetermined window about the main autocorrelation peak determined by the timing uncertainty of the system. This two-step optimization process produces a new complex sequence used for timing acquisition. It is applied by transmitting the sequence through a medium and correlating the received signal against a known error-free sequence. Only correlation within the window of the bounded timing uncertainty is performed, thus saving valuable computational cycles. Also, because the sidelobe levels of the autocorrelated function are significantly lower within the timing uncertainty window than the sidelobe levels of a non-optimized autocorrelation function of a signal, the likelihood of finding a peak for the wrong timing signal is greatly reduced.
Method and apparatus for precomputation and pipelined selection of intersymbol interference estimates in a reduced-state Viterbi detector
A method and apparatus are disclosed for improving the maximum data rate of reduced-state Viterbi detectors with local feedback. The maximum data rate that may be achieved by the disclosed reduced-state Viterbi detectors is improved by precomputing a number of candidate intersymbol interference estimates and performing pipelined selection of an appropriate intersymbol interference estimate. A reduced-state Viterbi detector is thus disclosed that precomputes intersymbol interference estimates for speculative sequences of one or more channel symbols; selects one of said precomputed intersymbol interference estimates based on at least one decision from at least one corresponding state using at least two pipeline registers; and selects a path having a best path metric for a given state. In an alternative implementation, intersymbol interference estimate-free signal estimates are selected among precomputed ones.
QAM receiver and method for constellations having at least sixteen symbols
A QAM receiver for constellations having at least 16 symbols converts its received QAM signal into outputs including indications of the received symbols. A channel frequency response estimator responsive to outputs of the converter derives indications of estimates of effects of a link to the receiver on the phase and amplitude of the received signals. A processor responsive to outputs of the converter and the estimator (1) equalises the phases of the converter outputs, (2) scales the amplitude estimates by amounts determined by the amplitude associated with the separation of boundaries between symbols in the constellation, and (3) combines the phase equalised converter outputs and the scaled amplitude estimates to derive likely bit values of the received symbols.
Frequency measurement system for low modulation index digital FM/PM communication
Apparatus and methods for data demodulation in FM-FSK communication systems may include comparing the power spectral density (PSD) of the received frequency spectrum with that of the previously received samples using digital signal processing on a multi-sample message. A narrow band FM-FSK receiver may include a filter configured to pass FM signal components of a predetermined signal band, a memory configured to store the filtered signal component, and a DSP operably connected to the filter and the memory. The DSP may be configured to output a digital signal based upon a comparison of successive DSP calculated frequencies associated with a peak power of a power spectrum density (PSD) of successive samples of the filtered multi-sample message.
Star receiver burst processing
Architecture for processing a record of burst information in a transmission link. A waveform sampler samples a received waveform containing a record of symbols imposed on a carrier signal. Symbol phase of the record symbols is determined utilizing one or more metrics. Any residual carrier error is corrected, and the carrier signal is removed. The phase and time-of-arrival of the burst information associated with a maximum positive correlation value are then determined.
An apparatus for transmitter control is disclosed. The apparatus includes an analog circuit designed to operate on at least a portion of a communications signal to be wirelessly transmitted, based at least in part on a control signal. The apparatus includes a lookup table coupled to the analog circuit, with the lookup table designed to output the control signal based at least in part on the communications signal, or one or more measured metrics of the communications signal. Embodiments of the present invention include, but are not limited to, methods encompassing the operations described above, as well as subsystems and systems designed to operate in the above described manner.
Wireless local area network (WLAN) using universal frequency translation technology including multi-phase embodiments and circuit implementations
Frequency translation and applications of the same are described herein, including RF modem and wireless local area network (WLAN) applications. In embodiments, the WLAN invention includes an antenna, an LNA/PA module, a receiver, a transmitter, a control signal generator, a demodulation/modulation facilitation module, and a MAC interface. The WLAN receiver includes at least one universal frequency translation module that frequency down-converts a received EM signal. In embodiments, the UFT based receiver is configured in a multi-phase embodiment to reduce or eliminate re-radiation that is caused by DC offset. The WLAN transmitter includes at least one universal frequency translation module that frequency up-converts a baseband signal in preparation for transmission over the wireless LAN. In embodiments, the UFT based transmitter is configured in a differential and multi-phase embodiment to reduce carrier insertion and spectral growth.
Bit-loading method and system for a DMT transceiver
A system and method for a bit-loading algorithm based on an equal error rate principle for each sub-channel (bin) used in a discrete multi-tone modulation (DMT) system. The system and method of the present invention provides a bit-loading algorithm that provides long reach, high data rate and good error performance at a given condition. The bit-loading method and system depends on the Shannon channel capacity formula to allocate bits to different sub-channels. For DMT, the system and method tabulates different SNR GAP for different sub-channels (bins), and constructs a look-up table for the SNR GAP with different bits to achieve a better performance for the DMT system. In addition, Trellis coding across all the sub-channels are optionally supported in DMT, and likewise, the system and method creates another look-up table for variable coding gain provided for the Trellis coding gain in the bit-loading algorithm to further improve the system performance, knowing that the Trellis coding gain is different for different sub-channels with different bit allocation.
Technique for improving multiple-channel multi-tone transmissions
A technique for improving multiple-channel multi-tone transmissions is disclosed. According to one particular embodiment, a method for transmitting data over at least two bonded channels is provided, wherein each of the at least two bonded channels comprises a plurality of tones. The method may comprise: transmitting a first symbol stream over a first tone in a first bonded channel and over a second tone in a second bonded channel, wherein the first tone is bonded to the second tone, and the transmissions over the first tone and the second tone are substantially in parallel; transmitting a second symbol stream over a third tone in the first bonded channel; and transmitting a third symbol stream over a fourth tone in the second bonded channel, wherein the third tone is bonded to the fourth tone, and the transmissions of the second symbol stream and the third symbol stream are substantially in parallel.
MPEG field data-driven display
A system and method that support display of video fields using related data encoded in data structures. Each data structure is associated with one video field and contains all the information associated with the display of the video field. The data structure is encoded with the video field that is displayed exactly one field prior to the field associated with the data structure. In an embodiment of the present invention, the data structure contains all the information associated with the display of a video field, regardless of whether certain data changes from one field to the next.
Method and apparatus for bit rate reduction in video telephony
Method and apparatus for encoding video is described. In one example, average of motion vectors for each of a plurality of blocks is maintained over a threshold number of inter-coded frames in the video. The running average of motion vectors for each of the plurality of blocks is compared to a threshold value. Each of the plurality of blocks the running average of which does not satisfy the threshold value is encoded using a first quantization parameter. Each of the plurality of blocks the running average of which satisfies the threshold value is encoded using a second quantization parameter. The second quantization parameter results in a coarser quantization of transformed coefficients than the first quantization parameter.
Method and apparatus for providing intra coding frame bit budget
The present invention discloses a system and method for adaptive adjustment of bit budget that favors the allocation of bits to intra coding frames (I frames). Namely, an encoder is able to dynamically adjust the bit budget for each picture type in an image sequence, thereby effecting proper usage of the available transmission bandwidth and improving the picture quality. In one embodiment, the present invention will allocate more encoding bandwidth to a current Intra coding frame when the average quantization level of inter coding frames (e.g., P and B frames) of a previous group of pictures is relatively high.
Bit-edge zero forcing equalizer
Bit-Edge Zero Forcing Equalizer. A novel solution is presented by which a BE-ZFE (Bit-Edge Zero Forcing Equalizer) is employed to drive an error term within a data signal to an essentially zero value. This new BE-ZFE looks at values of data that occur at the bit edges of a data signal and drives the associated error term to zero. The new BE-ZFE is appropriately implemented within communication systems that are phase (or jitter) noise limited. Some examples of such communication systems include high-speed serial links one type of which serviced using a SERDES (Serializer/De-serializer) where data that is originally in a parallel format is serialized into a serial data stream and then subsequently de-serialized back into a parallel data stream.
Tap coefficient determining method and apparatus, and digital signal phase locking method and apparatus
A method determines tap coefficients of a phase interpolation finite impulse response (FIR) filter with respect to a digital-signal phase-locked loop processing apparatus including an A/D converter receiving a reproduced signal serving as digital data and sampling the received reproduced signal at a frequency higher than a data rate frequency and a PLL portion performing phase locking of the reproduced signal by filtering the sampled reproduced signal obtained by the A/D converter using the phase interpolation FIR filter and outputting a data sequence of the phase-locked reproduced signal. The method includes providing an adaptive equalization FIR filter at the data rate frequency at a stage subsequent to the PLL portion and determining the tap coefficients of the phase interpolation FIR filter using, as estimated values, FIR filter tap coefficients of the adaptive equalization FIR filter, which are converged so as to achieve a minimum mean square error.
Power level measuring device and a mobile station
A disclosed power level measuring device includes a power calculator for calculating power values based on correlation values between a received signal and known signals, for each of sampling times within a predetermined period; a time divider for switching connection of input signals, responding to time slots allocated to each of plural cells; an accumulator connected to the time divider, for accumulating the power values; a detector for detecting at least one sampling time whose accumulated value is greater than a threshold; a memory connected to the time divider, for storing the power values; and an outputting unit for outputting a measured power level, based on the stored power value corresponding to the detected sampling time.
Extending orthogonal frequency division multiplexed wireless local area networks using direct sequence spread spectrum/complementary code keying
In various embodiments, the present invention includes a method for direct spread modulating data for wireless transmission at a 5 Gigahertz band or other frequency bands via wireless devices. Such wireless transmissions may occur in a wireless network having protection mechanisms to allow such wireless devices to co-exist with other devices not capable of such modulation.
Method for decoding digital data in a frequency hopping communication system
An improved method is provided for decoding data in a frequency hopping communications system. The method includes: monitoring transition points between data bits in a demodulated data stream, where the data bits are transmitted to a receiver over different transmission frequencies; determining a frequency over which data bits are transmitted to the receiver; determining a reliability metric for each frequency over which data bits were received, where the reliability metric is based on transition points of data bits transmitted over a given frequency; and performing a decoding operation using the reliability metric for each frequency over which data bits were received.
Portable laser head
A portable laser head has a single-piece holder configured with a plurality of spaced-apart nests. The nests are arranged to receive at least a non-linear frequency converter, a V-shaped beam splitter and a dump collimator. Alternatively, the holder has multiple nests configured to receive an input collimator and output focusing optics unit in addition to the non-linear frequency converter, V-shaped beam splitter and dump collimator. The holder is characterized by small dimensions allowing for self-alignment of the above-referred components.
Semiconductor laser device and solid-state laser device using the same
A semiconductor laser device with the energy density increased at the focal point and a LD pumped solid-state laser device configured of the particular semiconductor laser device are provided. A stack array laser element for radiating a two-dimensional array of laser beams includes a plurality of parallel laser beam columns each aligned in the form of dotted lines. In front of the stack array laser element, each laser beam column collimated by being refracted in the direction substantially perpendicular to the direction of the dotted line is received, and radiated by turning at right angles to the direction of the laser beams from each emitter or emitter group. In this way, the laser beams are converted into a plurality of substantially ladder-shaped parallel laser beam columns. These parallel laser beam columns are compressed to form parallel laser beam columns in alignment. Each compressed one of parallel laser beam columns is turned at right angles and radiated. Thus, all the laser beams are converted into a plurality of aligned parallel laser beams, which are collimated and condensed at a focal point.
Optically pumped, surface-emitting semiconductor laser device and method for the manufacture thereof
The invention is directed to an optically pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser device having at least one radiation-generating quantum well structure and at least one pump radiation source for optically pumping the quantum well structure, whereby the pump radiation source comprises an edge-emitting semiconductor structure. The radiation-generating quantum well structure and the edge-emitting semiconductor structure are epitaxially grown on a common substrate. A very efficient and uniform optical pumping of the radiation-generating quantum well structure is advantageously possible with this monolithically produced semiconductor laser device. Methods for manufacturing inventive semiconductor laser devices are also specified.
Semiconductor light-emitting device
Semiconductor laser elements are formed on a common substrate. Au plating is formed on principal surfaces of the semiconductor laser elements. The semiconductor laser elements are mounted on a package with solder applied to the Au plating. Areas opposed to each other across a light-emitting area of each semiconductor laser element are designated first and second areas. Average thickness of the Au plating is different in the first and second areas of each semiconductor laser element.
Pulse oscillating type solid laser unit and laser process unit
A pulse oscillating type solid laser unit that has a laser unit body whose exciting source is a laser diode that emits light in a principal energy absorbing spectrum of a solid laser activated media, and characterized by that prior to radiating laser light outside the laser unit body as a calibrating operation of a pulse laser output value, specified several varieties of rectangle pulse current values are conducted to a laser diode inside the pulse oscillating type solid laser unit so as to pulse-oscillate the laser unit body, a mean laser output value in each rectangle pulse current value is measured by the use of a laser output measuring instrument arranged inside the laser unit body so as to obtain a mean laser output value data, and in case that the laser output light is radiated outside the laser unit body, a pulse current value linear-predicted based on an obtained mean output value data is conducted to the laser diode so as to obtain a desired pulse laser output value.
Excessive current input suppressing semiconductor laser light emitting circuit
A semiconductor laser light emitting circuit includes a semiconductor laser diode emitting a laser light by modulating a current supplied thereto, a light intensity detection circuit that detects the laser light and generates a voltage, and a voltage-current conversion circuit converting a voltage into a current supplied to the laser diode. A S/H capacitance is provided to store electric charge and output a voltage to the voltage/current conversion circuit. A first operational amplifier is provided to output a first current charging the S/H capacitance. A rapidly charging circuit is provided to charge the S/H capacitance with a second current. The rapidly charging circuit terminates charging when the voltage is equal to or more than a second reference voltage.
Solid laser module, optical amplifier, and laser oscillator
The present invention relates to a solid-state laser module, and so on, having a structure for enabling optical output of high quality to be obtained. The solid-state laser module includes a vacuum container with windows, and a heat sink, a solid-state laser medium, and a pair of transparent members are housed in the vacuum container in an integrally assembled state. The solid-state laser medium and the pair of transparent members respectively have disk shapes, and the pair of transparent members sandwich the solid-state laser medium. The thermal conductivity of each of the pair of transparent members is higher than the thermal conductivity of the solid-state laser medium. The heat sink has a shape that simultaneously clamps portions of the pair of transparent members that sandwich the solid-state laser medium in between, and a heat insulating region, with a thermal conductivity that is lower than the thermal conductivity of the solid-state laser medium, is provided between the heat sink and the solid-state laser medium.
Systems and methods for polarization modulation of an optical signal
According to one embodiment of the present invention, a method of operating a laser source is provided. The laser source comprises a laser configured to generate an optical signal, and a polarization split and delay unit that is coupled to the optical signal. The polarization split and delay unit is configured to split the optical signal into a first and second orthogonally polarized component, create an optical path difference ΔL between the first and second orthogonally polarized components and combine the first and second orthogonally polarized components into a combined signal. The method comprises modulating the optical signal by applying a wavelength modulation signal to the laser such that the modulated optical signal comprises at least a first wavelength λ1 and a second wavelength λ2, wherein the first wavelength λ1 and the second wavelength λ2 are separated by a wavelength difference Δλ. The wavelength difference Δλ and the optical path difference ΔL are such that the first and second orthogonally polarized components oscillate back and forth from an in-phase state to an out of phase state. Additional embodiments are also disclosed and claimed.
Laser light source device, exposure device, and mask inspection device using this laser light source device
A laser light source device 1, comprising M number of laser light sources, of which frequency is shifted from a fundamental frequency by (m−1)·a·Δω, a first laser light source section 2 and a first fiber amplifier section 4 for amplifying these laser lights, a first optical multiplexer 6 for approximately coaxially superimposing the laser lights emitted from the first fiber amplifier section 4 and emitting the laser lights, a first wavelength conversion device 9 for multiplying the frequency of the laser lights emitted from the first optical multiplexer 6 by A, M number of laser light sources, of which frequency is shifted from the fundamental frequency by (m−1)·b·Δω, a second laser light source section 3 and a second fiber amplifier section 5 for amplifying these laser lights, a second optical multiplexer 7 for approximately coaxially superimposing the laser lights emitted from the second fiber amplifier section 5 and emitting the laser lights, a second wavelength conversion device 10 for multiplying the frequency of the laser lights emitted from the second optical multiplexer 7 by B, and a third wavelength conversion device 11 for simultaneously receiving the laser lights emitted from the first and second wavelength conversion devices 9 and 10 and converting the laser lights into laser lights, of which frequency is (A+B) times the fundamental frequency, the laser light source device 1 being characterized in that the expression A·a+B·b=0 is satisfied.
Time-division multiplexing/demultiplexing system and method
Provided are a time-division data multiplexing/demultiplexing system and method capable of preventing errors in processing data signals which occur due to a phase difference between data signals and a multiplexing reference clock in a multiplexing process or a phase difference between a multiplexed data signal and a demultiplexing reference clock in a demultiplexing process. The time-division data multiplexing system includes: a phase adjusting unit which adjusts a phase of each of a plurality of data signals having different phases from one another for enabling the data signals to be time-division multiplexed when a plurality of values of the data signals indicate a stable state; and a multiplexer time-division multiplexing the phase adjusted data signals according to a multiplexing reference clock.
Apparatus for synchronization of digital multimedia data communicated over wired media
An apparatus for synchronizing the initiation of the playback of packetized multimedia data received asynchronously in each receiver in a system, and for synchronizing the real time playback in a plurality of receivers in the system, from the transmitter over a wired communications medium. The clocks in the transmitter encoder and the receiver decoders operate asynchronously but at substantially the same rate. Initiation of playback is synchronized according to the arrival time of a first received data packet having a zero-valued retransmit number. Real time playback among a plurality of receivers is synchronized according to a measured time difference between an operating rate of the encoder and an operating rate of the decoder.
Method, transmitter and system for providing video on demand services
A method and system for providing video on demand, the method includes: (i) sending, by a resource manager, authorized media stream identification information to a modulation and radio frequency transmitter; (ii) receiving, by a radio frequency transmitter, at least one media stream encapsulated within addressable packets; wherein the at least one media stream is associated with corresponding received identification information; and (iii) determining, by the modulation and radio frequency transmitter, whether to modulate and transmit the received media stream in response to relationship between the authorized media stream identification information and between the receives identification information.
Method for concatenated convolutional encoding and interleaving
A method and apparatus encode a source data stream via convolutional encoding. Plural encoded data streams are interleaved and transmitted on plural transmission channels. Data groups generated via convolutional encoding are interleaved via time-interleaving functions to disperse selected bits within puncture groups of the data groups, bits in between data groups, and bits in selected sets of data groups to facilitate reconstruction of the source data stream from at least a portion of the interleaved data stream received on at least one transmission channel. The time-interleaving functions are selected to facilitate reconstruction of the source data stream from one transmission channel following continuous blockage. Subsets of bits of puncture groups are selected to allow reconstruction of the source data stream from more than one of the transmission channels using a minimum number of subsets. Multiple combinations of subsets can be received on both transmission channels to reconstruct the source data stream following blockage of one channel. Decoding is performed via a Viterbi decoder.
Methods of synchronizing subscriber stations to communications networks
A method for operating a media-access control unit in communications network includes placing the unit in a scan mode where the cyclic-prefix length and frame length of frames of data transmitted by a base station are ascertained and one or more parameters relating to the signal quality of the base station are collected. Data is not exchanged with a higher protocol-layer unit during this scan mode. The method also includes the unit remaining in the scan mode until at least a point in time when the unit is receiving frame control headers at an interval equal to the ascertained frame length. The unit is thereafter placed in a run mode in which the unit processes at least one flow of data to the higher protocol-layer unit once the cyclic-prefix length and the frame length are ascertained.
Processing communication flows in asymmetrically routed networks
A network system includes a first device and a second device separated by a network having asymmetric routes in which traffic forwarded in a first direction from the first device to the second device may travel a different route than traffic forwarded in a second direction from the second device to the first device. At least three intermediate processing devices are located between the first device and the second device, wherein at least two of the intermediate processing devices are located along different asymmetric routes. The intermediate processing devices intercept a communication flow between the first device and the second device, and encapsulate the communication flow within network tunnels so that communications associated with the communication flow in the first direction and the second direction are forwarded between a same set of at least two of the intermediate processing devices.
Method and apparatus for virtual private networks
A method and apparatus for virtual private networks (VPNs) is described. A computer implemented method comprises determining a set of endpoints for a generic routing encapsulation (GRE) tunnel, determining a key (the key corresponding to a VPN), dynamically establishing the GRE tunnel with the set of endpoints and the key, and processing a set of GRE traffic for the VPN.
Router having a single CPU MAC
A method, apparatus, and computer-readable media for transferring data from a first network to a second network through a network device, comprising. It comprises receiving a frame of the data from the first network, the frame comprising an internet protocol address; transmitting the frame to a media access controller of the network device; transmitting the frame from the media access controller to a processor of the network device, wherein the processor modifies the internet protocol address; transmitting the frame from the processor to the media access controller; and transmitting the frame from the media access controller to the second network.
Method and system for supporting efficient and cache-friendly TCP session lookup operations based on canonicalization tags
Aspects of a method and system for efficient and cache-friendly TCP session lookup operations based on canonicalization tags are presented. Aspects of the method may include searching a plurality of tag fields, retrieved via a single memory read operation, to locate a reference to a control block that includes context information for a communication session. Aspects of the system may include a processor that searches a plurality of tag fields, retrieved via a single memory read operation, to locate a reference to a control block that includes context information for a communication session.
Two stage queue arbitration
In a node to forward data on a switch fabric, a method that includes scheduling the forwarding of data associated with one of a plurality of traffic classes. The data is to be transmitted through one of a plurality of ports coupled to the switch fabric, each port to be associated with a queue to store data to be forwarded from that port. The scheduling is to include a two stage arbitration scheme. The first stage is to select one queue associated for each traffic class. The second stage is to select one queue from among the queues selected for each traffic class selected in the first stage.
Source address binding check
In one embodiment, a method can include: (i) receiving a packet in a switch, where the packet includes a plurality of fields that forms a binding; (ii) performing a first lookup of a first table using a first lookup key, where the first lookup key includes a first subset of the plurality of fields; (iii) performing a second lookup of a second table using a second lookup key, where the second lookup key includes a result of the first lookup and a second subset of the plurality of fields; and (iv) indicating a check of the binding by using a result of the second lookup. The plurality of fields can include a media access control (MAC) source address, an internet protocol (IP) address, a receive port, and a receive virtual local area network (VLAN), while the result of the first lookup can include a layer-2 source index, for example.
Packet forwarding apparatus with packet controlling functions
A packet forwarding apparatus which quickly selects a plurality of control information entries to be applied according to header information of an input packet and concurrently performs various the header processing functions. The packet forwarding apparatus comprises a flow retrieval unit which compares header information of the input packet with plural sets of flow identification conditions and concurrently outputs various flow identifiers appropriate to the input packet, various header processing units corresponding to the flow identifiers, and a packet forwarding control unit for controlling forwarding of input packets according to control information outputted from at least one of the header processing units. While each of the header processing units has an information table containing plural information entries, reads a single information entry from the information table according to the flow identifier outputted from the flow retrieval unit, and executes a prescribed arithmetic operation.
System and method for implementing ASI over long distances
The present invention provides a system and method for utilizing the Advanced Switching network protocol to communicate over long distances, such as multiple kilometers. The present invention utilizes an existing status bit, referred to as the Perishable Bit, within the AS packet header, to reduce the number of packets which must be stored in the retry buffer. This reduces the required size of the retry buffer and simultaneously reduces the latency associated with retransmitting time critical packets after NAKs are received. The receiving device also utilizes the Perishable Bit in determining which packets to accept and which to discard.
Method and apparatus for improved multicast streaming in wireless networks
The invention includes a method and apparatus for providing media content. The method includes duplicating each packet of an original packet stream for which an associated importance level satisfies an importance condition, inserting each duplicate packet within the original packet stream to form thereby a modified packet stream, and transmitting the modified packet stream toward a wireless terminal adapted for processing the modified packet stream for presenting the media content conveyed by the original packet stream. The duplicate packets may be inserted within respective windows associated with the duplicate packets, wherein each window is determined according to an original packet position associated with the original packet from which the duplicate packet is formed.
Zone based quality of service in a fibre channel fabric
Methods and apparatus are provided for improving the configuration, management, and distribution of quality of service information in a fibre channel fabric using zoning mechanisms. Configuration of Quality of Service (QoS) information is made easy by using zones as a classifier for flows. QoS information is included in zone objects, thereby using the existing zone distribution mechanism to distribute QoS information. Devices not part of any zones are placed automatically in the default zone with a default QoS priority level. QoS information for a particular packet is available as soon as the zoning information is obtained.
System and method for a control services link for a multi-shelf node in a communication switch
A connection system for a communication switch is provided. The switch comprises a controller and shelves providing communication capabilities for the switch. The controller is able to communicate with each shelf shelves utilizing categories of communication signals. The connection system comprises connections providing signalling links for the categories of communication signals between the controller and the each shelf. The connections are bundled together in a single, collective span of cable and each connection provides its individual category communication signals independently of the other connections.
Signaling gateway aggregation
An arrangement for coupling a SCP (Signaling Control Point) and Signaling Transfer Point (STP) nodes of a SS7 network is disclosed. The arrangement includes an aggregated signaling gateway arrangement (ASGA), which includes at least a first signaling gateway and a second signaling gateway. The first signaling gateway is coupled between the SCP and a first STP node of the SS7 network. The second signaling gateway is coupled between the SCP and a second STP node of the SS7 network, the first signaling gateway and the second gateway being associated with a single SS7 point code.
Technique for implementing a multi-service packet and optical/TDM virtual private cross-connect
A technique for implementing an automatic port discovery protocol in a virtual private network cross-connect is disclosed. In one particular exemplary embodiment, the technique may be realized by a method comprising the steps of implementing a virtual private cross-connect for supporting a plurality sites associated with at least one virtual private network; providing at least one connection between the virtual private cross-connect and each site; and supporting a combination of at least two of layer-3, layer-2 and layer-1 services.
Address scope checking for internet protocol version 6
An apparatus having a corresponding computer program and method comprises a plurality of ports to receive packets each associated with source and destination Internet protocol version 6 (IPv6) addresses; a site circuit to determine a source site for the source IPv6 address, and a destination site for the destination IPv6 address; a scope circuit to determine a source scope level for the source IPv6 address, and a destination scope level for the destination IPv6 address; a command circuit to select one of a plurality of actions for each of the packets based on the source site and source scope level for the source IPv6 address associated with the packet and the destination site and destination scope level for the destination IPv6 address associated with the packet; wherein the plurality of actions comprises forwarding the packet according to the destination IPv6 address associated with the packet, and dropping the packet.
Method of burst scheduling in a communication network
Delay-sensitive burst scheduling in a network is carried out through communications between source and destination nodes. A distributed scheduler at each destination node selects timeslots for burst arrivals from requesting source nodes, irrespective of timeslot selections made by distributed schedulers at other nodes.
Method for power-efficient transmission supporting integrated services over wireless local area network
This invention provides a method for power-efficient transmission supporting integrated service over WLAN. The said invention combines the polling-based and the contention-based mechanisms, named on-demand polling (ODP). In the ODP scheme, a voice station is in the polling list when it is in the active mode. During the idle mode, it is configured to operate in the sleep mode for saving power. Also, it adopts the contention-based mechanism to join the list again while returning from the idle mode. On the other hand, the data station adopts the contention-based mechanism to transmit its packets over WLAN. In addition, to achieve service differentiation, the said invention also employs a prioritized access probability for voice over data services. Simulation results show that the said invention can reduce the power consumption for voice stations and enhance the throughput for data stations.
Channel communication apparatus and method in CDMA communication system
A channel communication apparatus and method are provided for a CDMA communication system method for acquiring signals from multiple adjacent base stations by a terminal; for providing more efficient set management; for providing more efficient multipath acquisition and finger assignment; and for acquiring a signal sent from an adjacent base station and a multipath signal which can reduce power consumption and hardware complexity in the terminal. The apparatus and methods also accurately measure the power or time delay of a signal received from a base station by a terminal in a CDMA communication system.
Network system for interworking W-LAN and 3G mobile communication network through RoF link and authentication method according to interworking in the network system
A network system for interworking a Wireless Local Area Network (W-LAN) and a 3rd-Generation (3G) mobile communication network through a Radio-over-Fiber(RoF) link and an authentication method in interworking in the network system are provided. The network system includes a 3G mobile communication network and a W-LAN system. The 3G mobile communication network includes a voice signal processing network connected to a Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) for voice call processing with respect to a predetermined mobile terminal, a packet data network for data communication with the predetermined mobile terminal, and a terminal device for communication with the predetermined mobile terminal. The W-LAN system is connected to the packet data network of the 3G mobile communication network to provide a W-LAN service to the predetermined mobile communication terminal. The W-LAN system is implemented in a plurality of Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs) included in the 3G mobile communication network through the RoF link.
Dual MAC arbitration
A wireless network device includes a first media access controller (MAC) that generates a first output signal, a second MAC that generates a second output signal, and a communication channel. The communication channel includes a baseband processor in communication with a radio frequency transmitter and selectively transmits one of the first output signal and the second output signal.
System and method for controlling access to a wireless medium
Some representative embodiments are directed to controlling access to a wireless medium using “credit” periods and “free” periods. During a credit period, credits are initially assigned to the stations and each station is repetitively polled as long as the station has credit remaining and data is available to communicate. During the free periods, stations are polled using a start-time fair queuing algorithm. By dividing the access to the wireless medium in this manner, real time applications may use the credit periods to prevent communication latency from deteriorating application performance. Specifically, the repetitive occurrence of the credit periods and the assignment of credits to the stations ensures that each station will communicate at least at a minimum data rate. Additionally, controlling access to the wireless medium in this manner prevents frame collisions and, thereby, increases network throughput.
Generation broadband wireless internet, and associated method, therefor
A wireless access network, and an associated method, is formed of multiple tiers to provide for communications between individual nodes. Each tier of the network operates at different frequency ranges and provides for connectivity between selected nodes of the different tiers.
Method and system for a variable spreading factor Walsh Hadamard transform engine
Aspects of a method and system for a variable spreading factor Walsh Hadamard Transform engine are presented. Aspects of the system may include a variable spreading factor Fast Walsh Hadamard Transform engine that enables spread spectrum encoding of data from each of a plurality of data sources. A plurality of spreading factors may be utilized wherein at least 2 of the plurality of spreading factors differ. The variable spreading factor Fast Walsh Hadamard Transform engine may enable combination of a plurality of spread spectrum encoded data to form a data vector.
Wireless communication system, wireless base station, and mobile station
Data transport which allows for handover is implemented by a mobile wireless communication system wherein a first datum is transmitted by a wireless base station, in response to the reception of which a mobile station transmits a second datum, in response to the reception of which the wireless base station transmits a third datum, which is received by the mobile station, the mobile station comprising a control unit which performs changeover of the reception channel for the first datum before changeover of the reception channel for the third datum during handover.
Assigning channel access
A system and method for assigning channel access is described. At least one of a terminal or an access point transmits a message to other entities where the message assigns access to an assignee and includes a duration field of a specified length. The unassigned terminals or access point remain silent for a duration specified in the duration field while the assignee has access to the channel.
Evaluating orthogonal codes transmitted in a wireless communications network
The invention relates to a method, a computer program product and a device for evaluating a code which is orthogonal to one or more further codes. The method comprises the steps of receiving a signal which carries a code containing a sequence of code symbols, determining for a particular symbol instant at least one channel estimate, determining for the particular symbol instant a compensation value taking into account the at least one channel estimate, compensating each code symbol using the compensation value determined for the corresponding symbol instant, wherein the compensation is performed such that an original power relationship among the individual code symbols contained in the code is restored, and evaluating the code on the basis of the sequence of compensated code symbols exploiting the orthogonality to further codes.
Method of distributing identical data to mobile units
The present invention provides a method for distributing identical data to mobile units. The method includes providing a plurality of first messages including information indicative of a pseudo-address and a corresponding one of a plurality of mobile unit addresses. The method also includes providing at least one second message including the pseudo-address and a portion of a payload of a packet destined for a plurality of mobile units indicated by the plurality of mobile unit addresses.
Bluetooth sniff mode power saving
A Bluetooth master radio frequency unit addresses a slave radio frequency unit, to enable the slave to synchronize to the master, by sending poll packets and optionally null packets over an active link, the master being arranged so that receipt of a response from the slave unit to a poll packet is sufficient to maintain the active link. The slave unit does not have to respond to all of the poll packets. This approach can allow the slave to preserve more (transmit) power by going into a deep sleep mode in which a low power oscillator may be used while still allowing the master unit to detect whether the slave has resynchronized or not (and thus to update a Link Supervision Timer, for example).
Local area network of serial intelligent cells
A device for coupling signals between first and second coaxial cables, the first coaxial cable being connected to carry a first bi-directional digital data signal in a first digital data frequency band, and the second coaxial cable being connected to carry a second bi-directional digital data signal in a second digital data frequency band, and each of the coaxial cables being connected to carry, multiplexed with the respective digital data signal, an analog video signal in an analog video signal frequency band distinct from each of the first and second digital data frequency bands.
Routing network packets based on electrical power procurement arrangements
In general, this disclosure describes techniques of selecting routes for network packets through a computer network based, at least in part, on electrical power procurement arrangements of devices in the computer network. As described herein, there may be a plurality of routes through a computer network from a first device to a second device. Each of these routes may include one or more devices that consume electrical power. A route selection device may make a determination regarding how network packets are to be routed among these routes based, at least in part, on arrangements made to procure the electrical power consumed by the devices along the routes. After the route selection device makes this determination, the route selection device may cause network packets to be routed among these routes in accordance with this determination.
Dynamically configurable service oriented architecture
A system, method and media for a service oriented architecture, including in one embodiment, a method for configuring a service proxy, comprising configuring a transformation between a reception protocol and a transmission protocol, configuring a potential message processing path capable of processing a message that has been received with the reception protocol, providing the message for transmission to the transmission protocol, wherein the potential message processing path includes a message processing node capable of processing the message, and wherein the message processing node implements an interface and/or a protocol that is compatible with the service proxy. Other features, aspects and objects of the invention can be obtained from a review of the specification, the figures and the claims.
Network traffic capture and replay with transaction integrity and scaling
Network traffic capture/replay systems, devices, apparatus, computer program code products and methods can include (1) extracting from the network traffic and scaling a plurality of sessions, (2) enabling asymmetrical scaling, wherein a client is cloned to generate a desired traffic load, (3) enabling complex scaling, wherein a captured packet may contain control sessions that control dependent sessions, wherein for each control session that is scaled, an additional stream session is scaled, (4) enabling traffic shaping, wherein the traffic shaping comprises parsing, categorizing and associating protocols associated with a packet capture file, and (5) enabling port mapping, wherein the port mapping comprises, prior to loading a packet capture file for replay, assigning source ports to each session.
Multicast communication path calculation method and multicast communication path calculation apparatus
A multicast communication path calculation method is disclosed which includes the steps of: obtaining minimum delay paths from a source node to each destination node; selecting, as candidate nodes of a rendezvous point node, nodes on one of the obtained minimum delay paths; for each candidate node, calculating minimum delay paths from the candidate node to each destination node, and obtaining a difference between the maximum value and the minimum value among delays of the calculated minimum delay paths; selecting, as the rendezvous point node, a candidate node by which the difference is smallest; and outputting a minimum delay path from the source node to the rendezvous point node and minimum delay paths from the rendezvous point node to each destination node.
Method for adjusting transmission rate of MPEG-2 data and apparatus therefor
An apparatus and a method for adjusting a transmission rate of data, in particular a moving picture experts group 2 (MPEG-2) data is disclosed The apparatus includes a receiving buffer for buffering multi program transport stream (MPTS) packets received at various transmission rates, and a packet storage for storing MPEG-2 null packets. A signal processing section reads data buffered in the receiving buffer at a predetermined output transmission rate, wherein the signal processing section stops an operation of reading data buffered in the receiving buffer, and reads and transmits the MPEG-2 null packets stored in the packet storage when a predetermined underflow occurrence forecast situation is caused in the receiving buffer.
Multi-stream pro-active rate adaptation for robust video transmission
A method for transmitting data streams from a transmitter to a plurality of receivers over a shared channel that includes a transmitter simultaneously transmitting a plurality of the data streams to the plurality of receivers of the shared channel. The method includes jointly adapting bit rates of the respective data streams being transmitted in accordance with the available bandwidth, a general target time, and a quality measure.
Two tier traffic shaper approach for resilient packet ring stations
RPR traffic management concepts are extended to individual client flows while adhering to the station level traffic management functions by using a two tiered shaper approach. The first tier manages the client level SLAs and feeds the second tier which provides the aggregate station level traffic management functions. This approach allows sharing of a single RPR station without the compromises and side affects associated with the other techniques. Apparatus for Resilient Packet Ring traffic management comprises a stage queue selection block operable to hold client and control traffic for transmission, a queue level traffic shaper operable to control an add rate of client data add traffic and to provide queue specific send indications to the stage queue selection block, and a ringlet level traffic shaper operable to control traffic flow for a Resilient Packet Ring ringlet and to provide aggregate send indications to the stage queue selection block.
Route determination with differential delay compensation for virtually-concatenated data traffic
Virtually-concatenated data traffic is routed in a network comprising a plurality of nodes, the plurality of nodes including one or more nodes that are differential delay enabled and one or more nodes that are not differential delay enabled. For a given traffic demand to be routed from a source node to a destination node in the network, at least one route is determined for routing the demand between an intermediate node that is differential delay enabled and one of the source node and the destination node that is not differential delay enabled. Also, a set of routes is determined for routing the demand between the intermediate node that is differential delay enabled and at least one other node of the network, that may or may not be differential delay enabled, with each of the routes in the set corresponding to a member of a virtually-concatenated group. The given traffic demand is routed from the source node to the destination node, utilizing the at least one route and the set of routes.
Geographic redundancy and resource optimization for security gateways in wireless networks
A data communication system has security gateway redundancy for mobile terminal access. A first security gateway provides a first secured communications link between a first mobile user terminal and a telecommunications network over an intermediary network. A second security gateway provides a second secured communications link between a second mobile user terminal and the telecommunications network over the intermediary network. A redundancy mechanism provides a third secured communications link between the second mobile user terminal and the telecommunications network over the first security gateway, when the second security gateway fails.
Transmitting apparatus of OFDM system and method thereof
The present invention relates to a transmitter in an OFDM system for improving the PAPR, and a method thereof. According to the exemplary embodiment of the present invention, channel encoding is performed in order to correct a data transmission error of a radio channel, a predetermined bit of the channel encoded data is bit-inverted by using a mask bit or a mask bit sequence, and a PAPR of the signal is reduced. Accordingly, reduction of transmission efficiency which has been generated in block coding and DSI methods is not generated when the signal is transmitted because an additional bit is not required.
Light information apparatus and control method of light information apparatus
An optical information apparatus includes a laser which emits a light beam, an objective lens and the like which converge a light beam emitted from the laser on an optical recording medium, spherical aberration correction instrument which is arranged on an optical axis of the light beam which links the laser and the objective lens, and corrects a spherical aberration generated on the optical recording medium. Correction is performed so that outgoing power of the laser changes according to a correction amount by the spherical aberration correction instrument.
Optical disk device
An optical disk device includes a recording and reading means which performs recording of data upon, or reading of data from, an optical disk upon which are stored an ID, number of times information, and recording management information. Furthermore, when recording of data upon the optical disk has been completed, this optical disk device stores the recording management information, the number of times information, and the ID of the optical disk in a storage means in mutual correspondence. And, when the optical disk has been mounted, the recording and reading means decides whether a first situation or a second situation holds, using the ID and the number of times information of the optical disk as a key. And, if the second situation holds, the recording and reading means utilizes the recording management information in the storage means.
Optical information recording method and optical information regeneration recorder, and signal processing circuit, and recording reproduction program and information recording medium
An optical information recording method in an optical recording generation method for performing recording and reproduction of information by radiating laser light which is pulse-modulated according to a recording waveform having a plurality of setting parameters onto a storage medium is disclosed. The method comprises reading information recorded in the storage medium; determining positions corresponding to a detection pattern from the detection pattern and a reproduction signal, the detection pattern being defined according to a specific parameter from among the plurality of setting parameters, and the reproduction signal being obtained by reading the information; detecting the state of the reproduction signal according to the result of the determination; generating an ideal reproduction signal according to the detection pattern; and obtaining a predetermined signal evaluation index value using the result of detection of the state of the reproduction signal and the ideal reproduction signal.
Recording medium, method of configuring control information thereof, recording and reproducing method using the same, and apparatus thereof
In a recordable optical disc including at least one recording layer, write strategy information is recorded within disc control information, so that standardized disc control information can be uniformly applied to data recording and reproduction. At least one disc information is recorded as the disc control information within the management area. The disc control information is recorded per at least one write strategy type for a same writing speed and recording layer. The write strategy type recorded in the corresponding disc information is determined by recording write strategy parameters of the optionally determined write strategy type among applicable write strategy types.
Optical disk device
An optical disk device includes a BE control means which issues a request for recording of data upon an optical disk. Furthermore, this optical disk device includes an FE processing means which, upon receipt of the recording request from the BE control means, irradiates laser light from a pickup head onto the optical disk, and records data stored in a buffer RAM upon the optical disk. If an error has occurred during the recording of the data upon the optical disk by the FE processing means, then the BE control means first acquires, from the FE processing means, error information including an error occurrence address. And the BE control means performs control to execute recovery processing, according to this error information.
Stretching and exercise apparatus
The invention is a stretching apparatus comprised of first and second elongate handles having first and second ends for being held by an individual during use and a strap carried by both the first and second handles such that at least a portion of the strap is exposed for engaging the foot of an individual during use. A timer carried by the second end of at least one of the first and second handles determines the time elapsed during use. A timer actuator disposed between the strap and the timer actuates the timer upon a movement of the strap. An audible indicator, carried by at least one of the first and second handles in communication with the timer, audibly indicates the elapsing of a predetermined period of time. The apparatus further consists of a visual indicator for visually indicating the elapsing of a predetermined amount of time.
Sonar imaging system for mounting to watercraft
A sonar imaging system for a watercraft is disclosed. The sonar imaging system comprises a transducer coupled to the watercraft and having at least one side scanning element and at least one bottom scanning element, an electronic control head unit coupled to the transducer and configured to display sonar images. The downward acoustic elements may be circular and the side scan acoustic elements may be rectangular. A software filter may be provided to remove noise generated by a spark plug or other operation of a motor for the watercraft.
Nonvolatile memory devices and programming methods using subsets of columns
Nonvolatile memory devices include a memory cell array having memory cells arranged in rows and columns, and an address storing unit that is configured to store therein an indicator of an initial column address and an indicator of an end column address, to identify a subset of the columns that extends from the initial column address to the end column address. A program circuit is configured to verify a programming operation for a selected row at the subset of the columns that extends from the initial column address to the end column address. Analogous methods of programming a nonvolatile memory device also may be provided.
Sense amplifier, semiconductor memory device including the same, and data sensing method
A sense amplifier includes a reference signal providing unit and an internal sense amplification unit. The reference signal providing unit provides a reference bit line signal in response to a reference control signal. The internal sense amplification unit receives the reference bit line signal and data signals that correspond to the data. The received signals are provided through bit lines connected to the memory cell array. The internal sense amplification unit senses the received reference bit line signal and the data signals and amplifies the sensed signals. The sense amplifier senses data stored in memory cells connected to dummy bit lines of the outmost memory cell array of a semiconductor memory device such that the memory cells that are not used can be used. Accordingly, the design area and cost of the semiconductor memory device can be reduced.
A memory device is provided which has: a memory cell to store data; a word line to select the memory cell; a bit line connectable to the selected memory cell; a precharge power supply to supply a precharge voltage to the bit line; a precharge circuit to connect or disconnect the precharge power supply to or from the bit line; and a current limiting element to control the magnitude of a current flowing between the precharge power supply and the bit line at least by two steps according to an operation status.
Semiconductor memory device capable of achieving narrower distribution width of threshold voltages of memory cells and method of data write in the same
When a data write sequence is started, initially, write data is latched in a data latch circuit corresponding to one memory mat. Then, a program pulse is applied to the memory mat, and data read from a memory cell, which is a data write target bit in the memory mat, is performed. Thereafter, verify determination of the memory mat is performed. After a verify operation for the memory mat is completed, a program pulse is applied to another memory mat, and a verify operation for another memory mat is performed.
Semiconductor memory device
In addition to a booster power supply circuit boosting a power supply voltage to supply a boost voltage VPP to a memory core, cell capacitors composing a stabilization capacitor, and a bias generation circuit supplying a midpoint potential to a connection point of the cell capacitors, further, a clamp circuit reducing the boost voltage to a set value is provided, in which when the booster power supply circuit stops a boosting operation, the clamp circuit cramps the boost voltage to the set value, so that the midpoint potential can be prevented from largely deviating to a boosting voltage side and a ground potential side in a transition to a normal operation thereafter.
Semiconductor memory device and control method of the same
A semiconductor memory device includes a memory cell array, a voltage generating circuit, a memory circuit which stores a reference pulse number of an advance-write voltage of the memory cell array and a parameter, and a control circuit which controls, when a pulse number of the advance-write voltage is less than the reference pulse number of the advance-write voltage, the voltage generating circuit in a manner to decrease at least an initial value of a write voltage and a step-up width of the write voltage in accordance with the parameter.
Semiconductor memory device
When data “1” is stored in a memory cell, a bit line is driven to an H level (control line drive potential) and the other bit line is driven to an L level (reference potential) when a sense operation is completed. When a verify write operation is initiated, a charge line is driven from an H level (power supply potential) to an L level (reference potential). By the GIDL current from a source line, accumulation of holes is initiated again for a storage node subsequent to discharge of holes, whereby the potential of the storage node rises towards an H level (period α). When the charge line is driven to an H level from an L level, the potential of the storage node further rises (period β).
Nonvolatile semiconductor memory device including a cell string with dummy cells
A non-volatile semiconductor memory device includes a memory array having a cell string. The cell string includes a plurality of normal memory cells, a ground selection transistor gated so as to provide a source voltage to the normal memory cells, at least two dummy cells connected between a normal memory cell on one side end of the cell string and the ground selection transistor, wherein the normal memory cells are configured to store data and the dummy cells are configured to not store data. The memory device also includes a word line selection block which controls normal word lines to gate the normal memory cells and dummy word lines to gate the dummy cells, wherein the dummy word lines are controlled as sequential voltage levels during a program operation to select the normal memory cell on the one side end.
Flash memory device and program method thereof
A method of programming a plurality of memory cells in a flash memory device from a first state to a second state includes verifying the plurality of memory cells using a verify voltage having a level increased according to an increase in a program loop number; and programming the plurality of memory cells using a program voltage having an increment decreased according to an increase in the program loop number, wherein the verifying and programming steps constitute a program loop, the program loop being terminated at a point in time when a level of the verify voltage reaches to a voltage range of the second state.
In a data program/erase device of a nonvolatile memory cell, data are re-written by means of an FN tunnel current of an entire channel surface. In a buried n-well of a semiconductor substrate in a flash memory formation region, p wells are placed in the form isolated from each other. In each of the p wells, a capacitor portion, a capacitor portion for programming/erasing data and an MIS•FET for reading data are placed. In the capacitor portion for programming/erasing data, rewriting (programming and erasing) of data is performed by means of an FN tunnel current of an entire channel surface.
SCR matrix storage device
One of the simplest forms of data storage devices is the diode array storage device. However, a problem with diode array storage devices is that as the size of the array increases, the number of non-addressed diodes connected between a given selected row or column of the array and the non-addressed columns or rows of the array, respectively, also becomes very large. While the leakage current through any one non-addressed diode on the selected row or column will have little impact on the operation of the device, the cumulative leakage through multiple thousands of non-addressed diodes can become significant. This aggregate leakage current can become great enough that the output voltage can be shifted such that the threshold for distinguishing between a one state and a zero state of the addressed diode location can become obscured and can result in a misreading of the addressed diode location. The present invention is a means to manage the leakage currents in a diode array storage device. This is accomplished by actively changing the forward voltage of the diodes in the storage array such that a diode connected to the selected row line but that is not connected to the selected column line is in its high impedance state and a diode connected to the selected column line but that is not connected to the selected row line is in its high impedance state; only a diode that is connected to both the selected row line and the selected column line will switch to its low impedance state. The present invention is an enhancement to all types of arrays of diodes or arrays of other nonlinear conducting elements including: storage devices, programmable logic devices, display arrays, sensor arrays, and many others.
Magnetoresistance effect element and magnetic memory
It is made possible to cause spin inversion at a low current density which does not cause element destruction and to conduct writing with a small current. A magnetoresistance effect element includes: a magnetization pinned layer in which magnetization direction is pinned; a magnetic recording layer in which magnetization direction is changeable, the magnetization direction in the magnetization pinned layer forming an angle which is greater than 0 degree and less than 180 degrees with a magnetization direction in the magnetic recording layer, and the magnetization direction in the magnetic recording layer being inverted by injecting spin-polarized electrons into the magnetic recording layer; and a non-magnetic metal layer provided between the magnetization pinned layer and the magnetic recording layer.
Nonvolatile semiconductor memory device performing data writing in a toggle manner
A nonvolatile semiconductor memory device includes a free layer having first and second magnetic layers magnetized oppositely to each other, and also having a first nonmagnetic layer formed between the first and second magnetic layers, a first fixed layer having a fixed magnetization direction, a second nonmagnetic layer formed between the second magnetic layer and the first fixed layer, a first drive circuit passing a write current through a first write current line in a data write operation, and thereby generating a data write magnetic field acting on magnetization of the free layer, and a second drive circuit passing a spin injection current between the first magnetic layer and the first fixed layer in a data write operation, and thereby exerting a force in the same direction as or in the direction opposite to the magnetization direction of the first fixed layer on the magnetization of the free layer.
Nanoscale shift register and signal demultiplexing using microscale/nanoscale shift registers
Methods for inputting a data-value pattern into a nanowire crossbar, for inputting a data-value pattern into a nanowire crossbar that support computer instructions stored in a computer-readable medium, and for distributing a received data value to each of a set of nanowires that support control logic implemented in logic circuits are provided. First and second nanoscale shift registers are employed, the first having output signal lines that form or interconnect with a first parallel set of nanowire-crossbar nanowires and the second having output signal lines that form or interconnect with a second parallel set of nanowire-crossbar nanowires. A first pattern of values is stored in the first shift register and a second pattern of values is stored in the second shift register using voltage signals below the WRITE voltage for junctions of the crossbar. Voltage signals greater than or equal to the WRITE threshold are applied for junctions of the crossbar to write the pattern of data values into the crossbar.
Electrochemical memory device
A memory device including a stack of layers. At least one first active layer is based on a crystalline ionic and electronic conducting material capable of releasing and/or accepting at least one ionic species. At least one second active layer is based on a crystalline ionic and electronic conducting material capable of releasing and/or accepting the ionic species. The first active layer and the second active layer are based on a material that has a high potential variation for a low variation in the concentration of the ionic species. At least one layer forms an electrolyte between the first active layer and the second active layer, and is based on at least one ionic conducting and electronic insulating material. A measurement instrument is provided for measuring the electrochemical potential difference between the first active layer and the second active layer.
Integrated-inverter electric compressor
An object is to provide an integrated-inverter electric compressor that can enhance assembly and vibration resistance of power semiconductor switching devices and control substrates thereof constituting the inverter device. The integrated-inverter electric compressor, in which an inverter device is installed in an inverter container provided on an outer circumference of a housing, includes a plurality of IGBTs constituting the inverter device and a guide member having a plurality of guide holes for passing terminals of the IGBTs provided between the control substrate and the IGBTs. The guide member is provided with at least one first positioning pin, fitted in positioning holes provided in a mounting surface of the IGBT, in one side surface facing the IGBT, and at least one second positioning pin, fitted in positioning holes provided in the control substrate, in another side surface facing the control substrate.
High frequency excitation system
A power module is adapted to be connected to a voltage source and to supply power to a load. The power module includes a power transistor; and a gate controller for driving the power transistor. The gate controller includes a gate transformer, and an impulse generator that extends a negative drive phase of a gate voltage to the power transistor relative to a positive drive phase of the gate voltage to the power transistor.
Inverter type AC generator with a zero-crossing detection circuit used to provide a synchronized operation and method of operating the same
An inverter type AC generator includes an inverter circuit converting a DC output into AC output of a predetermined frequency and supplying the AC output to a load via a load line in order to improve the quality of an AC output waveform at least in parallel operations. The inverter AC generator includes a zero-crossing detection circuit for detecting a timing of zero-crossings of an AC output voltage waveform on the output line. A controller generates a drive signal in synchronization with the timing of the detected zero-crossings, when a predetermined number of zero-crossings have been detected, and drives the inverter to perform a synchronized operation process.
Switching sequence control method for a PS-ZVT bridge converter
The switching sequence of a phase-shifted zero-voltage-transition (PS-ZVT) full bridge converter circuit is alternated between two modes by periodically reversing the switching sequence for diagonally opposed switching devices of the bridge. Over a period of operation, each of the switching devices periodically conduct the entire free-wheeling current that occurs during load current reversal transitions so as to balance their average power dissipation and reduce the overall power dissipation of the converter circuit.
High frequency unit
A high frequency unit (e.g., an RF signal selection switch) includes, as its external terminals, a terrestrial input terminal, a CATV input terminal, an RF output terminal, a selection signal terminal, a power supply terminal and a ground potential terminal. The external terminals are attached to a shielding case surrounding the peripheral edge of a wiring substrate. The shielding plate is disposed in contact with the rear face of the wiring substrate.
Electrically insulating body, and electronic device
The invention relates to an electric insulating body (2) provided with a conductor pattern (1) and an electronic device (10) comprising such a body (2) and at least one electronic element (30). According to the invention, the body (2) has first and second faces (2A, 2B) in between of which an angle of less than 180 degrees is defined, wherein the conductor pattern (1) of the body (2) extends over both faces (2A, 2B), which body (2) carries both the conductor pattern (1) and the electronic element (30). The conductor pattern (1) comprises strip-shaped regions (1A) and regions (1B) with a larger width than the strip-shaped regions (1A), which regions (1B) are suitable for electrically contacting the electronic element (30). The electronic element (30) is, for example, a camera. The device (10) with such a camera is particularly suitable for use in a mobile communication apparatus.
A contact lead for engaging with an aperture lead of a circuit carrier, including a substrate contact portion electrically connected to a pad on a substrate a chip contact portion extending from the substrate contact portion and forming an angle with the substrate contact portion raising from the substrate. The contact lead chip contact portion may also be of a cylindrical shape vertically extending from the substrate contact portion. The present invention also provides a module including a printed circuit board having a plurality of pad thereon ,the contact lead electrically connected to the pad, an integrated circuit carrier having a plurality of aperture leads, the aperture leads passing through the contact lead and contacting respectively thereof, and a housing structure for housing the module and providing access for the user to assemble the integrated circuit carrier.
Airflow control system
A method according to one embodiment may include providing a baffle assembly comprising at least one airflow control zone with an airflow resistance. The method of this embodiment may also include positioning said baffle assembly in a flow of air through a chassis. Of course, many alternatives, variations, and modifications are possible without departing from this embodiment.
Heat sink assembly having a fastener assembly for fastening the heat sink to an electronic component
A heat sink assembly for dissipating heat from an electronic component (12) mounted on a printed circuit board (10) includes a heat sink (20) resting on the electronic component, and a fastener assembly (30) for securing the heat sink to the electronic component. The fastener assembly includes a hollow post (36) having a threaded hole (360) defined therein, a screw (32) threadedly engaged in the threaded hole, a coil spring (34) compressibly disposed between the heat sink and a top portion of the screw, and a latch (38) pivotably engaging with a bottom portion of the post. When the screw moves downwardly towards the printed circuit board, the latch is pushed by the screw to rotate and press the heat sink towards the printed circuit board, thus securing the heat sink to the electronic component.
Electronic apparatus including liquid cooling unit
A liquid cooling unit includes components such as first and second heat receivers, a heat exchanger, a tank and a pump in an electronic apparatus. The electronic apparatus includes a first enclosure and a second enclosure coupled to the second enclosure for relative movement. The liquid cooling unit is enclosed in the first enclosure. No component of the liquid cooling unit is enclosed in the second enclosure. The liquid cooling unit is thus incorporated in the first enclosure in a facilitated manner. This results in a reduced production cost. The liquid cooling unit can also be removed from the first enclosure in a facilitated manner.
An electronic device includes a housing that has a bottom surface and a side surface and includes an opening for air cooling formed therein; and a substrate that has a heat generating component mounted on a surface thereof facing the bottom surface of the housing and is fixed in the housing such that there is space between the substrate and the opening. The electronic device further includes a heat radiation component that contacts the heat generating component on the substrate and that spreads, between the bottom surface of the housing and the substrate, through the space, and to a position near and inside the opening; and a fan that is disposed in the space and fixed in the housing independently of the substrate so as to perform air cooling using the opening.
Modular component and blank coupling
A modular component and blank coupling apparatus includes a chassis having a wall. A component bay is defined by the chassis and is located adjacent the wall. A plurality of guide channels are defined by the wall and are located adjacent the component bay. A single securing member is moveably coupled to the wall adjacent the plurality of guide channels, wherein the single securing member is operable to move into engagement with a modular component and a blank in order to secure the modular component and the blank to the chassis, and wherein the single securing member is operable to move out of engagement with the modular component and the blank in order to allow the modular component and the blank to be removed from the chassis. The single securing member provides one apparatus that may be used to couple both blanks and modular components to the chassis, and provides a single release mechanism to release those modular components and blanks from the chassis.
An electronic apparatus includes a first part, a second part, and a rotating holding part configured to rotatably hold the second part to the first part, wherein, in addition to a closed state in which the first part and the second part are placed upon one another and an opened state in which the second part is apart from the first part so that both first and second parts are opened, an intermediate state is provided in which respective opposite faces of the first and second parts are apart by a predetermined space and thereby radiation is available, and a lifting mechanism is provided to cause an end of the second part to be apart from a corresponding end of the first part in the rotating holding part so that the opposite faces of both parts are apart by the predetermined space and thus the intermediate state is created.
The present invention relates to a portable computer including a tablet body to accommodate a plurality of hardware components and capable of a tablet operation, an input unit body to input data to the tablet body; and one link including a first end rotatably coupled to a rear of the tablet body and a second end rotatably coupled to a back of the input unit body, the tablet body alternating between a tablet operation position in which the tablet body is folded on the input unit body while the link is interposed between the rear of the tablet body and an upper surface of the input unit body, and an exposed position in which the tablet body coupled with the link is spaced from the input unit body and the input unit body is externally exposed. Thus, the present invention provides a portable computer which enables a user to rotate a tablet body and which has an attractive and slim outer appearance.
Methods and systems for electrical power sub-metering
An electrical distribution panel includes a backplane, a circuit breaker comprising a load conductor for transmitting electrical power to a load, and a load sensing assembly comprising a load sensor operatively coupled to the load conductor for detecting an electrical load of the load conductor and generating a load signal proportional to the electrical load. The load sensing assembly is selectively positionable with respect to the load conductor at a plurality of fixedly secured positions on the backplane to facilitate positioning the load sensor with respect to the load conductor.
Semiconductor integrated circuit
In order to set with a high precision the value of rush current flowing in the power switch circuit at the time of turning “on” the power, the internal circuit Int_Cir of the LSI is supplied with the internal source voltage Vint from the output transistor MP1 of the regulator VReg of the power switch circuit PSWC. The power switch circuit PSWC includes a control circuit CNTRLR and a start-up circuit STC. During the initial period Tint following the turning “on” of the power supply, the start-up circuit STC controls the output transistor MP1 and reduces the primary rush current so that the output current Isup of the output transistor MP1 may represent an approximately constant increment as the time passes. The difference ΔV between the internal current voltage due to the charge of load capacitance C with the output current Isup controlled by the start-up circuit STC and the current voltage Vint from the regulator VReg is set within the predetermined limit to reduce the secondary rush current.
Polymer PTC device
An overvoltage protection device is adopted, which is provided with a conductive polymer that runs away thermally when the resistance value becomes V2/P or higher, given that the power consumption when actuated is P and the voltage of the secondary battery cell when fully charged is V.
Protection for permanent magnet motor control circuits
Methods and apparatus are provided for protecting a motor control circuit in a permanent magnet electric motor system. The permanent magnet electric motor system includes a permanent magnet electric motor having a predetermined number of windings corresponding to the phases of the permanent magnet electric motor and a direct current (DC) bus coupled to a power source for providing operational power for the electric motor system. A motor control circuit is connected to the DC bus for receiving the operational power therefrom and is connected to the windings of the permanent magnet electric motor for controlling the permanent magnet electric motor. A protection circuit is connected to the DC bus for receiving the voltage therefrom for operation of the protection circuit and for detecting predetermined motor control circuit fault conditions from voltage sensed on the DC bus and in response thereto providing protection for the motor control circuit.
Tunneling magnetic sensing element having two-layer insulating film
A magnetic sensing element is provided. The magnetic sensing element includes a laminate disposed on a conductive layer. The laminate having a structure including a pinned magnetic layer, a nonmagnetic layer, and a free magnetic layer disposed in that order from the bottom, first insulating films disposed at both sides in the track width direction of the laminate, second insulating films disposed on the conductive layer, the second insulating films being connected to the respective first insulating films, bias layers disposed over the respective first insulating films and the respective second insulating films, wherein the thickness in the track width direction of the first insulating film is smaller than the thickness of the second insulating film.
Current perpendicular to plane (CPP) magnetoresistive sensor having strong pinning and small gap thickness
A current perpendicular to plane (CPP) magnetoresistive sensor that avoids spin torque noise while having high dr/R performance and small gap. The sensor is a dual magnetoresistive sensor having first and second pinned layers and a free layer disposed between the two pinned layers. One of the pinned layers is pinned by exchange coupling with an AFM layer, while the other pinned layer is self pinned by a shape enhanced magnetic anisotropy without the use of an AFM layer. The self pinned layer extends from the ABS to an extended stripe height distance that is greater than the stripe height distance of the AFM pinned layer and the free layer.
Magnetoresistance effect device and a preform therefor
A method of production of a magnetoresistance effect device is able to prevent or minimize a drop in the MR ratio and maintain the high performance of the magnetoresistance effect device even if forming an oxide layer as a surface-most layer constituting a protective layer by the oxidation process inevitably included in the process of production of microprocessing by dry etching performed in a vacuum. Two mask layers used for microprocessing are doubly piled up. This method of production of a magnetoresistivity effect device including a magnetic multilayer film including at least two magnetic layers includes a step of providing under a first mask material that is a nonorganic material a second mask material able to react with other atoms to form a conductive substance, and a device made according to the method.
Head support device and disk device having the same
A head support device of self-balancing type and a disk drive are disclosed. The head support device reduces manufacturing variation in a load and the number of components, and has stability and reliability, while being inexpensive. In this head support device, a flange and a nut cramp, via a collar, a head support arm having a reinforcing plate fixed thereto. The head support arm is supported rotatably about a line provided between contact points at which pivots contact the flange and in a direction perpendicular to a recording medium. A spring as an elastic member provides an urging force toward the recording medium, and is provided unitarily with the head support arm. Bent portions are provided on both sides of the arm composing the head support arm to a tab.
Rotating disk type storage unit with reduced vibration
Embodiments of the invention decrease bending vibrations and torsional vibrations of a voice coil generated by off-plane vibrational forces on the voice coil to reduce noise and to enable a large capacity. In one embodiment, a rotating disk type storage unit comprises a rotating disk recording medium, a head that moves radially relative to the rotating disk recording medium to perform recording or reproduction, a turnable actuator having mounted on one side thereof the head, and a voice coil motor to drive the actuator. The voice coil motor comprises a voice coil mounted on the other side end of the actuator, and a magnet arranged in opposition to the voice coil. A magnet outer periphery of the magnet disposed distant from an actuator turning center is formed to be arcuately concave in shape, and the concave-shaped outer periphery intersects the voice coil.
Lens barrel and photographing apparatus
A lens barrel is provided with: a first movable frame and a second movable frame of a plurality of movable frames that are coaxially disposed to be movable back and forth to a stationary main frame and are inserted telescopically into the stationary frame; and two U-shaped support and drive members each having a first engagement portion, wherein each of the support and drive members is constituted of two arm portions, a second engagement portion, and a coupling member which connects the two arm portions. The first movable frame is driven by one of the support and drive members, and the second movable frame and the first movable frame are engaged with each other.
Three-unit zoom lens system and image pickup apparatus using the same
A three-unit zoom lens system includes in order from an object side thereof a first lens unit G1 having a negative refracting power, a second lens unit G2 having a positive refracting power, a third lens unit G3 having a negative refracting power, and an aperture stop which is at an image side of the first lens unit G1, and at the object side of a lens surface nearest to the image side of the second lens unit G2, and which moves integrally with the second lens unit. At a time of zooming from a wide angle end to a telephoto end, a distance between the first lens unit G1 and the second lens unit G2 is narrowed, and a distance between the second lens unit G2 and the third lens unit G3 changes. The second lens unit G2 moves toward the object side at the time of zooming from the wide angle end to the telephoto end. The third lens unit G3 moves to be positioned at the object side at the telephoto end, with respect to the wide angle end. The three-unit zoom lens system satisfies predetermined conditional expressions.
Cover for head-up display
A display includes a case and a display source received in the case, and allows a virtual image of an image displayed on the display source projected on a windshield of a vehicle through an opening of the case to be superimposed on a foreground image through the windshield which is visually recognized at an eye point of the vehicle. A cover for the display is configured to prevent foreign particles from entering an inside of the case through the opening, and allows the image projected from the display source to pass therethrough. The cover has substantially a wedge cross section so as to align a substantially straight light path of direct light from an arbitrary point on the display source through the cover without reflection with a reflected light path of reflected light from the arbitrary point and reflected twice on inner surfaces of the cover.
System and/or method for combining images
The subject matter disclosed herein relates to a method and/or system for generating a dynamic image based, at least in part, on attributes associated with one or more individuals.
Reflective LCD projection system using wide-angle cartesian polarizing beam splitter and color separation and recombination prisms
An optical imaging system including an illumination system, a Cartesian PBS, and a prism assembly. The illumination system provides a beam of light, the illumination system having an ƒ/# less than or equal to 2.5. The Cartesian polarizing beam splitter has a first tilt axis, oriented to receive the beam of light. A first polarized beam of light having one polarization direction is folded by the Cartesian polarizing beam splitter and a second polarized beam of light having a second polarization direction is transmitted by the Cartesian polarizing beam splitter. The Cartesian polarizing beam splitter nominally polarizes the beam of light with respect to the Cartesian beam splitter to yield the first polarized beam in the first polarization direction. The color separation and recombination prism is optically aligned to receive the first polarized beam. The prism has a second tilt axis, a plurality of color separating surfaces, and a plurality of exit surfaces. The second tilt axis may be oriented perpendicularly to the first tilt axis of the Cartesian polarizing beam splitter so that the polarized beam is nominally polarization rotated into the second polarization direction with respect to the color separating surfaces and a respective beam of colored light exits through each of the exit surfaces. Each imager is placed at one of the exit surface of the color separating and recombining prism to receive one of the respective beams of colored light, wherein each imager can separately modulate the polarization state of the beam of colored light.
Method for network commissioning and upgrading using amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) sources
This invention provides a method for commissioning and upgrading an optical ring network using its internal amplifiers as Automatic Spontaneous Emission sources of light that are used in making measurements. A modular segmented approach is adopted and the network is commissioned segment by segment. A flexible method is used for upgrading a commissioned network by adding or deleting a node or changing the internal configuration of a node. The method uses techniques for the correction of the Optical Signal to Noise Ratio induced error as well as the Spectral Filtering Error during the loss computation required for adjusting the gains of the amplifiers at each network node to an appropriate value. Since the method does not require an external laser source that needs to be moved manually from node to node it greatly reduces the commissioning time. Since it uses only the components of the network itself and does not deploy any additional device it also leads to a significant saving in cost.
Method and apparatus for phase-encoded homogenized Fourier transform holographic data storage and recovery
An apparatus for writing and reading holograms, comprising a spatial light modulator (SLM) operable in phase mode, having a plurality of pixels for generating an object beam that overlaps with a reference beam; a holographic recording medium (HRM) in the path of the object beam; and a first lens element disposed in the path of the object beam between the SLM and the HRM; wherein the HRM is disposed at or near the Fourier transform plane of the first lens element.
Image forming apparatus capable of efficiently controlling light radiation to read an image
An image forming apparatus, capable of efficiently controlling light radiation to read an image, includes at least one lighting tube and at least one reflector. Each one of the lighting tubes includes an aperture. Each one of the reflectors is arranged at a position in a vicinity to and corresponding to the lighting tube on a one-to-one basis. Each one of the reflectors is configured to gather light emitted through the aperture by the corresponding lighting tube to focus the light on a point in a reading area in a surface of an original document to be read. Each one of the reflectors includes an elliptical shape.
Method and module for synthesizing image-sensing signals
A module for synthesizing image-sensing signals comprises a first image-sensing element, a second image-sensing element, and an analog adder. The first and the second image-sensing elements are connected in parallel to an input port of the analog adder. The module provides an AD converter whose input port connects an output port of the analog adder. An output port of the AD converter connects a scanner controller. The scanner controller provides a first driving signal and a second driving signal to the first and the second image-sensing elements respectively. The first driving signals and the second driving signals respectively command the first and the second image-sensing elements to alternately output image signals during clock cycle. The image signals outputted from the first and the second image-sensing elements are composed by the analog adder.
Image processing method and image processing apparatus, and image forming apparatus comprising image processing apparatus
An image processing method comprises the steps of: determining dot arrangement in forming an image with dots on a recording medium; and forming the image on the recording medium by means of a dot formation device according to the dot arrangement, wherein dot arrangement data concerning each of dot formation positions on the recording medium is created from input image data, according to a dot model which is established with respect to each of the dot formation positions, the dot model being determined according to at least one of dot formation characteristics of the dot formation device and fixing characteristics of the recording medium, and including information relating to at least one of a dot shape, dot density, a dot position, and presence or absence of a satellite, of each dot formed on the recording medium.
Virtual ink desk and method of using same
A printing machine includes a high-speed print device configured to receive a print media and discharge a printed product that includes a printed image. An image capturing device is positioned adjacent the print device and is configured to capture an image of the printed image on the printed product. A computer includes a monitor, a processor, an input device, and a communication device configured to communicate with the print device. The monitor is configured to display the captured image, the input device is configured to allow a user to vary the displayed image, and the processor is configured to calculate an adjustment to the print device in response to the varied image.
Consistency of document reprints is improved by recording characteristics of a reference printing system used to produce a reference printing of a document, determining related characteristics of a reprint printing system, retrieving the recorded characteristics and compensating for differences between the reference system and the reprint system in the reprint system prior to using the reprint system to produce reprints of the document. Analytical test prints (TPs) are produced with the respective printing systems in close temporal association to the production of the respective reference prints and reprints. TPs can be customized according to aspects of the document. TP customization allows the compensation to address aspects of the printing systems that have a bearing on perceived consistency in the reprints. TPs can be customized with regard to colors in test patches or both the colors and locations of test patches on a page. Compensation is based on measurements of the TPs.
Production of color conversion profile for printing
A spectral printing model converter is used to convert ink amount data to spectral reflectance of a color patch to be printed according to the ink amount data. A plurality of sample ink amount data each representing a set of ink amounts of plural inks is provided, and each sample ink amount data is converted into spectral reflectance of a virtual sample patch to be printed with the ink amounts represented by the sample ink amount data using the spectral printing model converter. An evaluation index is calculated for each sample ink amount data, where the evaluation index includes a color difference index and an image quality index of the virtual sample patch to be printed according to the sample ink amount data. The color difference index represents a color difference between a sample color which is calculated from the spectral reflectance and a comparative color which is selected as a basis for comparison. Plural sample ink amount data is then selected based on the evaluation index, and a profile defining correspondence between colorimetric value data and ink amount data is produced based on the selected plural sample ink amount data.
Camera and printer system and method allowing capturing and formatting multiple images based on the number received
When a plurality of image data are received, a form data from among at least one form data and a format data from among at least one format data are selected based on number of the image data. The image data, selected form data and format data are combined to generate an output image.
Image forming apparatus, image forming method and image forming system for receiving and executing plurality of print jobs
In the image forming apparatus, upon reception of a job containing a file to be printed, it is determined whether or not the job contains a template indicating that a plurality of files are to be merged. If it is determined that the job contains the template, then the job is stored in a storage section. Based on the template, it is analyzed whether or not all jobs containing files to be merged have been stored in the storage section. If it is determined that all the jobs have been stored in the storage section, then control is exerted based on the template so as to merge and print the files contained in all the jobs. Thus, a plurality of files can be automatically merged and printed, and therefore the workload on the user can be reduced.
System and method for holding and deleting requests in a job queue
This invention is directed to a document processing system and method. The method begins with a user logging onto a document processing system, inputs identification data, and selects one or more documents for document processing by the document processing system. The selected document is then uploaded to the document processing system, which renders the document to determine the number of pages and other document relevant information. The user then selects one of the available service locations. The cost associated with the requested document processing operation is then calculated and displayed to the user, along with available payment options. Once the user has selected the desired payment method, the document, with selected options and preferences, is transmitted to the selected service location for output on a document processing device thereon. The received request is stored in queue until such time as the user releases the request for further processing. When the request is resident in the queue for greater than a predetermined time, it is deleted automatically. To release the queued document for further processing, the user is required to log onto the document processing device, select the document from a list corresponding to the user, and verify payment. The requested document processing operation is then performed.
Image forming device and image forming method
A document input from a scanner is used as input image data and is stored in image memory in page number order. A control unit prints the input image data and receives instruction data showing the cutting edge when cutting on the center line of the printing paper from the input unit. The control unit stores the addresses at which the input image data are stored in an array A; the image processing unit sorts the addresses stored in the first or second half of the array A, based on instruction data shown by the instruction data discussed above, in descending order by page number. The image processing unit alternates and stores in an array B addresses stored in the first or second half of the sorted array A, and in the first or second half of the unsorted array A. The print processing unit prints the input image data, in the order stored in the array B, on both sides of printing paper, and attains printing results as shown in FIG. 1.
Obtaining a digital image of a physical object
Selecting a digital image. A method embodiment includes obtaining a first digital image of the first side of a physical object and obtaining a second digital image of a second side of the physical object. The first digital image is examined to determine if it is substantially blank. If the first digital image is determined to be blank, the second digital image is sent for processing. Otherwise, the first digital image is sent for processing.
Method in a copying apparatus for controlling image orientation of a document
A copying apparatus includes first and second original placement sections with a predetermined orientation of long and short sides of the original to be placed, an image read section for reading the image from the original that has been transported from the first original placement section while the image read section is stationary or from the original that has been placed on the second original placement section while the image read section is moved relative to the original. The copying apparatus causes an image formation section to form the images of a plurality of originals read by the image read section on one side of one recording medium in a predetermined layout based on a detection result of a detection section and a specification of an image orientation specifying section.
Structure and method for overlay measurement
A structure for overlay measurement is provided in the present invention, using the diffraction characteristics on the boundary portion between two microstructures formed on each of two material layers. The optical intensity distribution on the boundary portion between microstructures formed on the two overlaid material layers respectively are measured by an optical microscope to obtain the overlay error between the two overlaid material layers. In addition, the present invention also provides a method for overlay measurement using the structure for overlay measurement, wherein a merit relation based on the optical intensity distribution on the boundary portion between different microstructures is determined. The merit relation can be used to analyze the overlay error to improve the efficiency and accuracy of on-line error measurement.
Interferometric endpoint determination in a substrate etching process
In determining an endpoint of etching a substrate, light that is directed toward the substrate is reflected from the substrate. A wavelength of the light is selected to locally maximize the intensity of the reflected light at an initial time point of the etching process. The reflected light is detected to determine an endpoint of the substrate etching process.
Enhanced detection of acousto-photonic emissions in optically turbid media using a photo-refractive crystal-based detection system
A system and method of detecting acousto-photonic emissions in optically turbid media that provide increased levels of detection sensitivity. The detection system includes an ultrasonic transducer, a laser, a photo-detector for detecting ultrasound-modulated laser light, and circuitry for processing the detected signals for subsequent analysis. The ultrasonic transducer generates an ultrasonic wave that propagates within an optically turbid medium. The laser generates a coherent light beam, which is split to form signal and reference beams. The signal beam is sent through the turbid medium, where it is phase modulated by the ultrasound. The ultrasound-modulated signal beam is provided to a photo-refractive crystal for subsequent interference with the reference beam to convert the phase modulation to intensity modulation. The DC offset of the signal beam intensity provides a measure of the magnitude of the mean phase shift induced by the ultrasound on the multiply scattered optical field within the turbid medium.
Systems, methods, and apparatuses of low-coherence enhanced backscattering spectroscopy
Systems, methods, and apparatuses of low-coherence enhanced backscattering spectroscopy are described within this application. One embodiment includes providing incident light comprising at least one spectral component having low coherence, wherein the incident light is to be illuminated on a target object in vivo. An intensity of one or more of at least one spectral component and at least one angular component of backscattering angle of backscattered light is recorded, wherein the backscattered light is to be backscattered from illumination of the incident light on the target object and wherein the backscattering angle is an angle between incident light propagation direction and backscattered light propagation direction. The intensity of the at least one spectral component and the at least one backscattering angle of backscattered light is analyzed, to obtain one or more optical markers of the backscattered light, toward evaluating said properties.
Optical sensor with chemically reactive surface
An improved optical sensor and methods for measuring the presence of various materials or constituents in a fluid sample uses reactive material(s) in a fluid environment. The reactive materials have optical properties that change in the presence of a target material that may be present in the environment. An optical emitter generates light that is directed to the reactive materials, and one or more optical detectors receive reflected light from one or more interfaces in the optical path between the emitter and the detector(s), one or more of the interfaces having a reactive material. The reactive material(s), emitter(s), and detector(s) are selected based on the desired target material to be sensed.
Hyper-spectral imaging methods and devices
A hyper-spectral imaging system comprises imaging foreoptics (1020) to focus on a scene or object of interest (1010) and transfer the image of said scene or object (1010) onto the focal plane of a spatial light modulator (1030), a spatial light modulator (1030) placed at a focal plane of said imaging foreoptics (1020), an imaging dispersion device (1040) disposed to receive an output image of the spatial light modulator (1030), and an image collecting device disposed to receive the output of the imaging dispersion device (1040).
System for detecting coatings on transparent or semi-transparent materials
A system for detecting coatings on a transparent or semi-transparent medium includes a conductive sensor and a light reflection sensor which are configured to determine a presence and the conductivity of the coating on the medium.
Method and apparatus for inspection of security articles incorporating a diffractive optical projection element
A method and apparatus for inspection of a security article (10) is provided in which a substantially collimated light beam (15) from a point light source (14) is directed onto a diffractive optical projection element (DOE) (11). The light beam is transformed by the DOE (11) into a patterned beam (17) which is reconstructed to form a projected image at a particular position in space remote from the surface of the security article 910). An optical detection device 916) is located at which the patterned beam (17) is reconstructed to detect the projected image. The inspection method and apparatus may be used in equipment for handling, sorting, counting or otherwise processing security articles, in particular security documents such as banknotes. The apparatus may include a processor for generating a signal when the absence or poor quality of a DOE is detected and which is used to isolate or mark the security article.
Lithography exposure device having a plurality of radiation sources
A lithography exposure device is provided which includes a mounting device for the layer sensitive to light, an exposure unit with several laser radiation sources, an optical focusing means associated with the laser radiation sources, a movement unit for generating a relative movement between the optical focusing means and the mounting device, and a control for controlling intensity and position of exposure spots so that exposed structures which are as precisely structured as possible can be produced. A laser radiation field propagating in the direction of the light-sensitive layer generates each of the exposure spots from respective focal points and has a power density which leads in the conversion area in the light-sensitive layer to formation of a channel penetrating the light-sensitive layer with an index of refraction increased in relation to its surroundings by the Kerr effect and which guides the laser radiation field in a spatially limited manner.
Software upgrades in a lithographic apparatus
The present invention relates to the activation of a software upgrade in a lithographic apparatus that transfers a pattern onto a substrate. The time and date of the activation of a software upgrade is compared with the time and date of the exposure of the first layer of a substrate or of a “lot” of substrates. If the activation date and time is later than the first exposure date and time, software-functionality types is not mixed on a single lot or substrate and the old software-functionality is used for that lot or substrate. If, on the other hand, the activation date and time of the software-functionality update is earlier than the first exposure of the lot or substrate, the lot or substrate has not yet been affected by the old software-functionality and the new, updated software-functionality may be used to control the pattern transfer onto all of the substrate layers.
Exposure apparatus and device manufacturing method
An exposure apparatus for exposing a substrate through a reticle. The apparatus includes a chamber in which an exposure process is to be carried out, a circulation system configured to circulate a gas through the chamber, a supplying system configured to supply water, supplied from a facility, to a heat source inside the exposure apparatus, and a heat exchanger configured to perform heat exchange between a gas discharged out of the chamber by the circulation system and the water to be supplied to the heat source by the supplying system.
Optical element, method for manufacturing optical element, and semi-transmissive semi-reflective liquid crystal display device
The optical element in accordance with the present invention comprises a substrate having a light transmission ability and a fixed liquid crystal layer formed on the substrate. The fixed liquid crystal layer is composed of liquid crystal phase sections in which a liquid crystalline compound is fixed in a liquid crystal phase state and isotropic phase sections in which a liquid crystalline compound is fixed in an isotropic phase state.The layer thickness of the liquid crystal phase sections is larger than that of the isotropic phase sections, and the liquid crystal phase sections are formed so as to protrude with respect to the isotropic phase sections.
Liquid crystal display element
A liquid crystal display element includes two substrates divided into a display region and a non-display region, between which liquid crystals are sandwiched, and first columnar spacers, disposed between the two substrates in the display region, which make contact with the two substrates. The liquid crystal display element also includes second columnar spacers, disposed between the two substrates in the non-display region, which make contact with the two substrate by a contact area that is smaller than a contact area by which the first columnar spacers make contact with the two substrates. Therefore, generation of vacuum bubbles in the display region due to a temperature drop or a substrate deformation causes the substrates in the non-display region to be concaved, so that the liquid crystals move from the concaved portion of the non-display region to a portion of the display region which contains the vacuum bubbles. As a result, the vacuum bubbles in the display region can be filled with the liquid crystals, so that the vacuum bubbles can be eliminated from the display region.
Spacer spraying system, spacer spraying method and liquid crystal display panel
A spacer spraying system and spacer spraying method are provided which are capable of spraying spacers uniformly in a liquid crystal display panel forming region on a substrate. A stage includes a main stage section having a predetermined size and an auxiliary stage section supported in the main stage section so as to be slid in the main stage section or another auxiliary stage section having a structure in which the auxiliary stage section can be connected to the main stage section. By making the auxiliary stage section be slid in the main stage section or be connected to the main stage section according to a size of a substrate mounted on the stage, a size of the stage is made changeable so that a distance between an edge portion of the stage and a liquid crystal display panel forming region existing near the edge portion of the stage falls within a predetermined range.
Liquid crystal display apparatus using switching devices and a method of manufacturing the same
A matrix-addressed type liquid crystal display apparatus having switching devices such as TFTs is provided, featuring that an increased effective voltage can be applied without causing hysteresis in V-T characteristics. Namely, by substantially increasing a value of an applicable voltage in excess of which a display defect starts to appear, a high numerical aperture and a high contrast ratio have been achieved at the same time. In the LCD apparatus of the present invention, a gap between adjacent reverse tilt domains each formed in a portion of a pixel which is arranged corresponding to an arbitrary pixel electrode becomes broader than a minimum gap between adjacent pixel electrodes corresponding thereto, or a thickness of a liquid crystal cell in the portion between adjacent reverse tilt domains is set thinner than a thickness of a liquid crystal cell in the portion of the pixel.
Array substrate for in-plane switching mode liquid crystal display device and method of manufacturing the same
An array substrate for an in-plane switching mode liquid crystal display device includes a substrate, a gate line along a first direction on the substrate, a data line along a second direction and crossing the gate line to define a pixel region, a thin film transistor connected to the gate and data lines, a pixel electrode in the pixel region and connected to the thin film transistor, and a common electrode in the pixel region and arranged in an alternating pattern with the pixel electrode, wherein each of the pixel electrode and the common electrode includes a transparent conductive pattern, and one of the pixel electrode and the common electrode further includes an opaque conductive pattern having a more narrow width than the transparent conductive pattern.
LCD device having an improved viewing angle characteristic
A LCD device includes a pair of polarizing films sandwiching therebetween a LC cell. The light-incident-side polarizing film includes a polarizing layer and a first retardation film, whereas the light-emitting-side polarizing film includes a polarizing layer and second and third retardation films. A specific combination of the first and third retardation films provides an optical compensation for achieving a lower leakage light and a lower chromaticity shift upon display of a dark state in the LCD device.
Infrared light reflecting film
An infrared light reflecting article is disclosed and includes a visible light transparent substrate including a polymer and an infrared light reflecting cholesteric liquid crystal layer disposed on the substrate. The substrate and infrared light reflecting cholesteric liquid crystal layer have a combined haze value of less than 3%.
Array substrate for a reflective liquid crystal display device and manufacturing method for the same
An array substrate of a reflective liquid crystal display device including gate and data lines on the substrate, a thin film transistor adjacent to where a gate line and a data line cross over each other, wherein the thin film transistor has a gate electrode, a source electrode and a drain electrode, a passivation layer with an uneven surface having curved profiles that are asymmetric over the thin film transistor, and an opaque conductive pixel electrode having a reflective surface with curved profiles that are asymmetric on the passivation layer.
Polymer enhanced cholesteric electro-optical devices
The present invention provides liquid crystal devices comprised of a composite of an internal polymer network localized on the substrate surfaces and short-pitch dual-frequency switchable cholesteric liquid crystal that operate in two different modes including in-plane switching (amplitude modulation) and out-of-plane switching (phase modulation). The invention further provides a method of making a liquid crystal device demonstrating uniform lying helical axis where the device comprises a composite of an internal spatially ordered polymer network localized by in-situ photo-polymerization at the surface of the substrate. The invention can be used for flat panel displays, as well as spatial light modulators for applications such as optical waveguides, optical beam scanners, computer-generated holograms, and adaptive optics.
Image pickup apparatus
In an image pickup apparatus capable of executing image pickup and focus detection using the phase difference scheme by a solid-state image pickup element, accurate and quick focus detection using the phase difference scheme is realized. In addition, an image pickup apparatus capable of obtaining a high-quality image signal even in an image pickup mode is provided. Each pixel unit of an image pickup element includes first and second photoelectric conversion units for photoelectrically converting light components that have passed through different regions in the exit pupil of an image pickup optical system and is arranged such that the first sensitivity distribution by the first photoelectric conversion unit and the second sensitivity distribution by the second photoelectric conversion unit overlap in a region between the photoelectric conversion units.
Photoelectric conversion film-stacked type solid-state imaging device
To achieve high sensitivity in such a manner that photoelectric charges generated by photoelectric conversion films are made to flow into gates of output transistors smoothly to increase a signal voltage relative to signal charges, a solid-state imaging device includes: a semiconductor substrate having signal readout circuits constituted by MOS transistor circuits; photoelectric conversion films stacked on the semiconductor substrate for generating signal charges in accordance with the incident light intensity; connection portions provided on the surface of the semiconductor substrate and connected to wirings leading the signal charges to the surface of the semiconductor substrate; charge paths provided so that the connection portions can be connected to gate portions of output transistors (sources of reset transistors) constituting the signal readout circuits; and potential barrier units provided near the connection portions so as to serve as constant potential barriers relative to charges of the connection portions.
Dual panel pixel readout in an imager
An imager having two panels of pixels (i.e., the imager's rows of pixels are split into two panels) that are controllable by separate row decoders. The dual panel architecture allows pipelining of pixel readout and column readout operations to improve the imager's frame rate. The dual panel architecture may use a standard pixel configuration, a shared column and/or a shared row and column configuration.
Solid state imaging device and imaging device
A solid state imaging device includes a plurality of pixels arranged in a matrix, a plurality of vertical signal lines VL arranged to correspond to columns of the pixels, respectively, such that each of them is connected to the pixels in each column and a column amplifier including a plurality of amplifiers AP. Each of the amplifiers AP includes a current source MOS transistor T1, an amplifying MOS transistor T2 for amplifying an image signal and a cascode MOS transistor T3 which is cascode-connected to the amplifying MOS transistor and outputs an amplified image signal between the cascode MOS transistor T3 and the current source MOS transistor T1. Gate terminals of the cascode MOS transistors T3 of the amplifiers AP are connected to each other.
Interpolation method for captured color image data
To achieve more appropriate interpolation of a missing pixel, an image is input to a processing section for interpolation. The interpolation is applied utilizing image data of pixels located around the pixel to be interpolated. Specifically, correlations between the image data of the pixels to be interpolated, and pixel data in a horizontal direction, vertical direction, and diagonal direction, are compared to one another; pixel data having stronger correlation is used for the interpolation. Correlation between the image data of the pixels to be interpolated and which direction is strong is determined, so that different weighting for interpolation is used accordingly.
Color image sensor with tunable color filter
An apparatus (20) for recording a color image, comprises an image sensor (22) having a plurality of pixels (24) formed in a monolithic substrate. Each of the plurality of pixels (24) includes three floating gate semiconductor devices (80, 82, 84). A color tunable filter (30) is positioned between a photosensitive semiconductor device (86) and an electromagnetic radiation source. A FET transistor (130) has a drain (134) connected to the cathode (120) of the photodiode (86), and a source (136) connected to the anode (118) of the photodiode (86) and to control gates (94, 104, 114) of each of the three floating gate semiconductor devices (80, 82, 84). The color tunable filter (30) allows all desired combinations of colors to pass while each of the three floating gate semiconductor devices (80, 82, 84) are respectively selected to store the color image.
Front-end signal processing circuit and imaging device
A front-end signal processing circuit that stabilizes a black level of an output signal of an image sensor in a prescribed set level, without being influenced by a DC offset component of circuit elements making up a feedback loop, and an imaging device including such the front-end signal processing circuit, are provided.The front-end signal processing circuit includes a feedback loop made up of a luminance detecting/digitizing section and a black level clamp section, and clamps a black level of an output signal of an image sensor to a prescribed set level. The front-end signal processing circuit further includes an offset correction section. The offset correction section stores an offset value being a difference between a signal level of an OB region of the image sensor and the prescribed level, subtracts the offset value from a digital luminance signal corresponding to an effective pixel region of the image sensor, and outputs the obtained signal.
Imaging apparatus and zoom lens with a shift lens group
A zoom lens including a plurality of lens groups and varying magnification by changing a distance between lens groups, wherein a last lens group positioned on an image side closest thereto with a negative part group having negative refractive power and a positive part group arranged adjacent on the image side thereof and having positive refractive power, wherein the positive part group is shifted in a direction vertical to an optical axis to shift an image, and Equations (1) and (2) are satisfied, −0.30
Image forming apparatus
In an image forming apparatus that outputs a reference clock, divides the outputted reference clock based on a set multiple, and generates an image clock based on the division, a width of a synchronization signal that indicates dynamic deviation characteristics is detected, and the multiple is set in accordance with the detected width of the synchronization signal.
Partial display updates in a windowing system using a programmable graphics processing unit
Techniques to generate partial display updates in a buffered window system in which arbitrary visual effects are permitted to any one or more windows (e.g., application-specific window buffers) are described. Once a display output region is identified for updating, the buffered window system is interrogated to determine which regions within each window, if any, may effect the identified output region. Such determination considers the consequences any filters associated with a window impose on the region needed to make the output update.
Graphics system employing pixel mask
The system includes a bounds primitive rasterizer that rasterizes a bounds primitive into a selection of primitive pixels. The selection of primitive pixels bounds a shape to be rendered to a screen. The system also includes a pixel mask generator that generates a pixel mask for the shape. The pixel mask includes mask pixels that each corresponds to one of the primitive pixels. A mask pixel is a covered pixel when the shape covers at least a threshold portion of the mask pixel and is an uncovered pixel when the shape does not cover the mask pixel. The system also includes a pixel screener configured to retain primitive pixels that correspond to covered mask pixels and to discard primitive pixels that correspond to uncovered mask pixels.
On the fly hardware based interdigitation
A method of interdigitation for display of an autostereoscopic source image to a screen comprising a plurality of pixels having sub-pixels and sub-pixel components and apparatus for interdigitation is provided. The method comprises generating a texture memory coordinate at each pixel location on the screen of the source image, calculating screen pixel location based on the texture memory coordinate of each pixel, computing view numbers based on screen pixel location, wherein view numbers comprise one value for each sub-pixel component, mapping proportional pixel locations in tiles from multiple tile perspective views of the autostereoscopic image to a resultant image using the view numbers, and extracting one subpixel component from each proportional pixel location to represent color for the pixel in the resultant image.
Animation packager for an on-line book
A system for creating an on-line book with an animated cover. The system includes an animation program for inserting an animation sequence at the beginning of an on-line book which is compiled into the M14 format. The animation program includes: a user interface module configured to receive input from a user; a data sequencing module which arranges at least two graphical images in a sequence; and an update module which modifies at least one compilation control file. The animation program modifies the control files for an on-line book compiler to provide for the display of an animated object upon the opening of the on-line book.
Hybrid hardware-accelerated relighting system for computer cinematography
An interactive cinematic lighting system used in the production of computer-animated feature films containing environments of very high complexity, in which surface and light appearances are described using procedural RenderMan shaders. The system provides lighting artists with high-quality previews at interactive framerates with only small approximations compared to the final rendered images. This is accomplished by combining numerical estimation of surface response, image-space caching, deferred shading, and the computational power of modern graphics hardware.
Method for producing multi-viewpoint image for three-dimensional image display and program therefor
A method for producing a multi-viewpoint image for a three-dimensional image display, includes: providing a plurality of viewpoints to be spaced at equal intervals in direction perpendicular to a single reference projection plane including target viewpoints serving as reference are spaced at constant intervals in a first direction parallel to the reference projection plane; providing a plurality of individual target viewpoints which are respectively different from the target viewpoints serving as reference and serve as feet of a perpendicular to the plurality of viewpoints, corresponding to the respective viewpoint, on a projection plane which is a plane including the reference projection plane; making determination such that the shapes and the sizes of the individual projection planes are included in the reference projection plane in overlapping regions of the individual projection planes acquired from two viewpoints positioned at the outermost positions of the plurality of viewpoints; and clipping only regions of the reference projection plane from the individual projection planes acquired from the respective viewpoints to form a multi-viewpoint image for three-dimensional image display.
Display panel and operating method therefor
A display panel for OLED device having a display mode and an input mode. The display panel comprises a driving unit, a capacitor, a light-emitting diode, a light-detecting unit, and a detecting unit. The driving unit has a control electrode coupled to a first node, a first electrode coupled to a first voltage source, and a second electrode. The capacitor and the light-detecting unit are coupled between the first node and the first voltage source. The light-emitting diode is coupled between the control electrode of the driving unit and a second voltage source. In the input mode, the detecting unit detects a voltage at the first node.
“Seeing eye” mouse for computer system
A hand operated pointing device for use with a computer includes a movable housing, a source of non-coherent light illuminating a work surface and circuitry in the movable housing using arrays of data related to light reflected by the illuminated work surface to produce values by processing portions of a first array with portions of a second array. One of the values may be identified to represent movement of the housing relative to the work surface. The light may illuminate surface irregularities at an angle of incidence low enough to produce suitable arrays of data for processing from highlights and shadows of the illuminated surface irregularities. The circuitry may produce additional values by processing another selected portion of the first array with portions of a third array or may select a fourth array for processing with the third array. Predictions may be derived from the values.
Information input device and method
An information input device and an information input method are provided which can provide portability to thereby improve manipulation flexibility and has a high manipulation resolving power. The device includes two relatively slidable plate-shaped input members held between fingertips or parts of fingers of a hand to slide relative to each other, and an information producing portion for producing input information in accordance with at least a relative position or a relative movement of the plate-shaped input members.
Electrophoretic display and method of displaying images
A method of displaying an image in an electrophoretic display device having at least one display layer including a multiplicity of individual reservoirs containing a display fluid between conductive substrates, wherein the display fluid comprises at least two sets of particles in a liquid medium, the at two sets of particles each exhibiting a different color, wherein a first set of particles and a second set of particles have a same charge polarity and the first set of particles has a higher average charge than the second set of particles, includes applying an electric field to selected ones of the multiplicity of reservoirs to effect movement of one or more of the differently colored sets of particles in the display fluid therein to display a desired color derived from among the sets of differently colored particles, wherein the applying to display a color of the second set of particles involves pulsing an electric field through the conductive substrates for a time sufficient to attract the first set of particles away from a front viewing conductive substrate and past the second set of particles.
The present invention relates to a display device, and more particularly to a display device which includes a drive circuit having a CMOS shift register which is constituted of a CMOS circuit. The display device includes: a plurality of pixels; and a drive circuit, wherein the drive circuit includes a shift register that includes n(n≧2) basic circuits connected vertically in multiple rows, the basic circuit includes a first transistor having a first electrode to which a clock is applied, and a second transistor of a second conductive type which is different from the first transistor of the first conductive type in a conductive type and has a second electrode thereof connected to a second electrode of the first transistor and has a second power source voltage applied to a first electrode thereof, an input signal is applied to a control electrode of the first transistor and a control electrode of the second transistor, and the second electrode of the first transistor is connected to a scanning circuit output terminal.
LCD device with improved optical performance
In an LCD pixel, the pixel voltage is usually reduced after a gate line signal has passed. To compensate for this voltage reduction, the voltage applied to the charge storage capacitor in the pixel is increased from Vcom to Vcom1 after the gate line signal has passed. Voltage adjustment can be achieved by using two switching elements connected to the second end of the charge storage capacitor. One is activated by the gate line signal so that the applied voltage is equal to Vcom, and the other is activated by the next gate line signal so that the applied is increased to Vcom1. In a transflective LCD panel or a color LCD panel, each pixel is divided into two or three sub-pixels, each sub-pixel having a separate charge storage capacitor, a similar Vcom change is applied to each of the charge storage capacitors in the pixel.
Light emitting display
A light emitting display including a pixel area having a plurality of pixels, a scan driver for outputting a scan signal for selecting a predetermined pixel among the plurality of pixels of the pixel area, and an emission control signal for allowing a current to flow in the selected pixels. The scan driver includes: a signal generator adapted to generate the scan signal and the emission control signal; a first buffer adapted to transmit the scan signal to the pixel area; and a second buffer adapted to transmit the emission control signal to the pixel area. In the scan driver, the second buffer is smaller than the first buffer. The size of the second buffer is decreased to decrease the size of the scan driver, and/or to decrease the size of the predetermined pixel to get a high definition.
Plasma display panel driving method and plasma display panel apparatus capable of displaying high-quality images with high luminous efficiency
Set-up, write, sustain and erase pulses are variously applied to a plasma display panel using a staircase waveform in which the rising or falling portion is in at least two steps. These staircase waveforms can be realized-by adding at least two pulses. Use of such waveforms for the set-up, write and erase pulses improves contrast, and use for the sustain pulses reduces screen flicker and improves luminous efficiency. This is of particular use in driving high definition plasma display panels to achieve high image quality and high luminance.
Driving apparatus of plasma display panel
A driving apparatus of a plasma display panel for applying a rising or falling waveform to a panel capacitor, comprising a transistor for forming a current path between a power source and the panel capacitor while the transistor is turned on, and which is coupled between the power source and one end of the panel capacitor. A first capacitor and a second capacitor are coupled in parallel to each other and in between a drain and a gate of the transistor. A first resistor and a first diode are coupled in parallel to each other between a first end of the first capacitor and the gate, and a second resistor and a second diode are coupled in parallel to each other between a first end of the second capacitor and the gate.
Antenna with integrated parameter storage
In a method and system for identifying an antenna, an antenna identifier is coupled to the antenna. The antenna identifier is a memory device that stores at least one attribute to identify the antenna. The antenna includes an electromagnetic radiation element coupled to a signal port and a coupling device coupled in-between the signal port and the antenna identifier. A data signal received at the signal port is isolated by the coupling device and provided to the antenna identifier. The data signal is provided by a radio device and/or an information handling system (IHS) coupled to the antenna via the signal port. The radio device and/or the IHS is operable to read one or more values for the at least one attribute stored in the antenna identifier.
Motor vehicle roof antenna
The invention relates to a motor vehicle roof antenna (100) comprising an antenna housing (110) in which at least two antennae are arranged, wherein a first coaxial connector (114) is allocated to each antenna, and having a connector (200) which comprises a housing (210) and a number of second coaxial connectors (214) corresponding to the number of first coaxial connectors (114), said second coaxial connectors (214) being arranged at a plugging side of the housing (210) at pre-determined positions and with their respective longitudinal axes oriented parallel to a plugging direction of the connector (200), wherein every second coaxial connector (214) is allocated to a first coaxial connector (114) and is configured so as to be insertable into it. Herein, the first coaxial connectors (114) are fastened in a plug interface on the antenna housing (110) and each second coaxial connector (214) is arranged in the housing (210) movable in a plane perpendicular to the plugging direction and is linked via at least one electrically insulated elastic spring element to at least one further second coaxial connector (214) in elastically sprung manner, wherein the elastic spring element (244) is arranged and configured in such a manner that the second coaxial connectors (214) are pre-positioned at the respective pre-determined position, except for tolerance deviations, and can be deflected from this site in the plane perpendicular to the plugging direction in elastically sprung manner.
Co-linear antenna for direction finding
A direction-finding co-linear antenna is provided by collinearly aligning an exposed reference antenna with a primary antenna that is surrounded by a dielectric sleeve with a predetermined thickness and the reference and primary antennas are separated by a ground plane. The direction-finding co-linear antenna provides a simple, light-weight and inexpensive arrangement with fewer antennas and reduced antenna spacing that avoids unwanted detection because of a smaller electronic footprint that consists of the area of a single antenna plus a few inches of dielectric material in the sleeves rather than four widely spaced antennas positioned in an array. The direction-finding co-linear antenna apparatus also requires less electronic processing because the antenna only needs to address the RF from two antennas rather than from four or five antennas in a conventional array arrangement. The present invention also encompasses a direction-finding co-linear antenna system and a method for determining the unknown location of a signal transmission source with a co-linear direction-finding antenna.
RCS signature generation for closely spaced multiple objects using N-point models
A method and system for analyzing the RCS of an object using N Point signature prediction models is provided. N-point signature prediction models are created for each object in a scenario and stored in lookup tables. Shooting and Bounce trace back techniques are used to determine RCS signatures of multiple objects in modeled scenarios to account for blockage by and coupling phenomena of a scattered field.
Radar microsensor for detection, tracking, and classification
Embodiments pertain to methods of improving the performance of a frequency modulation continuous wave (FMCW) radar system and improving the value of the information provided the FMCW system. In an embodiment, the IF level is monitored while sweeping the frequency of the system through at least a portion of the frequency range of the system and the frequency is set to produce the minimum IF level. Embodiments expedite the adaptation of the comb filter to the signal when the system is turned on. In an embodiment, a method of quickly determining the largest peaks in the RDM is implemented. Embodiments relate to a method for processing a radar signal that classifies two or more targets. An embodiment classifies a human target or other target(s) using amplitude values in time-consecutive range-Doppler maps. An embodiment processes a radar signal for improving the performance of FMCW detection, tracking, and classification algorithms.
Front-end sampling technique for analog-to-digital converters
Embodiments of the present invention provide a pipeline ADC front-end sampling structure that provides a continuous time input signal to a flash comparator for sampling. By providing a continuous time input signal to the flash comparator, no delay is introduced from the need to transfer a DC charge representing the sampled input to the flash comparator. Matching sampling networks in the residual generator and the flash comparator are avoided due to the high bandwidth response requirements of the residual generator and the flash comparator when operating on high frequency input signals.
Signal processing device and method, signal processing program, and recording medium where the program is recorded
A signal processing device which outputs a discrete signal composed of a string of the sampling values and parameters m signal. The signal processing device includes a sampling circuit which samples an input signal and outputs a discrete signal, multiple function generators which generate multiple sampling functions with parameters m different from each other, plural inner product operating units for each of parameters m that take an inner product between the input signal and each of plural sampling functions and output an inner product operating value, and a judging unit which determines parameter m providing a minimum error out of multiple errors composed of differences between the sampling value and inner product operating values output from the multiple inner product operating units and outputs the parameters m signal.
Channelized analog-to-digital converter
A waveform acquisition system that captures and digitizes a wideband electrical signal through a bank of front end filters, frequency down converters, and conventional digitizers (A/D converters). A software algorithm reconstructs the composite input signal and applies the necessary corrections to remove the effects of hardware impairments. This approach is possible because it uses a class of filters that exhibit the quality of perfect waveform reconstruction, allowing signals whose spectral components overlap multiple filter bands, to be faithfully reconstructed. A calibration generator switched into the input port serves as a reference for quantifying and removing hardware errors. The channelized analog-to-digital converter (ADC) effectively multiplies the bandwidth and sampling rate of the conventional digitizer performance in a single channel by the number of channels in the system.
Fast, efficient reference networks for providing low-impedance reference signals to signal processing systems
Reference network embodiments are provided for use in pipelined signal converter systems. The network embodiments are fast and power efficient and they generate low-impedance reference signals through the use of a complimentary common-drain output stage, at least one diode-coupled transistor inserted between transistors of the output stage, and a controller. The controller is configured to provide a backgate voltage to the diode-coupled transistor to thereby establish a substantially-constant output current. The controller is further configured to provide gate voltages to the output stage to establish top and bottom reference voltages about the diode-coupled transistor that are spaced from a common-mode voltage. This reference structure maintains a constant output current as the span between the top and bottom reference voltages is selectively altered. In different embodiments, the diode-coupled transistor is replaced with a bipolar junction transistor.
A/D converter comprising a voltage comparator device
The present invention discloses an analogue-to-digital converter comprising at least two voltage comparator devices. Each of the voltage comparator devices comprises a differential structure of transistors and is arranged for being fed with a same input signal and for generating an own internal voltage reference by means of an imbalance in the differential structure, said two internal voltage references being different. Each voltage comparator is arranged for generating an output signal indicative of a bit position of a digital approximation of the input signal.
Serial data analysis improvement
A method for improving performance and flexibility of serial data analysis in test instruments, is independent of data bit rate, encoding scheme or communication protocol embodied in the serial data. The serial data is input to a transmitter section, where it is demultiplexed into a plurality of multi-bit lanes, such as n bits for each of N lanes. The N lanes are then encoded into characters, the encoded N lanes having m bits per lane where m>n. Bit stuffing is used to adjust the data rate and/or to insert qualifiers. The stuffed, encoded N lanes are then multiplexed into N serial lanes, which are output from the transmitter section for input to a receiver section at a data rate that is optimal for the receiver section. In the receiver section the N lanes are deserialized, decoded and input to a word recognizer to generate a trigger event signal.
Generating a data stream and identifying positions within a data stream
Methods and apparatus, including computer program products, for generating a data stream encoded by means of a Variable Length Coding scheme. Code words for a data stream including a plurality of code words are encoded in accordance with a Variable Length Coding scheme. A separation marker is inserted between encoded data blocks in the data stream.
Architecture for creating, organizing, editing, management and delivery of locationally-specific information to a user in the field
Disclosed herein is a dynamic content design, delivery and distribution software architecture that enables a centrally located designer, using a graphical interface, to create, edit, manage, and organize a matrix of trigger points that are plotted on a computerized map of geographical space. Each of these trigger points may be tagged with content, which is then relayed to a dynamic client device that is remotely located. The client device then displays the content to a remote user in a manner predetermined by the centrally located designer, the content varying based on feedback provided by the client device. The system and methods disclosed enable a centrally located designer to assume the role of an automated tour designer. As such, designers can compile a variety of different tours, each aimed at users with particular preferences. The architecture further offers a means to publish tour scripts for public consumption. The system is sufficiently flexible for use in any instance in which a user requires dynamic content, which is displayed contingent on any number of conditions.
A signalling element, which can be adapted to a light emitter, such as a lamp, the element for signalling includes an external double laminar body of plastic material, with a tronco-conical general shape extended by its larger base into a straight section and open via said larger base, housing two plastic layers of PVC and in its interior, the the external double laminar body defining a space for housing the pair of layers.
Early fouling detection
According to one embodiment, a first capacitive element may be provided and associated with a surface where a fouling layer is to be detected. A second capacitive element may also be provided, and a capacitance between the first and second capacitive elements may be used to detect formation of the fouling layer. According to another embodiment, a thermal device is provided proximate to a surface where a fouling layer is to be detected. A detector (e.g., a thermometer or vibration detector) may detect a condition associated with the surface, and formation of the fouling layer may be determined based at least in part on the condition.
Method and system for maintaining operator alertness
A method and system for maintaining operator alertness comprises a detector for detecting a physical status of an operator. The physical status indicates a first level of operator alertness. A user interface requests a second level of operator alertness from a self-evaluation of the operator at a request time. An evaluator measures at least one of an accuracy of the operator response to the requested input and a response time of the operator from the request time. An alert module generates alarm data or an alarm signal to alert the operator based on the first level of operator alertness indicating an inattentive state and at least one of the measured accuracy and operator response time indicating the inattentive state.
System and method for ergonomic tracking for individual physical exertion
A system and method are provided for tracking a user's posture. The system and method include an environmental module for determining the user's physical environment, a biomechanical module for determining at least a user's posture in the user's physical environment, and an output module for outputting to the user an indication of at least the user's posture relative to at least a target correct posture. The physical environment can include a computer workstation environment, a manufacturing environment, a gaming environment, and/or a keypadding environment.
Method and apparatus for locating and/or otherwise monitoring an ID tagged asset's condition
A method and apparatus is provided for electronically and wirelessly monitoring a plurality of ID tags of assets as a service for a plurality of tagged asset users and notifying the tagged asset user and/or other authorized entities when conditions sensed by tag circuitry exceeds predetermined boundaries. Typically, the tag will include wireless GPS and/or other sensing circuitry along with telephone type circuitry for communicating sensed data, such as location, to the monitoring service. The notification may further include advertising or other information specifically helpful to the owner of the tagged asset.
Monitoring of packages
An aspect of the present invention is a method of monitoring a package. The method includes mounting a transponder on the package, the transponder having at least two signal transmission devices and emitting a first output signal configuration on the signal transmission devices when the integrity of the package is intact and emitting a second output signal configuration on the signal transmission devices if the integrity of the package has been compromised.
Article surveillance tag having a vial
An electronic article surveillance (EAS) tag having an attaching member 34 located therein and adapted to securely and releasably receive a shaft of a pin therein, whereby a predetermined arcuate probe is inserted through an opening and applies a requisite force to the attaching member to release the shaft. At least one frangible vial containing a detrimental substance positioned within the tag body to deter unauthorized manipulation of the tag.
Graphical user interface for emergency apparatus and method for operating same
A communications system for emergency services personnel can include portable devices to be carried by emergency services personnel while at an emergency site. The portable devices each may have at least a first transceiver configured to communicate over a first network and the portable devices are configured to communicate with one another. The system may also include a portable gateway apparatus. The portable gateway apparatus may have a portable computer having a graphical user interface (GUI) and a PCMCIA or smaller card that itself includes at least a first radio. The first radio is configured to communicate over the first network to obtain status information from the portable devices carried by the emergency services personnel. The GUI is configured to communicate with the PCMCIA card to display a node map indicating communication links between the portable devices carried by the emergency services personnel.
Mobile telephonic device and base station
A monitoring system for purposes of enhancing independent living incorporates a wearable communication device, such as a cellular telephone, in combination with a recharging base which might be coupled to a wire line telephone system. Either or both of the base station and wearable device can be in communication with sensors scattered through an individual's residence for purposes of collecting data pertaining to activities of daily living. Either or both of the wearable unit and base station could incorporate sensors responsive to physiological parameters of the resident. Both units can independently communicate with third party monitors to communicate data about, or direct immediate attention to the state of an individual using the system.
Optical input device
One aspect is a device for displaying an indication of a system parameter. The device includes an input circuit, an optical sense circuit, a control circuit, and an output circuit. The input circuit is configured to receive input signals that are indicative of a measured system parameter. The optical sense circuit is configured to receive sense signals indicative of a sensed level of light and to receive programming signals related to a system parameter. The control circuit is configured to correlate the input and programming signals and to produce control signals dependant thereon. The output circuit is configured to display an indication of a system parameter that is based upon the control signals.
Vehicle surroundings display unit and a method of displaying vehicle surroundings
A vehicle surroundings display unit, including: 1) a pick-up unit for picking up a video of vehicle surroundings; 2) an approaching vehicle sensor for sensing, based on the video picked up by the pick-up unit, an approaching vehicle which is approaching a subject vehicle; 3) a display processor for displaying the approaching vehicle sensed by the approaching vehicle sensor while distinguishing the approaching vehicle from an obstacle which is not approaching the subject vehicle; 4) a display unit for displaying the video which has undergone the displaying operation by the display processor; and 5) a frequency decomposing unit to make the following operations: decomposing a time-varying component of a pixel of the picked-up video for each frequency, extracting the pixel having a frequency of the time-varying component higher than a certain frequency, and of the thus extracted pixels of the picked up video, displaying the pixels in a vehicle area.
Container for storing objects
A container that is capable of outputting information related to objects stored in the container. The container is able to output information for objects that are stored by the container and that have identification tags physically associated with them.
An object of the present invention is to provide a multilayer filter constructed so as to be less likely to suffer peeling between a varistor part and an inductor part. A multilayer filter 10 as a preferred embodiment has a structure in which a varistor part 20 and an inductor part are stacked. The varistor part 30 consists of a stack of varistor layers 31, 32 with internal electrodes 31a, 32a, and the varistor layers contain ZnO as a principal component, and contain at least one element selected from the group consisting of Pr and Bi, Co, and Al as additives. The inductor part 20 consists of a stack of inductor layers 21-24 with conductor patterns 21a-24a, and the inductor layers contain ZnO as a principal component and substantially contain neither Co nor Al.
Bi-stable magnetic latch with permanent magnet stator
A magnetic latch includes a stator having first and second permanent magnets disposed on either side of a center portion. Each of the first and second permanent magnets has at least two associated poles. A rotor has at least one magnetic region. The rotor is configured for rotation about an axis of the stator between a first latched position and a second latched position.
Bandpass filter, high-frequency module, and wireless communications equipment
There is included: N (N≧2) resonators formed by laminating a plurality of conductor patterns and dielectric layers alternately and arranged in an at least partially overlapped manner when viewed in the laminating direction to be coupled electromagnetically to each other; and input and output lines 3 and 4 coupled, respectively, to two resonators 1 and 2 selected among the N resonators, in which one end of each of the N resonators is grounded, and the length of each of the N resonators in the signal propagation direction is basically λ/4, where λ represents a propagation wavelength inside the dielectric layers at approximately the center frequency of the pass band. A wider pass bandwidth, size and loss reduction, and a large amount of attenuation within a narrow band can be achieved.
Microelectromechanical resonator and method for fabrication
A method is disclosed for the robust fabrication of a microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator. In this method, a pattern of holes is formed in the resonator mass with the position, size and number of holes in the pattern being optimized to minimize an uncertainty Δf in the resonant frequency f0 of the MEM resonator due to manufacturing process variations (e.g. edge bias). A number of different types of MEM resonators are disclosed which can be formed using this method, including capacitively transduced Lamé, wineglass and extensional resonators, and piezoelectric length-extensional resonators.
System and method of calibrating real time clock utilizing average calibration
A system for real time clock (RTC) calibration includes: a timer counter; a clock generator; and a clock calibration unit coupled between the clock generator and the timer counter. The clock calibration unit receives calibration parameters comprising an average calibration value, a remainder calibration value and a calibration period, counts a plurality of clock cycles generated by the clock generator, calibrates a number of the counted clock cycles according to the average calibration value and remainder calibration value in the calibration period, and increments the timer counter by one second when a predetermined number of clock cycles have been reached.
Amplifier circuit with internal zeros
An amplifier circuit with internal zeros provides a second pole in addition to a first pole and two zeros such that the second pole can prevent excessive gain at high frequency, so as to have high-frequency noise under control.
Current mirror circuit
A current mirror circuit has a first MOS transistor to which an input current is supplied. The first MOS transistor has a gate formed of polysilicon. A second MOS transistor has a gate formed of polysilicon and connected directly to the gate of the first MOS transistor via a polysilicon layer for producing an output current whose magnitude is a magnitude of the input current multiplied by a current mirror ratio. A fuse has one terminal connected to a gate portion between the gate of the first MOS transistor and the gate of the second MOS transistor and another terminal that is grounded.
Method and apparatus for generating synchronous clock signals from a common clock signal
A method and system for generating multiple clock signals from a reference clock signal are provided. In one implementation, the system includes a reference clock to generate a reference clock signal having a first frequency, a first prescaler to receive the reference clock signal and generate a first output clock signal having a pre-determined frequency relative to the first frequency of the reference clock signal, and a second prescaler to receive the first output clock signal and generate a second output clock signal having a second pre-determined frequency relative to the first pre-determined frequency of the first output clock signal. The first output clock signal is substantially synchronous to the second output clock signal.
Apparatus and method for generating a clock signal
A apparatus and method are disclosed for generating one or more clock signals. A clock signal is generated based on pattern signals and a reference clock signal. When the reference clock signal transitions high, the state of a first pattern signal is output, and when the reference clock signal transitions low, the state of a second pattern signal is output. Successive states of the first and second pattern signals, selected according to the reference clock signal, provide the generated clock signal.
Clock signal conversion system
Apparatus, systems, and methods implementing techniques for converting clock signals are described. A voltage-based input clock signal is received and converted into a current-based clock signal. An electrical current of the current-based clock signal is varied in response to the input clock signal while a voltage of the current-based clock signal remains substantially constant.
Semiconductor device having driver with temperature detection
A semiconductor device comprises a driver provided for a semiconductor element having a control electrode to which a drive voltage is applied, the semiconductor element being switched between the conduction state and the non-conduction state based on the drive voltage, the driver operative to apply the drive voltage to the control electrode; a detector operative to supply a voltage detection signal oscillating at a certain frequency to the control electrode to detect a first voltage having a certain relation to a voltage applied to the semiconductor element; and a controller operative to control the detector based on the first voltage detected at the detector.
Programmable logic device structure using third dimensional memory
A Programmable Logic Device (PLD) structure using third dimensional memory is disclosed. The PLD structure includes a switch configured to couple a polarity of a signal (e.g., an input signal applied to an input) to a routing line and a non-volatile register configured to control the switch. The non-volatile register may include a non-volatile memory element, such as a third dimension memory element. The non-volatile memory element may be a two-terminal memory element that retains stored data in the absence of power and stores data as a plurality of conductivity profiles that can be non-destructively sensed by applying a read voltage across the two terminals. New data can be written to the two-terminal memory element by applying a write voltage across the two terminals. Logic and other active circuitry can be positioned in a substrate and the non-volatile memory element can be positioned on top of the substrate.
Sequential semiconductor device tester
A sequential semiconductor device tester, and in particular to a sequential semiconductor device tester is disclosed. In accordance with the sequential semiconductor device tester, a function of generating a test pattern data for a test of a semiconductor device and a function of carrying out the test are separated to sequentially test the semiconductor device, to maintain a signal integrity and to improve an efficiency of the test by carrying out a test under an application environment or an ATE test according to the test pattern data.
Pusher assemblies for use in microfeature device testing, systems with pusher assemblies, and methods for using such pusher assemblies
Pusher assemblies for use in microelectronic device testing systems and methods for using such pusher assemblies are disclosed herein. One particular embodiment of such a pusher assembly comprises a plate having a first side and a second side opposite the first side. An engagement assembly is removably coupled to the second side of the plate and positioned to contact a microfeature device being tested. The pusher assembly can include an urging member proximate the first side of the plate and configured to move the engagement assembly toward the device being tested. The pusher assembly can also include a heat transfer unit carried by the first side of the plate. In several embodiments, the pusher assembly can further include a plurality of pins carried by the engagement assembly such that the pins extend through the plate and engage the urging member to restrict axial movement of the urging member toward the device being tested.