专利汇可以提供System and method for prepaid rewards专利检索，专利查询，专利分析的服务。并且A system and method provide rewards or loyalty incentives to card member customers. The system includes an enrolled card member customer database, an enrolled merchant database, a participating merchant offer database and a registered card processor. The enrolled card member customer database includes transaction accounts of card member customers enrolled in a loyalty incentive program. The enrolled merchant database includes a list of merchants participating in the loyalty incentive program. The participating merchant offer database includes loyalty incentive offers from participating merchants. The registered card processor receives a record for charge for a purchase made with an enrolled merchant by an enrolled card member customer and uses the record of charge to determine whether the purchase qualifies for a rebate credit in accordance with a discount offer from the enrolled merchant. If the purchase qualifies for a rebate credit, the registered card processor provides the rebate credit to an account of the enrolled card member customer. The registered card processor also provides for electronic notification of rewards offers or credit to prepaid cards, in response to purchases conforming to a specific set of merchant criteria. The system provides a coupon-less way for merchants to provide incentive discounts and/or credits to enrolled customers, along with notifying customers of other available incentive offers.，下面是System and method for prepaid rewards专利的具体信息内容。
This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. Ser. No. 11/779,734, entitled “Loyalty Incentive Program Using Transaction Cards,” filed on Jul. 18, 2007. The '734 application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Ser. No. 60/831,457, filed Jul. 18, 2006. The entire disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference.
The present invention relates generally to systems and methods for providing rewards or loyalty incentive programs to consumers, and more particularly to systems and methods for operating a loyalty incentive program using transaction cards to permit consumers to receive discounts and notices of discounts without requiring a coupon to be redeemed.
Loyalty incentive or reward programs are used as a form of highly customizable and targeted marketing. A loyalty program provider will attract customers who sign-up for a loyalty program. Shopping benefits such as discounts are offered to the customers by the provider. The provider then markets to merchants that the provider can bring customers to the merchant. For example, a loyalty program provider may approach a merchant, such as the clothing retailer GAP® Inc., with an offer to bring customers to the GAP® in exchange for a fee. The provider would then send a solicitation (via email or regular mail) to its customers offering, for example, a 10% discount coupon that may be redeemed at the GAP® on a particular day. The success of the solicitation can be assessed based on the number of coupons redeemed.
In such a loyalty solicitation, the merchant would pay the loyalty program provider a percentage of the sales (e.g., 10%) that result from the solicitation. The merchant benefits from the increased sales. The loyalty program provider benefits from the commission that it receives, and the customers benefit from the received discount.
There are several areas that could be improved in such traditional loyalty programs. For example, such traditional programs suffer from leakage. Leakage occurs when the merchant does not fully report sales resulting from the solicitation. Leakage results in loss revenues for the loyalty program provider. Further, administration of coupon redemption by a merchant is costly and requires training. What is needed is a system and method improving upon traditional loyalty programs.
In an embodiment a method for providing loyalty incentives to a card member customer, the method includes the following steps: a record of charge is received for a purchase made with a participating merchant by a card member customer; the record of charge is used to determine whether the purchase by the card member customer qualifies for a rebate credit in accordance with a discount offer from the participating merchant; and if the purchase qualifies for the rebate credit, then the rebate credit is provided to an account of the card member customer.
In another embodiment, a method for operating a loyalty incentive program includes the following steps: a list of participating merchants is received; a list of participating card members is received; a record of charge corresponding to a purchase by a card member customer is received from a merchant, and upon receipt, an account of the card member customer is debited by the amount of the charge, a merchant identification contained in the record of charge is compared with the list of participating merchants, and a card member identification contained in the record of charge is compared with the list of participating card members. If the card member is a participating card member and the merchant is a participating merchant, then it is determined whether the record of charge qualifies for a rebate credit. If the record of charge qualifies for a rebate credit, then the rebate credit is provided to an account of the card member customer.
In another embodiment, a method includes the following steps: participation of a merchant in a loyalty incentive program is solicited; an offer from a participating merchant is received; enrollment of a card member customer to the loyalty incentive program is solicited; the offer is provided to an enrolled card member customer; information is received which relates to a purchase by the enrolled card member customer in accordance with the offer from the participating merchant; an amount of a discount in accordance with the offer is calculated; and the amount of the discount is provided to a transaction account provider so that an account of the enrolled card member customer is credited in the amount of the discount.
One embodiment provides a system including an enrolled card member customer database having identification information of accounts associated with card member customers enrolled in the loyalty incentive program; an enrolled merchant database having identification information of merchants enrolled in the loyalty incentive program; a merchant offer database having identification information of discount offers provided by the merchants enrolled in the loyalty incentive program; and a registered card processor. The registered card processor receives a record of charge for a purchase made with an enrolled merchant by an enrolled card member customer and uses the record of charge to determine whether the purchase qualifies for a rebate credit in accordance with a discount offer from the enrolled merchant. If the purchase qualifies for a rebate credit, the registered card processor provides the rebate credit to an account of the enrolled card member customer.
In an embodiment this systems and methods described may be used to provide coupon-less discounts on purchase made by card member customers. As such, there is no leakage since an enrolled merchant does not have to process any coupons. In such a system, the merchant benefits from increased sales and elimination of the overhead required to manage a coupon program, the customer benefits from the coupon-less discount, and the loyalty program provider benefits from sales commissions and/or loyalty program fees paid by the merchant. In one embodiment, customers may also be charged a fee by the loyalty program provider for participation in the loyalty program.
In an embodiment, a method for managing a rewards program includes associating a prepaid transaction account (e.g. American Express® Gift Card) with a rewards program. The transactions of the prepaid transaction account can then be monitored and compared with criteria (e.g. transactions at a particular merchant or group of merchant, transactions in a particular region, spending levels at a particular merchant or in a particular region) governing the rewards program. Where the transactions comply the criteria governing the rules of the rewards program, a reward (e.g. a credit of monetary value to the transaction account, a merchant prepaid account, a discount, a credit of loyalty points) is provided to a beneficiary of the prepaid transaction account.
Further, the prepaid transaction account may be enrolled in any rewards program offered by an account issuer. Enrollment in a rewards program may be automatic or may require registration by the owner of the prepaid transaction account.
In an embodiment, a method for managing a rewards program includes monitoring spend data associated with a transaction account. The spend data may be analyzed and compared to a set of criteria (spend levels at particular merchants, spend level on classes of products, spend level in a particular region). The transaction account may then be assigned to one or more transaction account populations based on spend data and criteria. The spend data of the associated with the transaction account is also analyzed to determine whether a beneficiary of the transaction account qualifies for a reward in accordance with a rewards program. Where the spend data meets the rules governing the rewards program, a reward (e.g. a credit of monetary value to the transaction account, a merchant prepaid account, a discount, a credit of loyalty points) is provided to a beneficiary of the transaction account. The spend data activities associated with the transaction accounts of the population are also monitored. Where the activities meet criteria associated with the transaction account population, a rewards offer (an offer of a credit of monetary value to the transaction account, a merchant prepaid account, a discount, a credit of loyalty points) is sent to owner of transaction accounts associated with the population.
In an embodiment, the criteria may be established by a merchant or a prepaid account issuer. Enrollment in a transaction account population may be automatic or may require registration by the owner of the transaction account. Further features of various embodiments, as well as the structure and operation of various embodiments are described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings.
A more complete understanding of the present inventions may be derived by referring to the detailed description and claims when considered in connection with the Figures, wherein like reference numbers refer to similar elements throughout the Figures, and:
The present invention is directed to a system and method for providing loyalty incentives to a card member customer and operating a loyalty incentive program. The present invention is now described in more detail herein in terms of an exemplary embodiment. This is for convenience only and is not intended to limit the application of the present invention. While specific configurations and arrangements are discussed, it should be understood that this is done for illustrative purposes only. In fact, after reading the following description, it will be apparent to one skilled in the relevant art(s) how to implement the following exemplary embodiments. A person skilled in the pertinent art will recognize that other configurations and arrangements can be used without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention. It will be apparent to a person skilled in the pertinent art that this invention can also be employed in a variety of other applications.
The terms “user,” “end user,” “consumer,” “customer,” “participant,” and/or the plural form of these terms are used interchangeably throughout herein to refer to those persons or entities capable of accessing, using, being affected by and/or benefiting from the tool that the present invention provides for the rewards program described herein. This includes both individual consumers and corporate customers such as, for example, small businesses.
Furthermore, the terms “service provider,” “business” or “merchant” may be used interchangeably with each other and shall mean any person, entity, distributor system, software and/or hardware that is a provider, broker and/or any other entity in the distribution chain of goods or services. For example, a service provider may be a retail store, a hotel company, an airline company, a travel agency, an on-line merchant or the like.
A “transaction account” as used herein refers to an account associated with an open account or a closed account system (as described below). The transaction account may exist in a physical or non-physical embodiment. For example, a transaction account may be distributed in non-physical embodiments such as an account number, frequent-flyer account, telephone calling account or the like. Furthermore, a physical embodiment of a transaction account may be distributed as a financial instrument. The term “transaction card” is used herein to be synonymous with the term “transaction account,” unless indicated otherwise.
A financial transaction instrument may be traditional plastic transaction cards, titanium-containing, or other metal-containing, transaction cards, clear and/or translucent transaction cards, foldable or otherwise unconventionally-sized transaction cards, radio-frequency enabled transaction cards, or other types of transaction cards, such as credit, charge, debit, pre-paid or stored-value cards, or any other like financial transaction instrument. A financial transaction instrument may also have electronic functionality provided by a network of electronic circuitry that is printed or otherwise incorporated onto or within the transaction instrument (and typically referred to as a “smart card”), or be a fob having a transponder and an RFID reader.
“Open cards” are financial transaction cards that are generally accepted at different merchants. Examples of open cards include the American Express®, Visa®, MasterCard® and Discover® cards, which may be used at many different retailers and other businesses. In contrast, “closed cards” are financial transaction cards that may be restricted to use in a particular store, a particular chain of stores or a collection of affiliated stores. One example of a closed card is a pre-paid gift card that may only be purchased at, and only be accepted at, a clothing retailer, such as the clothing retailer Gap®, Inc.
Stored value cards are forms of transaction instruments associated with transaction accounts, wherein the stored value cards provide cash equivalent value that may be used within an existing payment/transaction infrastructure. Stored value cards are frequently referred to as gift, pre-paid or cash cards, in that money is deposited in the account associated with the card before use of the card is allowed. For example, if a customer deposits ten dollars of value into the account associated with the stored value card, the card may only be used for payments together totaling no more than ten dollars.
With regard to use of a transaction account, users may communicate with service providers in person (e.g., at the box office), telephonically, or electronically (e.g., from a user computer via the Internet). During the interaction, the service provider may offer goods and/or services to the user. The service provider may also offer the user the option of paying for the goods and/or services using any number of available transaction accounts. Furthermore, the transaction accounts may be used by the service provider as a form of identification of the user. The service provider may have a computing unit implemented in the form of a computer-server, although other implementations are possible.
In general, transaction accounts may be used for transactions between the user and service provider through any suitable communication means, such as, for example, a telephone network, intranet, the global, public Internet, a point of interaction device (e.g., a point of sale (POS) device, personal digital assistant (PDA), mobile telephone, kiosk, etc.), online communications, off-line communications, wireless communications, and/or the like.
An “account,” “account number” or “account code,” as used herein, may include any device, code, number, letter, symbol, digital certificate, smart chip, digital signal, analog signal, biometric or other identifier/indicia suitably configured to allow a consumer to access, interact with or communicate with a financial transaction system. The account number may optionally be located on or associated with any financial transaction instrument (e.g., rewards, charge, credit, debit, prepaid, telephone, embossed, smart, magnetic stripe, bar code, transponder or radio frequency card).
The account number may be distributed and stored in any form of plastic, electronic, magnetic, radio frequency (RF), wireless, audio and/or optical device capable of transmitting or downloading data from itself to a second device. A customer account number may be, for example, a sixteen-digit credit card number. Each credit card issuer has its own numbering system, such as the fifteen-digit numbering system used by American Express Company of New York, N.Y. Each issuer's credit card numbers comply with that company's standardized format such that an issuer using a sixteen-digit format will generally use four spaced sets of numbers in the form of:
The first five to seven digits are reserved for processing purposes and identify the issuing institution, card type, etc. In this example, the last (sixteenth) digit is typically used as a sum check for the sixteen-digit number. The intermediary eight-to-ten digits are used to uniquely identify the customer, card holder or card member.
A merchant account number may be, for example, any number or alpha-numeric characters that identifies a particular merchant for purposes of card acceptance, account reconciliation, reporting and the like.
It should be noted that the transfer of information in accordance with various embodiments may be done in a format recognizable by a merchant system or account issuer. In that regard, by way of example, the information may be transmitted from an RFID device to an RFID reader, or from the RFID reader to the merchant system in magnetic stripe or multi-track magnetic stripe format.
Because of the proliferation of devices using magnetic stripe format, the standards for coding information in magnetic stripe format were standardized by the International Organization for Standardization in ISO/IEC 7811-n (characteristics for identification cards) which are incorporated herein by reference. The ISO/IEC 7811 standards specify the conditions for conformance, physical characteristics for the card (warpage and surface distortions) and the magnetic stripe area (location, height and surface profile, roughness, adhesion, wear and resistance to chemicals), the signal amplitude performance characteristics of the magnetic stripe, the encoding specification including technique (MFM), angle of recording, bit density, flux transition spacing variation and signal amplitude, the data structure including track format, use of error correction techniques, user data capacity for ID-1, ID-2 and ID-3 size cards, and decoding techniques, and the location of encoded tracks.
Typically, magnetic stripe information is formatted in three tracks. Certain industry information must be maintained on certain portions of the tracks, while other portions of the tracks may have open data fields. The contents of each track and the formatting of the information provided to each track is controlled by the ISO/IEC 7811 standard. For example, the information must typically be encoded in binary. Track 1 is usually encoded with user information (i.e., name) in alphanumeric format. Track 2 is typically comprised of discretionary and nondiscretionary data fields. In one example, the nondiscretionary field may comprise 19 characters and the discretionary field may comprise 13 characters. Track 3 is typically reserved for financial transactions and includes enciphered versions of the user's personal identification number, country code, current units amount authorized per cycle, subsidiary accounts, and restrictions.
As such, where information is provided in accordance with an embodiment, it may be provided in magnetic stripe track format. For example, the counter values, authentication tags and encrypted identifiers may be forwarded encoded in all or a portion of a data stream representing data encoded in, for example, track 2 or track 3 format.
Persons skilled in the relevant arts will understand the breadth of the terms used herein and that the exemplary descriptions provided are not intended to be limiting of the generally understood meanings attributed to the foregoing terms.
It is noted that references in the specification to “one embodiment”, “an embodiment”, “an example embodiment”, etc., indicate that the embodiment described may include a particular feature, structure, or characteristic, but every embodiment may not necessarily include the particular feature, structure, or characteristic. Moreover, such phrases are not necessarily referring to the same embodiment. Further, when a particular feature, structure, or characteristic is described in connection with an embodiment, it would be within the knowledge of one skilled in the art to effect such feature, structure, or characteristic in connection with other embodiments whether or not explicitly described.
In an embodiment and with references to
TAP can collaborate with a loyalty program provider to produce the reward or incentive program. While, as used herein, “loyalty program provider” (LPP) refers to an external, third-party provider of marketing packages that may be provided to CMs in accordance with various embodiments, TAP may internally administer loyalty programs, such as restaurant or travel marketing program. Therefore, to distinguish from programs provided by an LPP, TAPs internal loyalty programs will be referred to herein as a “TAP marketing program” or simply a “TAP program.” In the figures, the service mark “TailorMade” is used to refer to an example loyalty program offered by an LPP. Accordingly, although embodiments will be described herein in the environment of such collaboration between a TAP and an LPP, one of skill in the pertinent art(s) will recognize that a registered card program can be implemented with or without a loyalty program provider or other types of providers without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention.
As shown in
As shown in
The CM may be provided the option to enroll more than one card and link each second and additional card to a primary enrolled card, which is illustrated in
In the embodiment of
For marketing programs administered by TAP, registered card engine 138 may include its own calculation of discount 432 for purchases made by registered CMs with merchants participating in TAP's marketing program. Further, LPP 460 may be responsible for calculation of discount 462 for purchases made at merchants participating in marketing programs administered by LPP 460. A merchant may be a participating merchant for a plurality of externally administered and/or internally administered marketing programs. Therefore, these offer and merchant databases may include a field identifying each offer and merchant to one or more marketing programs, as further described below with reference to
Another input to RCE 138 are merchant ROCs 436, which may be compiled as a daily transaction file and stored in transaction database 136 (shown in
A problem to be overcome in implementing a loyalty incentive program as described herein is how to deal with returns. For example, assume a card member makes a purchase for $100 and receives a 10% discount (also called a rebate or incentive) on his or her account. If the card member then returns the purchased goods to the merchant, it is desirable to be able to ascertain whether the purchase involved an incentive so that a return credit can be made in the appropriate amount. This problem is solved by providing a mechanism for dealing with returns. In the embodiment of
RCE 138 has the capability to convert the discount amount to an equivalent of membership reward points which may be redeemable in accordance with membership rewards program. Typically, a membership rewards program offers goods or travel packages in exchange for membership reward points. Moreover, the discount amount may be a combination of a monetary credit and an equivalent of reward points. To implement such conversions, as well as to support service fee calculation, etc. RCE 138 may include a configuration table 434. Configuration table 434 may include fields for each marketing program and corresponding information for converting the calculated discount (i.e., the rebate credit) between a monetary credit and/or an equivalence in membership rewards points (shown as “CM (%, $, Pts)”). Further, since a discount offer may be represented in units of monetary amount off or percent off a purchase price, or in terms of membership rewards points, then for internally calculated discounts 432, RCE uses configuration table 434 to match program, merchant, and conversion terms (shown as “SE (%, $)”) to convert the offer terms to the desired units for discount calculation. Configuration table 434 may also have a field for TAP's service fees for each program and participating merchants, and service fees may be in units such percent of purchase or monetary amount (shown as “TAP (%, $)”). Further, since a merchant may be submitting the same offer for more than one marketing program, configuration table includes a “priority” field that is used to identify repeated offers and ensure that the CM receives only a single rebate credit on a purchase that is eligible to receive a discount pursuant to multiple marketing programs.
The calculated discount (or discount reversal, if relating to a return) is provided to TAP settlement systems 470 for transactions on Prop registered cards, or to GNS settlement systems 480 for transactions on GNS registered cards. An AR system of TAP settlement systems 470 processes the discount amount and provides the rebate credit (as a monetary credit or an equivalence in reward points, or both) on CM's credit statement. If the rebate credit includes membership reward points, then information relating the rebate credit is also provided to membership rewards 472 for appropriate record keeping for that CM. AP systems of TAP settlement systems 470 processes the merchant debit in accordance with CM's rebate credit, as well as any service fee charged by TAP for providing the services described herein. Further detail regarding processing of matched transactions via TAP settlement systems is described below with reference to
RCE 138 may further have the capability to provide TAP with reporting 490, which may include a marketing analysis or monitoring of the success of various marketing programs and information relating to card member participation therein. Reporting 490 thereby permits TAP to target CMs and deliver merchant offers that are desirable to its registered CMs and/or merchants.
Offer DB 452 may comprise a plurality of offers. In an embodiment, the offers may be predetermined offers and/or offers based on merchant criteria. The offers may be configured to be delivered electronically through reporting 490. The electronic delivery may include delivery via email, text messaging, instant messaging and/or social networking distribution (e.g., via Facebook, Twitter, Myspace, Linked-in). The electronic delivery may be automatic or require a manual input. The offers may be accessible by RCE 138. These offers may be based upon specific parameters which define at least one of a reward, a merchant and/or class of merchants, characteristics of a targeted CM, a predetermined qualification threshold, and the like. RCE 138 may analyze the parameters to identify intended recipients of the offers. RCE 138 may also analyze the parameters to determine characteristics for a CM population. This capability allows the merchant to quickly and inexpensively target the CM with customized marketing and/or offers. This capability also allows the merchant to provide an offer to targeted CMs before a target list is pulled.
In an embodiment, reporting 490 may be configured to deliver offers to CMs with particular behaviors and/or patterns (e.g., spending behaviors, reward usage behaviors, etc). RCE 138 may be configured to define a particular CM population based on merchant targeted marketing efforts, CM spending patterns, CM demographic data and/or the like. For example, RCE 138 may identify a CM population that spends a predetermined amount of money on electronics in a predetermined period of time. Further, RCE 138 may identify a merchant who offers electronics for purchase, but does not capture significant spending from the identified CM population. In other words, the CMs who spend a predetermined amount on electronics are not spending significant amounts on electronics with the identified merchant. RCE 138 may analyze the CM spending to compare the total amount of spending on a particular class of items (e.g., electronics). RCE 138 may also analyze such CM spending based on merchants that receive the CM spend, to determine the proportions of spending at a particular merchant, class of merchants, and/or the like. Such information may be compared to a predetermined threshold spending amount or proportions of spending at particular merchants and/or classes of merchants. The comparison allows, for example, a merchant to target CMs that do not typically spend significant amounts with a particular merchant or class of merchant, but the CMs buy the types of products and/or services offered by the merchant or class of merchants.
CM populations may be initially created based on, for example, historical data. The historical data accessible to a financial processor, such as spend level data, is leveraged using various data clustering and/or data appending techniques. The CM populations may also be created based on, for example, current spending patterns. The current spend patterns available to a financial processor (e.g., current authorized transactions, posted transactions, and the like) may be leveraged using various data clustering and/or data appending techniques. Associations may be established among entities (e.g. CMs), among merchants, and between entities and merchants. In an embodiment, RCE 138 may receive passively collected spend level data for a transaction of a plurality of CMs, aggregate the collected spend level data for a plurality of CMs, and cluster the CMs into subsets of the plurality of CMs, based on the aggregated spend level data.
The collection of the spend level data may be passive. For instance, passively collecting spend level data of a CM includes acquiring the spend level data in response to a transaction by a CM with a merchant. In an embodiment, the spend level data may be integral to information processed in a transaction for goods and/or services with a merchant. For instance, a survey and/or survey responses are not needed to capture spend level data, but such data may be used to supplement the data discussed herein. Collecting the spend level data may include acquiring the spend level data from a merchant. In an embodiment, passively collecting the spend level data of a CM includes collecting the spend level data from a transaction database. In yet another embodiment, passively collecting the spend level data includes reconciling the spend level data, transferring the spend level data to a host, organizing spend level data into a format, saving the spend level data to a memory, gathering the spend level data from the memory, and/or saving the spend level data to a database. For instance, if a CM performs a transaction (such as by using a transaction account), spend level data (such as transaction data and/or consumer account data) related to the transaction may be captured and stored in a memory, database, and/or multiple databases. Spend level data (such as transaction data and/or consumer account data) may be stored locally with the merchant, remotely by the merchant and/or transmitted to a remote host (e.g., financial processor) for storing and processing.
In one embodiment, aggregating the collected spend level data includes combining a selectable range of collected spend level data. The selectable range may be a period of time (e.g., time range) and/or from a particular geographic region. The period may be any suitable period and/or periods such as a minute, an hour, a period of hours, one day, one week, one month, a period of days, a period of months, one year, or more than one year. The periods may be consecutive or non-consecutive. In an embodiment, the selectable range may be a value, such as values of spend exceeding a pre-selected threshold. The selectable range may also include frequency, such as spend level data occurring at a particular frequency.
In an embodiment, the spend level data may be segmented by a gender of the entity (e.g., male or female), such that only data collected from merchants in transactions with men are processed by RCE 138. This data may be aggregated, clustered, assigned a weighed percentile and analyzed in accordance with the previous descriptions. Using this exemplary embodiment of the system, preferences, attributes, and inferences of a selected demographic may be obtained. In one embodiment, spend level data segmented geographically (e.g., zip code) or by other regions can reveal which regions are most compelling to a merchant and/or marketer.
Any demographic included within the characteristic data may be selected for pre-segmenting the spend level data. In an embodiment, the spend level data may be segmented by an attribute (e.g., homeowner designation), and data collected from merchants in transactions with entities that are homeowners may be processed by RCE 138. This data may be aggregated, clustered, assigned a weighed percentile and analyzed in accordance with the previous descriptions. From this procedure, a holistic picture of homeowners segmented into different clusters may be created. More than one demographic or attribute may be selected and the spend level data may be pre-segmented any suitable number of times in any suitable order. Additionally, in one embodiment, a particular demographic may be selected to be removed from the larger set of all available spend level data. For instance, the spend level data of very high income entities may be selected for removal and data collected from merchants in transactions with very high income entities may be excluded from processing by RCE 138. The remaining data may be aggregated, clustered, assigned a weighed percentile and analyzed in accordance with the previous descriptions. Using this embodiment, outliers may be removed from the results. Additional details regarding combining CMs into populations are disclosed in, for example, U.S. application Ser. No. 12/690,669, entitled “System And Method For Clustering a Population Using Spend level Data” and filed on Jan. 20, 2010, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.
The CM populations may be established based on historical data or on current spending patterns, as discussed above, and in one embodiment are modified based on current spending habits. For example, spend level data may be actively captured and used to modify CM populations. As CM spending habits change, the groups are modified to provide greater accuracy for delivering rewards, merchant offers and the like. For example, a CM may be placed in a population of CMs whose spend level data suggests that they attend public entertainment events (e.g. movies, concerts, and the like). As time passes, the system may analyze a shift in the spend level data which suggests that the CM (possibly due to a having a new baby) attends less public entertainment events and spends more for home entertainment items, such as for example, home electronics equipment. In response to the shift in spend level data, RCE 138 may associate the CM with a new CM population which receives rewards offers for electronics. Further, RCE 138 may also remove a CM from a particular CM population based on current spend level data, wherein the CM was originally placed in a CM population based on historical spend level data, but no longer exhibits spending behavior consistent with the historical spend level data.
In one embodiment, in response to the determination that the CM population is spending on electronics, but not with a particular identified merchant, reporting 490 may send the CM population a reward offer from the identified merchant. The rewards offer may be designed to encourage the CM population to buy electronics from the identified merchant, with whom the CM population had not previously conducted significant business.
The terms of a rewards offer may define a trigger event, such as a threshold spending amount at a particular merchant or class of merchants, or for a class of items. The reward offer may be provided electronically to the CM population based on a trigger event (e.g., in real time). A trigger event may be any action identified by the merchant or the account issuer. The trigger event may be based on spend data, geographic region spend, CM population size, time of year, or any other event. The event may be identified by the merchant, CM and/or account issuer. For example, the trigger event may be based on spend data. In response to a CM population reaching a predetermined spend level on a class of products (e.g. electronics), the rewards offer may be sent to the CM population via e-mail. Similarly, the trigger event may be based on a CM population size. In response to the CM population reaching a predetermined level, a rewards offer is sent to the CM population. In another example, the merchant and a product supplier or manufacturer may create a joint offer, which provides a reward offer if a CM buys a particular item (e.g. a particular model laptop computer) or class of items (e.g. any Sony® television).
In an embodiment, a merchant may wish to market rewards offers to CM populations based on CMs spending at other merchants. For example, a merchant that sells home improvement items (e.g. Home Depot) may wish to market its products and services to a CM population that spends a predetermined amount on electronics. The merchant may formulate a set of criteria to develop a CM population based on spend data for electronics purchases (e.g. televisions) and/or spend data at particular electronics merchants (e.g. Best Buy). Thereafter, rewards offers from the merchant are provided to the CM population in response to a trigger event.
In an embodiment, the identified merchant offer is provided in conjunction with an existing rewards program. For example, the CM may be eligible for a reward based on the CM's pre-existing participation in a rewards program. The reward offer is provided in addition to the existing reward. For example, a CM is provided with a credit based on a particular transaction at a particular merchant. The transaction may also result in the CM becoming a member of a particular CM population that is provided with a rewards offer (e.g. an additional discount with the identified merchant based on the loyal spending behavior). As such, the CM receives the pre-existing reward and the reward offer based on the CM becoming a member of a CM population.
In an embodiment, a CM is automatically enrolled in a program to receive e-mail rewards based on criteria determined by a merchant or account issuer. In an embodiment, a CM may be invited to join a CM population that is eligible to receive rewards offers. The CM may receive a notification which indicates that the CM is eligible to receive rewards offers. The notification may provide for an opt-out period during which the CM can request that the CM is not sent the rewards offers based on the CM's inclusion in a CM population. The notification may also provide that the CM register to receive the rewards offers by taking some affirmative action, such as for example, registering the CM's account via a webpage and/or contacting the account issuer and requesting to be included in the CM population associated with the rewards offers.
RCE 138 may be configured to administer rewards associated with a prepaid transaction account. The prepaid transaction account may comprise embedded rewards, including for example, credits to the prepaid transaction account, merchant specific rewards (e.g. merchant gift cards), discounts, and the like. The rewards may be customized by a merchant. The rewards may be offered in conjunction the pre-paid transaction cards (e.g. American Express Gift Cards, Home Depot Gift Card). Offers may be customized by an individual merchant or a group of merchants. This ability to customize offers allows local and regional merchants to offer rewards to customers that were previously unavailable because of the cost and complexity of administering a rewards program. Further, providing rewards with a prepaid transaction account allows those who are not credit card users to participate in rewards programs traditionally reserved for credit card account holders.
In an embodiment, a prepaid transaction account has an embedded reward which is configured by an offering merchant. For example, a merchant may configure a reward which provides a credit on purchases of certain products and/or services (e.g. dry cleaning services) at the merchant or within a group of cooperating merchants. The reward may also be based on transactions conducted in a geographic or other region. In one embodiment, the reward may be limited or restricted for use in a similar or other geographic region. The rewards may be offered through a prepaid account, such as a prepaid transaction card, available for purchase through the offering merchant. The prepaid transaction account may be used with any merchant who accepts transaction accounts from the account issuer associated with the prepaid transaction card. Further, the prepaid transaction account may be configured with pre-determined reward criteria from the offering merchant. For example, when seventy percent of the total value of the prepaid card is spent with the offering merchant, a reward is issued. The reward may be issued in the form of a credit to the prepaid transaction account, or may be provided in some other fashion (e.g. another gift card from the offering merchant).
In an embodiment, participation in the rewards program associated with the prepaid transaction account may be automatic or may require registration. Registration may be provided by accessing a webpage and providing identifying information. Registration may also be achieved by contacting an account issuer and requesting that a particular prepaid transaction account be associated with a rewards program.
In an embodiment, any prepaid transaction account associated with an account issuer may participate in any rewards program offered by the account issuer. The transaction account may be registered with the account issuer for a particular rewards program selected by a prepaid transaction account owner. Where the activities associated with the transaction account conform to the rules governing the rewards program, a reward is provided to the prepaid transaction account owner.
Cancellations 440 of registered accounts by enrolled CMs are communicated to loyalty program provider 460 as well as to enrollment 120 so as to maintain enrollee database 134 with up-to-date enrolled CM information. Cancellations 440 may arise, for example, from a CM reporting a lost or stolen card or a CM requesting TAP to deregister one or more of its registered cards from the registered card program. In an embodiment, enrollee database 134 may be provided with timely and consistent updates to reflect lost and stolen cards. Cancellations 440 may also include deregistration of a CM from one or more particular marketing programs administered by TAP or LPP 460.
Further description will now be provided with respect to solicitation 110 and enrollment 120. As noted above with reference to
Solicitation 110 may further include a pre-solicitation process prior to sending a solicitation email to a targeted CM. The pre-solicitation process may involve determining which CMs should be targeted and which offer clusters and particular marketing programs the CM may be eligible to participate in pursuant to the registered card program. Accordingly, TAP may collaborate with LPP 460 to identify appropriate CMs for email solicitation based on TAP's data on a CM's spending preferences and the LPP's clusters of merchant offers. These identified, targeted CMs may then reviewed so as to exclude solicitation of any targeted CMs having opted out of receiving direct marketing materials from TAP or LPP 460. TAP then provides LPP 460 with a marketing list of targeted CMs and associated identifying information (such as salutation, name, gender, and zip code). The marketing list may further be provided to LPP 460 with a given effective period during which solicitation emails may be sent, since the list should be updated periodically to exclude CMs from the list that have since opted out of receiving marketing materials. Upon receipt of the marketing list from TAP, loyalty program provider sends out email invitations to the targeted CMs.
Enrollment 120 may provide an option to the CM to participate in the registered card program as a preferred enrollee. For example, during enrollment a card member may choose to be eligible for “premium” offers in exchange for paying an enrollment fee. Alternatively, the CM may wish to forego payment of any enrollment fee and be eligible for “everyday” offers. Preferred (i.e., premium) customers may also be eligible for everyday offers. TAP's registered card program may therefore offer tiers of offer packages corresponding to the “premium” and “everyday” tiers of enrolled card members. Accordingly, RCE 138, during transaction matching, may consider whether an enrolled CM is registered as a premium card member or an everyday card member so as to identify CM purchases that qualify for a premium offer and/or an everyday offer.
An embodiment, the TAP collaborates with loyalty program provider 460 will now be described in greater detail with reference to
Merchant offer database 452 may include an offer ID, a corresponding merchant ID, a start and end date for the particular offer, a description, and whether the offer is a premium offer, as described above. Since TAP and LPP may each administer marketing programs, and since there may be multiple loyalty program providers, merchant offer database 452 may also include a field identifying each TAP or LPP marketing program to which the offer belongs.
In this embodiment, output file 444 includes CM's RC# as a substitute for the CM's actual transaction account number. Output file 444 is provided to LPP for discount calculation, and the level of security associated with LPP's network may prohibit allowing LPP using the actual account number as a means to identify the transaction for discount calculation. However, it should be understood that for internally calculated discounts 432 (described in
Once TAP identifies credit ROCs from participating merchants, TAP may compare them to transaction debits stored in transaction database 136 (see
At step 670, CM information in enrollee database 134 is used to match registered CMs with ROCs extracted in step 660, and each matched transactions is provided with a transaction ID. In step 680, output file 444 is created of transactions matched in step 670. At step 690, output file 444 is provided to loyalty program provider for discount/discount reversal calculation.
As shown in
Methodologies unique to processing of card member returns by means of a return logic policy in accordance with an embodiment are now described with reference to
If in line 1 there is no exact matched transaction identified with the return, then, in line 2, the first transaction in the past 60 days which is greater than the amount of the return is identified with the return. As shown in line 2, transaction “6” for $5000 is the first matched transaction having an amount greater than the return. Since transaction “6” was not discounted, then no action is taken with regard to debiting CM. If CM claims that the return is part of transaction “5” and “2”, then a debit from the CM's account is made in the amount of the rebate credits (15% and 15%) for those transactions. If there is no transaction matched in lines 1 or 2, then in line 3, if the sum of the return is equal or smaller than the sum of all transactions in the past 60 days, then it is assumed that the return refers to TM transactions up to $1000, and a debit to CM's account is provided in accordance with the discounts on TM transactions 2 and 5.
The present invention or any part(s) or function(s) thereof may be implemented using hardware, software or a combination thereof and may be implemented in one or more computer systems or other processing systems. However, the manipulations performed by embodiments were often referred to in terms, such as matching or selecting, which are commonly associated with mental operations performed by a human operator. No such capability of a human operator is necessary, or desirable in most cases, in any of the operations described herein. Rather, the operations may be machine operations. Useful machines for performing the various embodiments include general purpose digital computers or similar devices.
In fact, in one embodiment, the embodiments are directed toward one or more computer systems capable of carrying out the functionality described herein. An example of a computer system 1300 is shown in
The computer system 1300 includes one or more processors, such as processor 1304. The processor 1304 is connected to a communication infrastructure 1306 (e.g., a communications bus, cross-over bar, or network). Various software embodiments are described in terms of this exemplary computer system. After reading this description, it will become apparent to a person skilled in the relevant art(s) how to implement various embodiments using other computer systems and/or architectures.
Computer system 1300 can include a display interface 1302 that forwards graphics, text, and other data from the communication infrastructure 1306 (or from a frame buffer not shown) for display on the display unit 1330.
Computer system 1300 also includes a main memory 1308, such as for example random access memory (RAM), and may also include a secondary memory 1310. The secondary memory 1310 may include, for example, a hard disk drive 1312 and/or a removable storage drive 1314, representing a floppy disk drive, a magnetic tape drive, an optical disk drive, etc. The removable storage drive 1314 reads from and/or writes to a removable storage unit 1318 in a well known manner. Removable storage unit 1318 represents a floppy disk, magnetic tape, optical disk, etc. which is read by and written to by removable storage drive 1314. As will be appreciated, the removable storage unit 1318 includes a computer usable storage medium having stored therein computer software and/or data.
In alternative embodiments, secondary memory 1310 may include other similar devices for allowing computer programs or other instructions to be loaded into computer system 1300. Such devices may include, for example, a removable storage unit 1318 and an interface 1320. Examples of such may include a program cartridge and cartridge interface (such as that found in video game devices), a removable memory chip (such as an erasable programmable read only memory (EPROM), or programmable read only memory (PROM)) and associated socket, and other removable storage units 1318 and interfaces 1320, which allow software and data to be transferred from the removable storage unit 1318 to computer system 1300.
Computer system 1300 may also include a communications interface 1324. Communications interface 1324 allows software and data to be transferred between computer system 1300 and external devices. Examples of communications interface 1324 may include a modem, a network interface (such as an Ethernet card), a communications port, a Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) slot and card, etc. Software and data transferred via communications interface 1324 are in the form of signals 1328 which may be electronic, electromagnetic, optical or other signals capable of being received by communications interface 1324. These signals 1328 are provided to communications interface 1324 via a communications path (e.g., channel) 1326. This channel 1326 carries signals 1328 and may be implemented using wire or cable, fiber optics, a telephone line, a cellular link, a radio frequency (RF) link and other communications channels.
In this document, the terms “computer program medium” and “computer usable medium” are used to generally refer to media such as removable storage drive 1314 and a hard disk installed in hard disk drive 1312. These computer program products provide software to computer system 1300.
Computer programs (also referred to as computer control logic) are stored in main memory 1308 and/or secondary memory 1310. Computer programs may also be received via communications interface 1324. Such computer programs, when executed, enable the computer system 1300 to perform the features as discussed herein. In particular, the computer programs, when executed, enable the processor 1304 to perform the features of various embodiments. Accordingly, such computer programs represent controllers of the computer system 1300.
In an embodiment, software may be stored in a computer program product and loaded into computer system 1300 using removable storage drive 1314, hard drive 1312 or communications interface 1324. The control logic (software), when executed by the processor 1304, causes the processor 1304 to perform the functions of various embodiments as described herein.
In another embodiment, hardware components such as application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). Implementation of the hardware state machine so as to perform the functions described herein will be apparent to persons skilled in the relevant art(s).
One skilled in the art will appreciate that system 100 may employ any number of databases in any number of configurations. Further, any databases discussed herein may be any type of database, such as relational, hierarchical, graphical, object-oriented, and/or other database configurations. Common database products that may be used to implement the databases include DB2 by IBM (White Plains, N.Y.), various database products available from Oracle Corporation (Redwood Shores, Calif.), Microsoft Access or Microsoft SQL Server by Microsoft Corporation (Redmond, Wash.), or any other suitable database product. Moreover, the databases may be organized in any suitable manner, for example, as data tables or lookup tables. Each record may be a single file, a series of files, a linked series of data fields or any other data structure. Association of certain data may be accomplished through any desired data association technique such as those known or practiced in the art. For example, the association may be accomplished either manually or automatically. Automatic association techniques may include, for example, a database search, a database merge, GREP, AGREP, SQL, using a key field in the tables to speed searches, sequential searches through all the tables and files, sorting records in the file according to a known order to simplify lookup, and/or the like. The association step may be accomplished by a database merge function, for example, using a “key field” in pre-selected databases or data sectors.
More particularly, a “key field” partitions the database according to the high-level class of objects defined by the key field. For example, certain types of data may be designated as a key field in a plurality of related data tables and the data tables may then be linked on the basis of the type of data in the key field. The data corresponding to the key field in each of the linked data tables is preferably the same or of the same type. However, data tables having similar, though not identical, data in the key fields may also be linked by using AGREP, for example. In accordance with one aspect of system 100, any suitable data storage technique may be utilized to store data without a standard format. Data sets may be stored using any suitable technique, including, for example, storing individual files using an ISO/IEC 7816-4 file structure; implementing a domain whereby a dedicated file is selected that exposes one or more elementary files containing one or more data sets; using data sets stored in individual files using a hierarchical filing system; data sets stored as records in a single file (including compression, SQL accessible, hashed via one or more keys, numeric, alphabetical by first tuple, etc.); Binary Large Object (BLOB); stored as ungrouped data elements encoded using ISO/IEC 7816-6 data elements; stored as ungrouped data elements encoded using ISO/IEC Abstract Syntax Notation (ASN.1) as in ISO/IEC 8824 and 8825; and/or other proprietary techniques that may include fractal compression methods, image compression methods, etc.
In one embodiment, the ability to store a wide variety of information in different formats is facilitated by storing the information as a BLOB. Thus, any binary information can be stored in a storage space associated with a data set. As discussed above, the binary information may be stored on the financial transaction instrument or external to but affiliated with the financial transaction instrument. The BLOB method may store data sets as ungrouped data elements formatted as a block of binary via a fixed memory offset using either fixed storage allocation, circular queue techniques, or best practices with respect to memory management (e.g., paged memory, least recently used, etc.). By using BLOB methods, the ability to store various data sets that have different formats facilitates the storage of data associated with system 100 by multiple and unrelated owners of the data sets. For example, a first data set which may be stored may be provided by a first party, a second data set which may be stored may be provided by an unrelated second party, and yet a third data set which may be stored, may be provided by an third party unrelated to the first and second party. Each of these three exemplary data sets may contain different information that is stored using different data storage formats and/or techniques. Further, each data set may contain subsets of data that also may be distinct from other subsets.
As stated above, in various embodiments of system 100, the data can be stored without regard to a common format. However, in one exemplary embodiment, the data set (e.g., BLOB) may be annotated in a standard manner when provided for manipulating the data onto the financial transaction instrument. The annotation may comprise a short header, trailer, or other appropriate indicator related to each data set that is configured to convey information useful in managing the various data sets. For example, the annotation may be called a “condition header”, “header”, “trailer”, or “status”, herein, and may comprise an indication of the status of the data set or may include an identifier correlated to a specific issuer or owner of the data. In one example, the first three bytes of each data set BLOB may be configured or configurable to indicate the status of that particular data set; e.g., LOADED, INITIALIZED, READY, BLOCKED, REMOVABLE, or DELETED. Subsequent bytes of data may be used to indicate for example, the identity of the issuer, user, transaction/membership account identifier or the like. Each of these condition annotations are further discussed herein.
The data set annotation may also be used for other types of status information as well as various other purposes. For example, the data set annotation may include security information establishing access levels. The access levels may, for example, be configured to permit only certain individuals, levels of employees, companies, or other entities to access data sets, or to permit access to specific data sets based on the transaction, merchant, issuer, user or the like. Furthermore, the security information may restrict/permit only certain actions such as accessing, modifying, and/or deleting data sets. In one example, the data set annotation indicates that only the data set owner or the user are permitted to delete a data set, various identified users may be permitted to access the data set for reading, and others are altogether excluded from accessing the data set. However, other access restriction parameters may also be used allowing various entities to access a data set with various permission levels as appropriate.
The data, including the header or trailer may be received by a stand-alone interaction device configured to add, delete, modify, or augment the data in accordance with the header or trailer. As such, in one embodiment, the header or trailer is not stored on the transaction device along with the associated issuer-owned data but instead the appropriate action may be taken by providing to the transaction instrument user at the stand-alone device, the appropriate option for the action to be taken. System 100 contemplates a data storage arrangement wherein the header or trailer, or header or trailer history, of the data is stored on the transaction instrument in relation to the appropriate data.
One skilled in the art will also appreciate that, for security reasons, any databases, systems, devices, servers or other components of system 100 may consist of any combination thereof at a single location or at multiple locations, wherein each database or system 100 includes any of various suitable security features, such as firewalls, access codes, encryption, decryption, compression, decompression, and/or the like.
In addition to those described above, the various system components discussed herein may include one or more of the following: a host server or other computing systems including a processor for processing digital data; a memory coupled to the processor for storing digital data; an input digitizer coupled to the processor for inputting digital data; an application program stored in the memory and accessible by the processor for directing processing of digital data by the processor; a display device coupled to the processor and memory for displaying information derived from digital data processed by the processor; and a plurality of databases. Various databases used herein may include: client data; merchant data; financial institution data; and/or like data useful in the operation of the present invention. As those skilled in the art will appreciate, user computer may include an operating system (e.g., Windows NT, 95/98/2000, OS2, UNIX, Linux, Solaris, MacOS, etc.) as well as various conventional support software and drivers typically associated with computers. The computer may include any suitable personal computer, network computer, workstation, minicomputer, mainframe or the like. User computer can be in a home or business environment with access to a network. In an exemplary embodiment, access is through a network or the Internet through a commercially-available web-browser software package.
As used herein, the term “network” shall include any electronic communications means which incorporates both hardware and software components of such. Communication among the parties in accordance with the present invention may be accomplished through any suitable communication channels, such as, for example, a telephone network, an extranet, an intranet, Internet, point of interaction device (point of sale device, personal digital assistant, cellular phone, kiosk, etc.), online communications, satellite communications, off-line communications, wireless communications, transponder communications, local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), networked or linked devices, keyboard, mouse and/or any suitable communication or data input modality. Moreover, although the invention is frequently described herein as being implemented with TCP/IP communications protocols, the invention may also be implemented using IPX, Appletalk, IP-6, NetBIOS, OSI or any number of existing or future protocols. If the network is in the nature of a public network, such as the Internet, it may be advantageous to presume the network to be insecure and open to eavesdroppers. Specific information related to the protocols, standards, and application software utilized in connection with the Internet is generally known to those skilled in the art and, as such, need not be detailed herein. See, for example, Dilip Naik, Internet Standards And Protocols (1998); Java 2 Complete, various authors, (Sybex 1999); Deborah Ray And Eric Ray, Mastering Html 4.0 (1997); and Loshin, TCP/IP Clearly Explained (1997) and David Gourley and Brian Totty, HTTP, The Definitive Guide (2002), the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference.
These software elements may be loaded onto a general purpose computer, special purpose computer, or other programmable data processing apparatus to produce a machine, such that the instructions that execute on the computer or other programmable data processing apparatus create means for implementing the functions specified in the flowchart block or blocks. These computer program instructions may also be stored in a computer-readable memory that can direct a computer or other programmable data processing apparatus to function in a particular manner, such that the instructions stored in the computer-readable memory produce an article of manufacture including instruction means which implement the function specified in the flowchart block or blocks. The computer program instructions may also be loaded onto a computer or other programmable data processing apparatus to cause a series of operational steps to be performed on the computer or other programmable apparatus to produce a computer-implemented process such that the instructions which execute on the computer or other programmable apparatus provide steps for implementing the functions specified in the flowchart block or blocks.
Accordingly, functional blocks of the block diagrams and flowchart illustrations support combinations of means for performing the specified functions, combinations of steps for performing the specified functions, and program instruction means for performing the specified functions. It will also be understood that each functional block of the block diagrams and flowchart illustrations, and combinations of functional blocks in the block diagrams and flowchart illustrations, may be implemented by either special purpose hardware-based computer systems which perform the specified functions or steps, or suitable combinations of special purpose hardware and computer instructions. Further, illustrations of the process flows and the descriptions thereof may make reference to user windows, web pages, web sites, web forms, prompts, etc. Practitioners will appreciate that the illustrated steps described herein may comprise in any number of configurations including the use of windows, web pages, web forms, popup windows, prompts and/or the like. It should be further appreciated that the multiple steps as illustrated and described may be combined into single web pages and/or windows but have been expanded for the sake of simplicity. In other cases, steps illustrated and described as single process steps may be separated into multiple web pages and/or windows but have been combined for simplicity.
Practitioners will appreciate that there are a number of methods for displaying data within a browser-based document. Data may be represented as standard text or within a fixed list, scrollable list, drop-down list, editable text field, fixed text field, pop-up window, and/or the like. Likewise, there are a number of methods available for modifying data in a web page such as, for example, free text entry using a keyboard, selection of menu items, check boxes, option boxes, and/or the like.
Benefits, other advantages, and solutions to problems have been described herein with regard to specific embodiments. However, the benefits, advantages, solutions to problems, and any elements that may cause any benefit, advantage, or solution to occur or become more pronounced are not to be construed as critical, required, or essential features or elements of the invention. The scope of the invention is accordingly to be limited by nothing other than the appended claims, in which reference to an element in the singular is not intended to mean “one and only one” unless explicitly so stated, but rather “one or more.” Moreover, where a phrase similar to ‘at least one of A, B, or C’ is used in the claims, it is intended that the phrase be interpreted to mean that A alone may be present in an embodiment, B alone may be present in an embodiment, C alone may be present in an embodiment, or that any combination of the elements A, B and C may be present in a single embodiment; for example, A and B, A and C, B and C, or A and B and C. All structural, chemical, and functional equivalents to the elements of the above-described exemplary embodiments that are known to those of ordinary skill in the art are expressly incorporated herein by reference and are intended to be encompassed by the present claims. Further, a list of elements does not include only those elements but may include other elements not expressly listed or inherent to such process, method, article, or apparatus.
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